2018 United States Senate election in Nevada
The 2018 United States Senate election in Nevada took place November 6, 2018, to elect one of two U. S. Senators from Nevada. Democratic nominee Jacky Rosen defeated Republican incumbent Dean Heller. Incumbent Republican senator Dean Heller considered a bid for Nevada Governor but instead announced he would run for re-election to a second full term. Nevada was the only state in the midterm elections that had an incumbent Republican senator in a state that Hillary Clinton won in 2016. Rosen's victory marks the first time that Nevada is represented by two women in the United States Senate, the first time a Democrat has won the Class 1 Senate seat in Nevada since 1994. Heller was the only Republican incumbent to lose a Senate seat in the 2018 cycle; the candidate filing deadline was March 16, 2018 and the primary election was held on June 12, 2018. Nevada was once considered a swing state that leaned rightward, voting for George W. Bush twice. However, it has since become the opposite, giving Barack Obama a seven-point victory in 2012 while electing Dean Heller to the Senate by one point.
Obama carried Nevada in 2008 by a decisive 12.5% margin of victory. In 2016, the state shifted again rightward, still voting for Hillary Clinton, but only by two points, although Democrat Catherine Cortez Masto managed to win the seat of retiring Democratic Senate leader Harry Reid; because of the consistent swing nature of the state, Heller was cited by many observers as the most vulnerable incumbent Republican in the U. S. Senate up for re-election in 2018, a year with few Republicans in that position. At the end of September 2018, the Brett Kavanaugh Supreme Court nomination became a major element of the campaign. Heller made noncommittal remarks and a significant campaign was deployed to criticize his support for Kavanaugh. Rosen is only the 20th sitting House freshman to win a Senate election, the first female Representative to do so. Sherry Brooks Sarah Gazala, teacher Vic Harrell Tom Heck Dean Heller, incumbent U. S. Senator Danny Tarkanian, former attorney and perennial candidate Mark Amodei, U.
S. Representative Danny Burieigh David Drew Knight Sujeet "Bobby" Mahendra and candidate for the U. S. Senate in 2016 Allen Rheinhart, civil rights activist, candidate for U. S. Senate in 2016 Jacky Rosen, U. S. Representative Jesse Sbaih and candidate for NV-03 in 2016 Stephen Cloobeck, businessman Aaron Ford, Majority Leader of the Nevada Senate Steven Horsford, former U. S. Representative Ruben Kihuen, U. S. Representative Kate Marshall, former State Treasurer, nominee for Secretary of State in 2014 and nominee for NV-02 in 2011 Rory Reid, former chairman of the Clark County Commission, nominee for governor in 2010 and son of former U. S. Senator Harry Reid Dina Titus, U. S. Representative and nominee for governor in 2006 Steve Wolfson, Clark County District Attorney Barry Michaels, convicted felon and perennial candidate Kamau Bakari Complete video of debate, October 19, 2018 While Heller carried 15 of Nevada's 17 county-level jurisdictions, Rosen carried the two largest and Washoe, she won Clark County by over 92,000 votes double her statewide margin of over 48,900 votes.
Candidates at Vote Smart Candidates at Ballotpedia Campaign finance at FEC Campaign finance at Center for Responsive PoliticsOfficial campaign websitesTim Hagan for Senate Dean Heller for Senate Barry Michaels for Senate Jacky Rosen for Senate
Dean Arthur Heller is an American businessman and politician who served as a United States Senator from Nevada from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the 15th Secretary of State of Nevada from 1995 to 2007 and U. S. Representative for Nevada's 2nd congressional district from 2007 to 2011, he was appointed to the U. S. Senate by Governor Brian elected to a full term in the 2012 election. Heller was defeated by Democratic challenger Jacky Rosen. S. Senator to lose re-election in the 2018 midterms elections. Heller was born in Castro Valley, California, to Janet and Charles Alfred "Jack" Heller, a mechanic and stock car driver, he is a longtime resident of Carson City, having moved there with his family at the age of 9 months. He has five siblings, he graduated from Carson High School in 1978, was accepted into the University of Southern California, he earned his bachelor of business administration, specializing in finance and securities analysis, from the USC Marshall School of Business in 1985.
At USC, Heller joined the Sigma Nu social fraternity. Heller served two terms in the Nevada Assembly from 1990 to 1994, he represented the capital of Nevada. During his time in the Nevada Assembly, Heller worked as a senior commercial banking consultant for Bank of America. Heller was elected Secretary of State of Nevada in 1994 and reelected in 1998 and 2002, served in this capacity from 1995 to 2007; as Secretary of State, Heller made Nevada the first state in the nation to implement an auditable paper trail to electronic voting machines. 2006 Heller decided to run for the U. S. House of Representatives in 2005 in Nevada's 2nd congressional district, after ten-year incumbent Republican Jim Gibbons decided to run for Governor of Nevada. On August 15, 2006, he won the Republican primary with 36% of the vote, he narrowly defeated State Assemblywoman Sharron Angle by 421 votes. Angle received. In the general election, Heller defeated Democratic nominee and University of Nevada Regent Jill Derby, by a 49% to 46% margin.
Derby carried the largest county in the district. However, Heller ran up enough of a margin in the rest of the district to win, he was helped by Gibbons' presence atop the ticket. It was only the third close race in the district since its creation in 1983. 2008 Heller won the Republican primary again, this time defeating James W. Smack 86% to 14%. In a rematch, Heller defeated Derby in the general election, 52% to 41%; this time he won every county in the district except Clark County. 2010 In 2009, Heller was rumored to be a candidate to challenge embattled incumbent Republican Governor Jim Gibbons or Democratic United States Senator Harry Reid in 2010. He declined to run for Nevada Governor or U. S. Senator and instead chose to run for reelection, he was challenged in the Republican primary again. He defeated Patrick J. Colletti 84%–16%, he won reelection to a third term, defeating Nancy Price 63%–36%. During his tenure, Heller was Vice Chairman of the Congressional Western Caucus, playing a leading role in advocating for issues that impact western U.
S. states. He opposed the Troubled Asset Relief Program. Committee on Ways and Means Subcommittee on Income Security and Family Support Subcommittee on Select Revenue Measures In March 2011, after U. S. Senator John Ensign announced his resignation, Heller declared that he would run for the United States Senate in 2012 to succeed him. Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval appointed Heller to the U. S. Senate to fill the vacancy created by Ensign's resignation. Heller took office on May 9, 2011. In his bid for a full Senate term, Heller faced Nevada's 1st congressional district U. S. Representative Shelley Berkley in November 2012. Heller defeated Berkley, 45.9% to 44.7%. In August 2017, Las Vegas businessman Danny Tarkanian, a strong supporter of President Donald Trump, announced that he would mount a primary challenge to Heller. Tarkanian stated that "we are never going to make America great again unless we have Senators in office that support President Trump and his America-First agenda" and explained that he wanted to "repeal Obamacare and end illegal immigration."In September 2017, NBC News reported that Heller was "widely considered the most endangered Senator up for reelection in next year's midterm cycle."
He was described as facing "substantial opposition from both conservatives within his own party and a general electorate trending Democratic" and as having "a difficult relationship with President Donald Trump." At a fundraiser, Nevada Republicans were critical of Heller. On February 1, 2018, President Trump told Republican National Committee members that he would travel to Nevada to campaign for Heller in a competitive Republican primary. In March 2018, Trump persuaded Tarkanian to drop his challenge to Heller. Tarkanian said that he would instead run for the United States House of Representatives in Nevada's 3rd congressional district with Trump's full support and the incumbent Democrat Jacky Rosen retiring to challenge Heller. In the November 2018 general election, Heller was defeated by Democratic challenger Jacky Rosen. Rosen received 50% of the vote to Heller's 45%, with a variety of third party candidates receiving 5% of the total vote. While Heller carried 15 of Nevada's 17 county-level jurisdictions, Rosen carried the two largest and Washoe.
Heller could not overco
Henry Jarvis Raymond
Henry Jarvis Raymond was an American journalist, co-founder of The New York Times, which he founded with George Jones. He was a member of the New York State Assembly, Lieutenant Governor of New York, Chairman of the Republican National Committee, elected to the House of Representatives. For his contribution towards the formation of the Republican Party, Raymond has sometimes been called the "godfather of the Republican Party", he was born on January 24, 1820, on the family farm near Lima, New York, a son and the eldest child of Lavinia Brockway, the daughter of Clark Brockway and Sally Wade and Jarvis Raymond, the son of Jonathan P. Raymond and Hannah Jarvis, he was his wife, Judith. There is no evidence to suggest that he was born in Essex, although Samuel Raymond's family history makes that claim, he arrived in Salem, about 1629/30 with a contingent led by the Rev. Francis Higginson; the first actual date given for Richard is on August 6, 1629, when he is on the list of the 30 founding members of the First Church of Salem.
He was about 27 years old. He was made a Freeman of Salem in 1634 and was a founder of Norwalk, an "honored forefather of Saybrook". Raymond gave early evidence of his superior intellectual skills: it is said that he could read by the age of three and deliver speeches when he was five, he enrolled at age twelve in the Genesee Wesleyan Seminary at Lima, New York, a school established by the Methodist Episcopal Church which would grow into Syracuse University. He graduated from the University of Vermont in 1840 with high honors. Between 1841 and 1851, Raymond worked for various newspapers, including Horace Greeley's New York Tribune and James Watson Webb's Courier and Enquirer, as a journalist and associate editor, he had known George Jones since their time at the Tribune and the two had discussed the possibility of starting a newspaper themselves. In 1851, Raymond convinced Jones to become his partner and publish a new paper that would report the news in a neutral manner. In 1851, Raymond founded The New York Times.
He was the newspaper's editor until his death. On October 24, 1843, in Winooski, Raymond married Juliette Weaver, a daughter of John Warren Weaver and Artemisia Munson. Henry and Juliette were the parents of seven children, their son, Henry Warren Raymond, was an 1869 graduate of Yale College, and, in the same year, was initiated as a member of the Skull and Bones secret society. He graduated from Columbia University School of Law in 1871, he was a reporter for The New York Times from 1869 to 1872, he served as private secretary to the Secretary of the Navy Benjamin F. Tracy, from 1889 to 1893, he entered private law practice in 1893. Their daughter Mary Elizabeth Raymond, born September 10, 1849 in New York City and died on June 13, 1897, in Morristown, New Jersey, married on April 18, 1872 at New York City, Earl Philip Mason born in Providence, Rhode Island, on August 5, 1848, died at San Antonio, Texas, on March 17, 1901, his father was the founder of the Rhode Island Locomotive Works in 1865 in Rhode Island.
He joined the company in 1872 and remained with the company until 1895 becoming vice-president. Their daughter, Aimee Juliette Arteniese Raymond was a physician and editor, she graduated from New York Medical College in 1889. She was married to Dr. Henry Harmon Schroeder. Raymond was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1850 and 1851, in the latter year was elected Speaker. A member of the Whig party's Northern radical anti-slavery wing, his nomination over Greeley on the Whig ticket for Lieutenant Governor of New York in 1854 led to the dissolution of the political partnership of Seward and Greeley. Raymond was elected lieutenant governor, served from 1855 to 1856. Raymond has sometimes been called "the godfather of the Republican Party," as Raymond had a prominent part in the formation of the Republican Party and drafted the Address to the People adopted by the Republican organizing convention which met in Pittsburgh on February 22, 1856. In 1862, he was again Speaker of the New York Assembly.
During the Civil War, Raymond supported Abraham Lincoln's policies in general, but protested his delays in aggressively prosecuting the war. He was among the first to urge the adoption of a broad and liberal post-war attitude toward the people of the South and opposed the Radical Republicans who wanted harsher measures against the South. In 1865, he was a delegate to the National Republican Convention, was made Chairman of the Republican National Committee, he was a member of the House of Representatives from 1865 to 1867. On December 22, 1865, he attacked Thaddeus Stevens's theory of the dead states, agreeing with the President, argued that the states were never out of the Union, in as much as the ordinances of secession were null. Raymond authored the Address and Declaration of Principles issued by the Loyalist Convention at Philadelphia in August 1866, his attack on Stevens and his prominence at the Loyalist Convention caused him to lose favor with the Republican party. He was removed from the chairmanship of the Republican National Committee in 1866, in 1867 his nomination as minister to Austria, which he had refused, was rejected by the United States Senate.
He retired from public life in 1867 and devoted his time to newspaper work until his death in New York City in 1869. Raymond began his jour
Edwin D. Morgan
Edwin Denison Morgan was the 21st Governor of New York from 1859 to 1862 and served in the United States Senate from 1863 to 1869. He was the longest-serving chairman of the Republican National Committee, he was a Union Army general during the American Civil War. A native of Massachusetts, Morgan was raised in Connecticut, trained as a merchant in Hartford, served on the city council, he moved to New York City, where he became a successful wholesale grocer and bond broker and served as an assistant alderman and member of the New York State Senate. A Whig, he was one of the founders of the Republican Party, he served as chairman of the Republican National Committee from 1856 to 1864 and 1872 to 1876. In 1858, Morgan was elected Governor of New York, he served from 1859 to 1862; as governor during the American Civil War, Morgan supported the Union. Appointed a major general of volunteers in the Union Army, he commanded the military's Department of New York while serving as governor. In 1863, he was elected to the United States Senate.
He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1869, the unsuccessful Republican nominee for governor in 1876. Morgan had been a patron of Chester A. Arthur at the start of Arthur's career. Morgan declined on the grounds of age and ill health. Morgan died in New York City in 1883, was buried in Connecticut. Morgan was born in Washington, Massachusetts on February 8, 1811 to Catherine Morgan; the family moved to Windsor, where Morgan received his early education before attending Bacon Academy in Colchester. Edwin Morgan was a cousin of Morgan G. Bulkeley, the Governor of Connecticut from 1889 to 1893. In addition, he was a cousin of Congressmen Edwin B. Christopher Morgan, he began his business career as a grocer in Connecticut. He served on the city council. In 1836, he moved to New York City and became a successful wholesaler and banker. In 1843, Morgan organized E. D. Morgan & Company, an import house, in partnership with George D. Morgan, his cousin, Frederick Avery, who left the firm a year and was replaced by J.
T. Terry. Solon Humphreys was taken in as a full partner in 1854 after working several years as an agent in St. Louis, Missouri. Through his connections, the firm became the principal agent for Missouri securities. Nearly two-thirds of the bonds issued by the State of Missouri from 1835-1860, plus a large share of securities of St. Louis, were sold through the house of Morgan - in all thirty million dollars worth. All the while the firm maintained its wholesale grocery trade. In 1849, Morgan was elected as a member of the New York City Board of Assistant Aldermen, he made a name for himself as chairman of the Sanitary Committee during the cholera epidemic of 1848. He was a member of the New York State Senate from 1850 to 1853, State Commissioner of Immigration. Morgan became influential in Republican politics of his time and twice served as chairman of the Republican National Committee, 1856 to 1864 and 1872 to 1876. From 1859 until 1862, he served as Governor of New York, elected in 1858 and 1860.
He was appointed major general of volunteers in September 1861 and commanded the Department of New York until he resigned on January 3, 1863, serving as governor and head of the military department. In February 1863, he was elected to the U. S. Senate, served one term until 1869. In January 1869, he sought re-nomination, but was voted down by the Republican caucus of State legislators who instead nominated Ex-Governor Reuben E. Fenton. In 1876, Morgan was defeated by Democrat Lucius Robinson. In 1881, Morgan was nominated by President Chester A. Arthur as Treasury Secretary and was confirmed by the Senate, but declined the position. In 1833, he married daughter of Henry Waterman. Together, they had: Edwin D. Morgan Frederick Avery Morgan, died young Gilbert Henry Morgan, died young Caroline Matilda Morgan, died young Alfred Waterman Morgan, died youngKnown for generous contributions to charities and causes, he contributed large sums to the Union Theological Seminary. Morgan died in New York City on February 14, 1883.
He was buried at the Cedar Hill Cemetery in Hartford. His 2x great-grandson was Edwin D. Morgan and Pioneer Fund director from 2000 to 2001. List of American Civil War generals Finding Aid to Edwin D. Morgan Papers, 1833-1883 at the New York State Library, accessed January 4, 2016United States Congress. "Edwin D. Morgan". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Mr. Lincoln and New York: Edwin D. Morgan Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. "Edwin D. Morgan". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-12
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet. It has a dominant wavelength of 625–740 nanometres, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the CMYK color model, is the complementary color of cyan. Reds range from the brilliant yellow-tinged scarlet and vermillion to bluish-red crimson, vary in shade from the pale red pink to the dark red burgundy; the red sky at sunset results from Rayleigh scattering, while the red color of the Grand Canyon and other geological features is caused by hematite or red ochre, both forms of iron oxide. Iron oxide gives the red color to the planet Mars; the red colour of blood comes from protein hemoglobin, while ripe strawberries, red apples and reddish autumn leaves are colored by anthocyanins. Red pigment made from ochre was one of the first colors used in prehistoric art; the Ancient Egyptians and Mayans colored their faces red in ceremonies. It was an important color in China, where it was used to colour early pottery and the gates and walls of palaces.
In the Renaissance, the brilliant red costumes for the nobility and wealthy were dyed with kermes and cochineal. The 19th century brought the introduction of the first synthetic red dyes, which replaced the traditional dyes. Red became the color of revolution. Since red is the color of blood, it has been associated with sacrifice and courage. Modern surveys in Europe and the United States show red is the color most associated with heat, passion, anger and joy. In China and many other Asian countries it is the color of symbolizing happiness and good fortune. See below for shades of pink The human eye sees red when it looks at light with a wavelength between 625 and 740 nanometers, it is a primary color in the RGB color model and the light just past this range is called infrared, or below red, cannot be seen by human eyes, although it can be sensed as heat. In the language of optics, red is the color evoked by light that stimulates neither the S or the M cone cells of the retina, combined with a fading stimulation of the L cone cells.
Primates can distinguish the full range of the colors of the spectrum visible to humans, but many kinds of mammals, such as dogs and cattle, have dichromacy, which means they can see blues and yellows, but cannot distinguish red and green. Bulls, for instance, cannot see the red color of the cape of a bullfighter, but they are agitated by its movement.. One theory for why primates developed sensitivity to red is that it allowed ripe fruit to be distinguished from unripe fruit and inedible vegetation; this may have driven further adaptations by species taking advantage of this new ability, such as the emergence of red faces. Red light is used to help adapt night vision in low-light or night time, as the rod cells in the human eye are not sensitive to red. Red illumination was used as a safelight while working in a darkroom as it does not expose most photographic paper and some films. Today modern darkrooms use an amber safelight. On the color wheel long used by painters, in traditional color theory, red is one of the three primary colors, along with blue and yellow.
Painters in the Renaissance mixed red and blue to make violet: Cennino Cennini, in his 15th-century manual on painting, wrote, "If you want to make a lovely violet colour, take fine lac, ultramarine blue with a binder" he noted that it could be made by mixing blue indigo and red hematite. In modern color theory known as the RGB color model, red and blue are additive primary colors. Red and blue light combined together makes white light, these three colors, combined in different mixtures, can produce nearly any other color; this is the principle, used to make all of the colors on your computer screen and your television. For example, magenta on a computer screen is made by a similar formula to that used by Cennino Cennini in the Renaissance to make violet, but using additive colors and light instead of pigment: it is created by combining red and blue light at equal intensity on a black screen. Violet is made on a computer screen in a similar way, but with a greater amount of blue light and less red light.
So that the maximum number of colors can be reproduced on your computer screen, each color has been given a code number, or sRGB, which tells your computer the intensity of the red and blue components of that color. The intensity of each component is measured on a scale of zero to 255, which means the complete list includes 16,777,216 distinct colors and shades; the sRGB number of pure red, for example, is 255, 00, 00, which means the red component is at its maximum intensity, there is no green or blue. The sRGB number for crimson is 220, 20, 60, which means that the red is less intense and therefore darker, there is some green, which leans it toward orange; as a ray of white sunlight travels through the atmosphere to the eye, some of the colors are scattered out of the beam by air molecules and airborne particles due to Rayleigh scattering, changing the final color of the beam, seen. Colors with a shorter wavelength, such as blue and green, scatter more and are removed from the light that reaches the eye.
At sunrise and sunset, when the
John Eric Ensign is an American veterinarian and former politician based in Las Vegas, Nevada. A member of the Republican Party, Ensign was a United States Senator from Nevada. Following his resignation from the Senate, Ensign returned to Nevada and resumed his career as a veterinarian. Ensign was born in 1958 in Roseville, California, to Sharon Lee Cipriani and a father whose surname was Mueller. Ensign's father abandoned the family. Cipriani married Michael S. Ensign, a gaming industry executive; the senior Ensign became chairman of the board of directors of Mandalay Resort Group,John Ensign attended the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, becoming a member of the Sigma Chi fraternity. He graduated from Oregon State University with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1981, he received his Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree from Colorado State University in 1985 and entered veterinary practice soon after. Ensign became a successful businessman, he owned two animal hospitals before entering politics.
In political campaigns, Ensign referred to his ancestry, noting that he is one-eighth Filipino. As of 2008, Ensign had never met his Philippine-born paternal grandfather, of Filipino-German ancestry. Ensign did not learn of this grandfather's ancestry until about 1994. After resigning from the U. S. Senate in 2011, Ensign returned to Las Vegas with his family. Ensign renewed his practice as a veterinarian and opened Boca Park Animal Hospital. In 1994, Ensign won the Republican nomination for Nevada's 1st congressional district, based in Las Vegas, he trailed four-term incumbent Democrat James Bilbray by a wide margin for most of the campaign. However, Ensign gained considerable momentum after reports surfaced that a Bilbray aide stood to make a huge profit from lands legislation sponsored by Bilbray. Ensign won the election by 1,400 votes and was reelected in 1996 by seven points, although Democratic presidential candidate Bill Clinton carried the district by a large margin that year. In 1998, Ensign ran for the Senate but was defeated by the Democratic incumbent, future Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, by 428 votes.
Ensign won a Senate seat on his second try in 2000, defeating Democratic opponent Ed Bernstein by a 55%–40% margin, to succeed the retiring Democratic incumbent, Richard H. Bryan. Ensign was reelected in 2006. Ensign and Reid developed a good relationship, despite their bruising 1998 contest, they worked together on Nevada issues. In April 2009, Ensign was planning a June 1 trip to Iowa, the first in his career, causing speculation that he was mulling a presidential campaign in 2012. Given the disclosure of his extramarital affair and cover-up in mid-June of that year, his presidential aspirations were put in limbo. Ensign resigned his position as chair of the Senate Republican Policy Committee on June 17, 2009 in the wake of a Senate Ethics Committee investigation. On July 14, 2009, Ensign announced his plan to run for re-election to his Nevada Senate seat in 2012 though his polling numbers had decreased. For Sharron Angle's debate with Harry Reid on October 14, 2010, Ensign played Reid during one day of her debate preparation at the Trump Plaza in Las Vegas.
The Las Vegas Sun speculated in November 2010 that this might hurt his relationship with Reid, who could "man up" and oppose Ensign's re-election. The Las Vegas Review-Journal noted in November 2010 that Ensign had multiple "hurdles" to re-election. Ensign was elected Chairman of the National Republican Senatorial Committee; as chairman of the NRSC, Ensign was charged with assembling a staff to win back the U. S. Senate for Republicans in the 2008 elections. Ensign chose Mike Slanker and Lindsey Slanker of Nevada-based political consulting firm November Inc. to be the Political Director and Finance Director of the NRSC. In September 2007, it was discovered that Ensign had used the secret hold rule to prevent a bill requiring senators to file fund-raising reports electronically from being voted on, he required. Ensign insisted that, before a vote on the disclosure bill could be held, the committee would first vote on an amendment that "would force groups petitioning the Senate Ethics Committee to disclose the identity of donors giving more than $5,000", which watchdog groups charged was intended to prevent passage of the bill.
Ensign faced Democrat Jack Carter, son of former President Jimmy Carter, in the November general election. Both he and Carter defeated token opposition in their August 2006 primaries. Ensign defeated Carter in the general election on November 7, 2006, 55.36% to 40.99%. On March 7, 2011, Ensign said he would not seek re-election in 2012 because he wanted to spare his family from an "exceptionally ugly" campaign. "At this point in my life, I have to put my family first," Ensign told reporters at a news conference in Las Vegas. The announcement was welcomed by national Republicans. Republicans have suggested; the Senate Ethics Committee conducted a 22-month investigation of Ensign's activities. Before they released their report, on April 21, 2011 Ensign announced his resigna
Conservatism in the United States
American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States, characterized by respect for American traditions, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral universalism, anti-communism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism and moral relativism. Liberty is a core value. American conservatives consider individual liberty—within the bounds of American values—as the fundamental trait of democracy. American conservatives believe in limiting government in size and scope, in a balance between national government and states' rights. Apart from some libertarians, they tend to favor strong action in areas they believe to be within government's legitimate jurisdiction national defense and law enforcement. Social conservatives oppose abortion and favor restricting LGBT rights, while privileging traditional marriage and allowing voluntary school prayer. American conservatism, like most American political ideologies, originates from republicanism, which rejected aristocratic and monarchical government and upheld the principles of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Conservative philosophy is derived in part from the classical liberal tradition of the 18th and 19th centuries, which advocated for laissez-faire economics. Historians such as Patrick Allitt and political theorists such as Russell Kirk argue that the conservative tradition has played a major role in American politics and culture since 1776. However, they stress that an organized conservative movement with beliefs that differ from those of other American political parties has played a key role in politics only since the 1950s; the recent movement is based in the Republican Party, however some Southern Democrats were important figures early in the movement's history regarding crime control and labor unions, though most Southern Democrats were liberal. The history of American conservatism has been marked by competing ideologies. Fiscal conservatives and libertarians favor small government, laissez-faire economy, low income and corporate taxes, limited regulation, free enterprise. Social conservatives see traditional social values.
Neoconservatives want to expand. Paleoconservatives advocate restrictions on immigration, non-interventionist foreign policy, opposition to multiculturalism. Most conservative factions nationwide, except some libertarians, support a unilateral foreign policy, a strong military. Most libertarians, support gun ownership rights, citing the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution; the conservative movement of the 1950s attempted to bring together these divergent strands, stressing the need for unity to prevent the spread of "godless communism."William F. Buckley Jr. in the first issue of his magazine National Review in 1955, explained the standards of his magazine and helped make explicit the beliefs of American conservatives: Among our convictions: It is the job of centralized government to protect its citizens' lives and property. All other activities of government tend to hamper progress; the growth of government must be fought relentlessly. In this great social conflict of the era, we are, on the libertarian side.
The profound crisis of our era is, in essence, the conflict between the Social Engineers, who seek to adjust mankind to scientific utopias, the disciples of Truth, who defend the organic moral order. We believe that truth is neither arrived at nor illuminated by monitoring election results, binding though these are for other purposes, but by other means, including a study of human experience. On this point we are, on the conservative side. According to Peter Viereck, American conservatism is distinctive because it was not tied to a monarchy, landed aristocracy, established church, or military elite. Instead American conservatives were rooted in American republicanism, which European conservatives opposed, they are committed, says Seymour Martin Lipset, to the belief in America's "superiority against the cold reactionary monarchical and more rigidly status-bound system of European society." Traditional conservatives tend to be anti-ideological, some would say anti-philosophical, promoting, as Russell Kirk explained, a steady flow of "prescription and prejudice".
Kirk's use of the word "prejudice" here is not intended to carry its contemporary pejorative connotation: a conservative himself, he believed that the inherited wisdom of the ages may be a better guide than rational individual judgment. There are two overlapping subgroups of social conservatives -- the religious. Traditional conservatives support traditional codes of conduct those they feel are threatened by social change and modernization. For example, traditional conservatives may oppose the use of female soldiers in combat. Religious conservatives focus on conducting society as pr