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Nevada in the American Civil War

Nevada's entry into statehood in the United States on October 31, 1864, in the midst of the American Civil War, was expedited by Union sympathizers in order to ensure the state's participation in the 1864 presidential election in support of President Abraham Lincoln. Thus Nevada became one of only two states admitted to the Union during the war and earned the nickname that appears on the Nevada state flag today: "Battle Born"; because its population at statehood was less than 40,000, Nevada was only able to muster 1,200 men to fight for the Union Army, but Confederate forces never posed any serious threat of territorial seizure, Nevada remained in Union control for the duration of the war. Isolated from the major theaters of the conflict, Nevada nonetheless served as an important target for political and economic strategists before and after gaining statehood, its main contribution to the cause came from its burgeoning mining industry: at least $400 million in silver ore from the Comstock Lode was used to finance the federal war effort.

In addition, the state hosted a number of Union military posts. Prior to the Civil War, the geographic area that makes up present-day Nevada belonged to several different U. S. territories. The region had long held economic ties to northern industry and financing after the discovery of gold and silver in the eastern Sierra Nevada in the late 1850s, was populated predominantly by secular Unionists who opposed slavery and sought some sort of territorial incorporation to bolster the area's economic growth: either through annexation by California or organization as an independent territory. Many early Nevadans sought political segregation from Mormons living to the east, with whom they were engaged in ideological conflict; the majority of what is now Nevada was separated from the Territory of Utah and formally organized as the Territory of Nevada on March 2, 1861, just as southern states began seceding from the Union and joining the Confederacy. The Nevada Territory was short-lived, however, as its entry into full statehood in the United States was expedited in 1864.

President Abraham Lincoln sought the support of an additional Northern state that would vote for his re-election and help force pro-Northern ideas into new amendments to the United States Constitution the 13th Amendment, by which he proposed to abolish slavery. Union sympathizers were so eager to gain statehood for Nevada that they rushed to send the entire state constitution by telegraph to the United States Congress before the 1864 presidential election since they did not believe that sending it by train would guarantee its arrival on time; the constitution was sent October 26–27, 1864, less than two weeks before the election on November 7. The transmission took two days, it was, at the time, the longest telegraph transmission made, a record it held for seventeen years until a copy of the 118,000-word Revised Version of the New Testament was sent by telegraph on May 22, 1881. Lincoln and Congress moved to approve the constitution and Nevada was admitted to the Union as the 36th state on October 31, 1864.

It had fewer than 40,000 inhabitants when it gained statehood, far fewer than the population at statehood of any other state. The Nevada volunteer group was made of residents from Carson City, Virginia City and Dayton; this group was considered to be a part of the California volunteer group but, was organized and implemented in Carson City by Charles D. Douglas; the officers and members of the volunteer group were from the general public and used their own firearms while in battle. Most of the officers were veterans of the Mexican American War and many held elected public positions prior to serving in the volunteer forces; as the volunteer groups began to grow and become larger, more training was implemented. In 1863 at the outpost of fort Churchill, California was tasked with training Nevada Volunteers to be officers adequate to the standards of the United States Army. For the most part, these groups served without pay, but on occasion would reserve little bits of money from local government or by the local businesses, sometimes both.

The work these volunteers did was out of gratitude and loyalty to the Union they had joined during the time of its establishment. In total, Nevada sent 1,200 men to fight for the Union. In May 1863, Nevada raised the 1st Battalion Nevada Volunteer Cavalry. In the summer of 1864, a battalion of infantry, the 1st Battalion Nevada Volunteer Infantry was mustered in; the adjutant-general of Nevada reported that since the beginning of the Civil War, 34 officers and 1,158 enlisted men had voluntarily enlisted in the service of the United States from Nevada. These troops were not used against the southern armies, but instead protected the central overland route and settlements on the frontier from Indians. With the units of California Volunteers engaged in the same service, they made incursions into Indian country, exploring large sections of territory which had never been entered by American forces, had frequent skirmishes with the Indians; the Nevada volunteer group and all of the forts, training grounds and other military areas can be traced through history to today’s current Army and Air Nation Guard in Nevada.

During the time of the Civil War, the Nation lacked an organization to help administer aid and help the wounded or sick soldiers. Similar to the role the Red Cross played in history, The Sanitary Commission sought to find a way to help the wounded and disabled soldiers of the war; this Commission was started in 1862 after the war had begun and was disembodied in 1865. The Sanitary Com

Gordon Birtwistle

Gordon Birtwistle is a British Liberal Democrat politician and former MP. He was the Member of Parliament for the constituency of Burnley, from May 2010 to May 2015, he was Parliamentary Private Secretary to Danny Alexander, Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 2010 to 2012. From 2013, he was Government Apprenticeship Ambassador to Business. Birtwistle began work as a craft engineering apprentice in 1958, with Howard & Bullough, who were textile machinery manufacturers in Accrington, he studied engineering at Accrington College on one day release and two nights a week and achieved two higher nationals, one in mechanical engineering and one in production engineering. At the age of 21, he became a jig and tool draftsman with the same company, stayed there until 1968, when he moved to Lucas Aerospace in Burnley as a machine shop methods engineer, he stayed there until aged 30, when he became a technical representative for Osborne Mushet Tools in Sheffield, who were manufacturers of metal cutting tools.

After five years, he became a director of C&G Cutter Grinding Services in Blackburn, named after its two founders Thomas Chew and William Gradwell. The company was sold to a large engineering PLC, whom he continued to work for. After four years, he set up P&J Engineering Supplies and selling engineering tools. In the late 1990s, he bought Stewart Engineering with a partner; this folded, due to a bad debt in 2002. P&J is still in existence, however Birtwistle retired in 2008. Before entering Parliament he had been Burnley Council leader since the 2006 Local Election, a local councillor since 1982, he entered politics as a Labour councillor in the 1970s. He remains a councilor for the borough's Coal Clough with Deerplay ward, he was a candidate in the 2014 Liberal Democrats deputy leadership election. Birtwistle took Burnley from Labour for the Liberal Democrats in the 2010 General Election, with a 12% swing and 1,818 majority; the first non Labour MP in the Burnley constituency since 1935, he had contested the seat in 1992, 1997 and 2005.

He was the oldest new MP of the 2010 intake. On election his three main aims were returning the Accident and Emergency department to Burnley General Hospital. A few weeks after his election, he was offered the role of Parliamentary Private Secretary to Danny Alexander, Chief Secretary to the Treasury, he hosted a manufacturing summit for the North West region in Burnley in June 2011, opened by Vince Cable with a speech at the new £80 million Burnley College and University of Central Lancashire campus. In October it was announced that with government investment through the Regional Growth Fund, the planned direct rail link between Manchester and Burnley would proceed; the project included the reinstatement of the Todmorden Curve, a five hundred metre stretch of track unused since the 1960s, an upgrade to Burnley Manchester Road railway station. Birtwistle's successor as Burnley Council leader, Charlie Briggs was reported as saying "Gordon Birtwistle, has been an important influence as he been active in pressing the case for this and a number of other economic development priorities".

Projects to construct a new business park called "Burnley Bridge" and create the Visions Learning Trust University Technical College had recently received funding. In February 2012, Birtwistle became chairman of a new all-party parliamentary group dedicated to the advancement of apprenticeships. In March he wrote of his support for increasing the minimum wage and the introduction of the pupil premium and argued for measures to tackle tax avoidance; that October, he introduced a private members bill to the Commons demanding improved careers advice for 12 to 16-year-old students. Although the bill received cross-party support and was given an unopposed first reading, it didn't progress further. In March 2013, he was appointed as Government Apprenticeship Ambassador to Business, a new role intended to raise the profile and prestige of apprenticeships, he was one of only a few Liberal Democrat MPs to oppose allowing same sex couples to marry, rebelling against his party in a number of Commons votes on the issue in 2013–14.

He has been quoted as saying "Civil partnerships are fine. Gay marriage is just not on" and "I have been against it right from the beginning because I believe that’s the view of the vast majority of people in Burnley". In 2014, Birtwistle called for fellow Liberal Democrat parliamentary candidate Maajid Nawaz to be de-selected and his membership cancelled after he posted a controversial cartoon of Jesus and Muhammad on Twitter. Burnley Liberal Democrats Profile at the Liberal Democrats Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record

Rayn Smid

Rayn Smid is a South African rugby union player, who most played with English Premiership side Bristol. His regular position is flanker, he represented Western Province at various youth competitions. In 2008, he played for their Under-16 side at the Grant Khomo Week tournament, he played for the Western Province U19 side in the 2011 Under-19 Provincial Championship competition and for the Western Province U21 side in the Under-21 Provincial Championship in 2012 and 2013, helping them to winning the competition in 2013 as vice-captain of the side. He played for the UCT Ikey Tigers during the 2012 Varsity Cup competition, scoring five tries in five appearances, four of those tries coming in their match against the TUT Vikings, he was first included in the Western Province senior side for the 2013 Vodacom Cup competition. His first class debut came in their opening match of the season against near neighbours Boland Cavaliers, he scored his first senior try in their next match, at home to the Sharks XV and started all nine of Western Province's matches during the competition.

His first appearance in the Currie Cup came a few months during the 2013 Currie Cup competition. He started the match against Griquas following a late injury to Rynhardt Elstadt, his only appearance in the competition, he was included in the Stormers wider training squad for the 2014 Super Rugby season. At the end of 2014, Smid joined Italian side I Cavalieri on a short-term deal, he made two appearances for them in the 2014–2015 National Championship of Excellence and one in the 2015 Trophy of Excellence before returning to Cape Town prior to the 2015 Vodacom Cup competition. On 24 September 2015, English RFU Championship side Bristol announced that Smid would join them for the 2015–16 season, he made eight appearances for them during the 2015–16 season, but made just a single appearance for them in 2016–17, before leaving the club by mutual consent at the end of 2016. In January 2017 Smid joined the RFU Championship side Ealing Trailfinders, where he plays. Smid has enjoyed great success with the Trailfinders, appearing in every match since joining in 2017 as captain.

He was named to The Rugby Paper's Championship Dream Team for the 2018/19 season after scoring 11 tries