The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
Machu Picchu is a 15th-century Inca citadel, located in the Eastern Cordillera of southern Peru, on a mountain ridge 2,430 metres above sea level. It is located in the Cusco Region, Urubamba Province, Machupicchu District in Peru, above the Sacred Valley, 80 kilometres northwest of Cuzco and through which the Urubamba River flows, cutting through the Cordillera and creating a canyon with a tropical mountain climate. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was constructed as an estate for the Inca emperor Pachacuti. Mistakenly referred to as the "Lost City of the Incas", it is the most familiar icon of Inca civilization; the Incas built the estate around 1450 but abandoned it a century at the time of the Spanish Conquest. Although known locally, it was not known to the Spanish during the colonial period and remained unknown to the outside world until American historian Hiram Bingham brought it to international attention in 1911. Machu Picchu was built with polished dry-stone walls, its three primary structures are the Intihuatana, the Temple of the Sun, the Room of the Three Windows.
Most of the outlying buildings have been reconstructed in order to give tourists a better idea of how they appeared. By 1976, thirty percent of Machu Picchu had been restored and restoration continues. Machu Picchu was declared a Peruvian Historic Sanctuary in 1981 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. In 2007, Machu Picchu was voted one of the New Seven Wonders of the World in a worldwide Internet poll. In the Quechua language, machu means "old" or "old person", while pikchu means either "portion of coca being chewed" or "pyramid, pointed multi-sided solid; the name of the site is interpreted as "old mountain". Machu Picchu was built around 1450–1460, its construction appears to date to the period of the two great Inca rulers, Pachacutec Inca Yupanqui and Túpac Inca Yupanqui. There is a consensus among archaeologists that Pachacutec ordered the construction of the royal estate for himself, most after his successful military campaign. Though Machu Picchu is considered to be a "royal" estate the estate would not have been passed down in the line of succession.
It was used for only 80 years before being abandoned due to destruction of the Spanish Conquests in other parts of the Inca Empire. It is possible that most of its inhabitants died from smallpox introduced by travelers before the Spanish conquistadors arrived in the area. During its use as a royal estate, it is estimated that no more than 750 people lived there at a time, most people being support staff who lived there permanently. Though the estate belonged to Pachacutec, religious specialists and temporary specialized workers lived there as well, most for the ruler's well-being and enjoyment. During the harsher season, staff dropped down to around a hundred servants and a few religious specialists focused on maintenance alone. Studies show that according to their skeletal remains, most people who lived there were immigrants from diverse backgrounds, they lacked the chemical markers and osteological markers they would have if they had been living there their whole lives. Instead, there was bone damage from various species of water parasites indigenous to different areas of Peru.
There were varying osteological stressors and varying chemical densities suggesting varying long-term diets characteristic of specific regions that were spaced apart. These diets are composed of varying levels of maize, grains and fish, but the overall most recent short-term diet for these people was composed of less fish and more corn; this suggests that several of the immigrants were from more coastal areas and moved to Machu Picchu where corn was a larger portion of food intake. The skeletal remains found at Machu Picchu are unique in their level of natural bone damage from laborious activities. Most people found at the site had lower levels of arthritis and bone fractures than those found in most sites of the Inca Empire. Inca individuals who had arthritis and bone fractures were those who performed heavy physical labor and/or served in the Inca military. Animals are suspected to have immigrated to Machu Picchu as there were several bones found that were not native to the area. Most animal bones found were from alpacas.
These animals live at altitudes of 4,000 metres rather than the 2,400 metres elevation of Machu Picchu. Most these animals were brought in from the Puna region for meat consumption and for their pelts. Guinea pigs were found at the site in special burial caves, suggesting that they were at least used for funerary rituals, as it was common throughout the Inca Empire to use them for sacrifices and meat. Six dogs were recovered from the site. Due to their placements among the human remains, it is believed that they served as companions of the dead. Much of the farming done at Machu Picchu was done on its hundreds of man-made terraces; these terraces were a work of considerable engineering, built to ensure good drainage and soil fertility while protecting the mountain itself from erosion and landslides. However, the terraces were not perfect, as studies of the land show that there were landslides that happened during the construction of Machu Picchu. Still visible are places where the terraces were shifted by landslides and stabilized by the Inca as they continued to build around the area.
It is estimated that the area around the site has received more than 1,800 mm of rain
Yucatán the Free and Sovereign State of Yucatán, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities, its capital city is Mérida, it is located on the north part of the Yucatán Peninsula. It is bordered by the states of Campeche to the southwest and Quintana Roo to the southeast, with the Gulf of Mexico off its north coast. Before the arrival of Spaniards to the Yucatán Peninsula, the name of this region was Mayab. In the Mayan language, "ma' ya'ab" is translated as "a few", it was a important region for the Mayan civilization, which reached the peak of its development here, where the Mayans founded the cities of Chichen Itza, Motul, Mayapan, Ek' Balam and Ichcaanzihóo, now Mérida. After the Spanish conquest of Yucatán, the Peninsula was a single administrative and political entity, the Captaincy General of Yucatán. Following independence and the breakup of the Mexican Empire in 1823, the first Republic of Yucatán was proclaimed, voluntarily annexed to the Federal Republic of United Mexican States on December 21, 1823.
On March 16, 1841, as a result of cultural and political conflicts around the federal pact, Yucatán declared its independence from Mexico. Forming a second Republic of Yucatán. On July 14, 1848, Yucatán was forced to rejoin Mexico. In 1858, in the middle of the caste war, the state of Yucatán was divided for the first time, establishing Campeche as a separate state. During the Porfiriato, in 1902, the state of Yucatán was divided again to form the Federal territory that became the present state of Quintana Roo. Today, Yucatán is the safest state in Mexico and Mérida was awarded City of Peace in 2011; the name Yucatán assigned to the peninsula, came from early explorations of the Conquistadors from Europe. Three different explanations for the origin of the name have been proposed; the first is that the name resulted from confusion between the Mayan inhabitants and the first Spanish explorers around 1517: According to one of them, it came from the answer of an indigenous Mayan to the question of a Spanish explorer, who wanted to know the name of the region.
The Mayan replied Ma'anaatik ka t'ann which means in the Maya language I do not understand your speech or I do not understand you. It is said that the Spaniards gave the name of Yucatán to the region, because the Mayan answered their questions with the phrase uh yu ka t'ann, which in the Maya language means hear how they talk; the first person to propose the "I do not understand" version was the friar Toribio de Benavente Motolinia. In his book Historia de los indios de la Nueva España he says because talking with those Indians of the coast, whatever the Spanish asked the Indians responded: Tectetán, Tectetán which means I don't understand you, I don't understand you; the second proposed explanation comes from Bernal Díaz del Castillo. In his book Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva España, he says Yucatá means "land of yucas", a plant, cultivated by the Maya and was an important food source for them; the third, most explanation is that the name derived from the Maya people who inhabited the region.
Today the people are referred to by their Aztec name, the Chontal, but the Chontal Maya people refer to themselves as the Yokot'anob or the Yokot'an, meaning "the speakers of Yoko ochoco". Thus Yucatan most derives from Yokot'an; the origin of the first settlements has not been scientifically confirmed, although the presence of first humans in the area dates from the late Pleistocene or ice age, according to the findings in the Loltún caves and caverns of Tulum. The first Maya moved to the Peninsula circa 250 CE, from the Petén, to settle the southeastern peninsula in the modern Bacalar, Quintana Roo. In 525, the Chanés, moved to the east of the peninsula, founding Chichén Itzá, Motul, Ek' Balam, Ichcaanzihó and Champotón. Tutul xiúes, Toltec descent, who came from the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, settled in the region causing displacement of the Itza and Cocomes—a diversified branch of Itzá—and after years and many battles, was formed Mayapán League, that disintegrated circa 1194, giving way to a period of anarchy and fragmentation into small domains which the Spanish conquistadors found in the 16th century.
In 1513, Juan Ponce de León had conquered the island of Borinquén and had discovered Florida. Antón de Alaminos, with Ponce de León on this latest discovery, suspected that west of Cuba they could find new land. Under their influence, Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, supported by the governor of Cuba, organized an expedition commanded by Francisco Hernández de Córdoba to explore the seas west of the island; this expedition sailed from port of Ajaruco on February 8, 1517, to La Habana and after circling the island and sailing southwest by what is now known as the Yucatán Channel, the expedition made landfall at the Yucatán Peninsula on March 1. There are discrepancies about; some say. Bernal Díaz del Castillo places it at Cabo Catoche where they saw a great city which they named the «Gran Cairo». T
Ma'an is one of the governorates of Jordan, it is located south of Amman, Jordan's capital. Its capital is the city of Ma'an; this governorate is the largest in the kingdom of Jordan by area. The land of the Governorate of Ma'an hosts many historic sites; the land of Ma'an Governorate was under the Edomite rule, which had its capital in Busaira in neighboring Tafilah Governorate. The Edomites were replaced by the Nabateans who built one of the most significant archaeological and historical sites in the Middle East, the ancient city of Petra. After succeeding in repulsing Macedonian and Roman invasions, Petra fell to the Roman Empire in 103 A. D. Near Petra is Mount Hor, where is it believed that Aaron the brother of Moses died: the mountain is referred to as Jebel Nebi Harun in Arabic. There is a tomb for Aaron at the top of the mountain. Evidence for human settlement in Ma'an Governorate dates back to at least 7000 BC, when the Neolithic village of Basta was founded. Basta was one of the first settlements in the world to have domesticated livestock.
In the 7th century A. D. the lands of Ma'an were annexed to the Islamic Khaliphate. With the coming of the Crusaders in the 11th century, The Crusaders took control of the highlands of Shoubak, at an elevation of more than 1300 meters above sea level, the Crusaders built the castle of Montreal in the city of Shoubak. Ma'an was the capital of the Arab state declared by Emir Abdullah for a short period of time in 1920 before moving the capital to Amman; the first newspaper in the modern day Jordan was named Alhaqqu Ya ` lu. In Autumn 1996 and Spring 1997 the Al-Jafr-desert, located near Al-Jafr in the eastern part of the governorate, was the location of extensive tests of the ThrustSSC, the British-built fastest land vehicle in the world, the first land vehicle to break the sound barrier in October 1997 in the Black Rock Desert, United States; the ThrustSSC was thus therefore the fastest land vehicle driven in an Arab country. Although Ma'an Governorate has the largest area of the 12 governorates that constitute the Kingdom of Jordan, it has the lowest population density: less than 4 persons per square km.
It has international borders with Saudi Arabia from the east and south, borders Aqaba and Karak governorates from the west, Amman Governorate from the north. The climate in Ma'an is desert climate, but the western highlands have a Mediterranean climate; the average annual rainfall ranges from 50 mm in the desert regions to 250 mm in the western highlands, exceeds 500 mm in the Sharah mountains. The population of districts according to census results: The ministry of Interior divides Ma'an Governorate into four departments under Article 7 of the Administrative Divisions System of the year 2000; the capital department is further subdivided into five subdivisions
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 505,526 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2. Its urban area extends beyond the city's administrative limits with a population of around 2.8 million people, being the 11th-most populous urban area in the European Union. About 3 million people live including the Portuguese Riviera, it is the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the River Tagus; the westernmost areas of its metro area form the westernmost point of Continental Europe, known as Cabo da Roca, located in the Sintra Mountains. Lisbon is recognised as an alpha-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade and tourism. Lisbon is the only Portuguese city besides Porto to be recognised as a global city, it is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector and one of the largest container ports on Europe's Atlantic coast.
Additionally, Humberto Delgado Airport served 26.7 million passengers in 2017, being the busiest airport in Portugal, the 3rd busiest in the Iberian Peninsula and the 20th busiest in Europe, the motorway network and the high-speed rail system of Alfa Pendular links the main cities of Portugal to Lisbon. The city is the 9th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Rome, Barcelona, Venice, Madrid and Athens, with 3,320,300 tourists in 2017; the Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any other region in Portugal. Its GDP amounts to thus $32,434 per capita; the city occupies the 40th place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinational corporations in Portugal are located in the Lisbon area, it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, one of the oldest in Western Europe, predating other modern European capitals such as London and Rome by centuries.
Julius Caesar made it. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, it was captured by the Moors in the 8th century. In 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed – by statute or in written form, its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. One claim repeated in non-academic literature is that the name of Lisbon can be traced back to Phoenician times, referring to a Phoenician term Alis-Ubo, meaning "safe harbour". Roman authors of the first century AD referred to popular legends that the city of Lisbon was founded by the mythical hero Odysseus on his journey home from Troy. Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, neither of these folk etymologies has any historical credibility.
Lisbon's origin may in fact derive from Proto-Celtic or Celtic Olisippo, Lissoppo, or a similar name which other visiting peoples like the Ancient Phoenicians and Romans adapted accordingly. The name of the settlement may be derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus River, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by a native of Hispania, it was referred to as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. Lisbon's name is abbreviated to'LX' or'Lx', originating in an antiquated spelling of Lisbon as ‘’Lixbõa’’. While the old spelling has since been dropped from usage and goes against modern language standards, the abbreviation is still used. During the Neolithic period, the region was inhabited by Pre-Celtic tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megaliths and menhirs, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon; the Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population, thus giving rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
Although the first fortifications on Lisbon's Castelo hill are known to be no older than the 2nd century BC, recent archaeological finds have shown that Iron Age people occupied the site from the 8th to 6th centuries BC. This indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects. Archaeological excavations made near the Castle of São Jorge and Lisbon Cathedral indicate a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, it can be stated with confidence that a Phoenician trading post stood on a site now the centre of the present city, on the southern slope of the Castle hill; the sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary was an ideal spot for an Iberian settlement and would have provided a secure harbour for unloading and provisioning Phoenician ships. The Tagus settlement was an important centre of commercial trade with the inland tribes, providing an outlet for the valuable metals and salted-fish they collected, for the sale of the Lusitanian horses renowned in antiquity.
Rede Globo, or Globo, is a Brazilian free-to-air television network, launched by media proprietor Roberto Marinho on 26 April 1965. It is owned by media conglomerate Grupo Globo. Globo is the largest commercial TV network in Latin America and the second-largest commercial TV network of the world just behind the American ABC Television Network and the largest producer of telenovelas. Globo is headquartered in the Jardim Botânico neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, where its news division is based; the network's main production studios are located at a complex dubbed Estudios Globo, located in Jacarepaguá, in the same city. Globo is composed of 5 owned-and-operated television stations and 119 affiliates throughout Brazil plus its own international networks, Globo TV International and TV Globo Portugal. In 2007, Globo moved its analog operations to high-definition television production for digital broadcasting. Rede Globo is one of the largest media companies in the world, produces around 2,400 hours of entertainment and 3,000 hours of journalism per year in Brazil.
Through its network, the broadcaster covers 98.6% of Brazil's territory. Recognized for its production quality, the company has been presented with 14 international Emmys; the international operations of Globo include seven pay-per-view television channels and a production and distribution division that distributes Brazilian sports and entertainment content to more than 190 countries around the world. In Brazil, Globo TV presently reaches 99.5% of potential viewers the entire Brazilian population, with 136 broadcasting stations that deliver programming to more than 183 million Brazilians. The network has been responsible for the 20 most-watched TV programs broadcast on Brazilian television, including Avenida Brasil, a 2022 record-breaking telenovela that reached 50 million viewers and was sold to 130 countries. In July 1964, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro approved a request by Radio Globo to establish a television channel. On 30 December 1957, the National Council of Telecommunication published a decree which granted a channel in Rio de Janeiro to TV Globo Ltda.
Globo started preparing the beginning of its television broadcasting operations. Globo began broadcasting on 1 January 1965 in Rio de Janeiro on channel four; that same day, at about 10:45 a.m. Rubens Amaral formally introduced Rede Globo to viewers in Rio de Janeiro, all over Guanabara State, with the song "Moon River" by Henry Mancini at the start of the children's show, Uni Duni Te. By May of that same year, the live telecast of the Holy Mass, which became its longest running and oldest program, was seen for the first time; the following year, Globo purchased another television station, São Paulo-based TV Paulista, expanding its operations and beginning to dominate national television ratings. In January 1966, Globo broadcast its first major news coverage on flooding in Rio de Janeiro. Jornal da Globo, another trademark show for the network, was the successor to Ultranoticias, the network's first news program that ran until 1964, it featured a broadcast time of 30 minutes and was hosted by Hilton Gomez and Luis Jatoba.
In 1967, Globo began to build its national network with the affiliation of Porto Alegre-based TV Gaúcha. TV Gaúcha would become Globo's affiliate in Florianopolis in the late 1970s, when it received its current name, it is one of Globo's oldest affiliates, active since 1962. Uberlândia's TV Triângulo and Goiânia's TV Anhanguera soon followed in 1967 and 1968; the now extinct TV Guajará, based in Belém, was launched in 1969, was followed by TV Verdes Mares the following year. 1968 was the year in which Globo's branch station in Belo Horizonte, TV Globo Minas, was launched. On 1 September 1969, the country and national television broadcasting changed with the premiere of Jornal Nacional, the nation's first live newscast anchored by Cid Moreira and Hilton Gomez, its theme music, "The Fuzz" by Frank DeVol, became one of the show's trademarks, together with the program logo and the "Boa Noite" closing established by the hosts. Its success was followed by the launch of Jornal Hoje on 21 April 1971, the same day in which its Brasilia station was inaugurated.
The program was shown on the Rede Globo Rio de Janeiro flagship station until 1974 when it became a nationwide midday newscast. It broadcast its first FIFA World Cup in 1970, the same year in which the Rede Excelsior network closed down, absorbed by Globo; the network's famous Plim-Plim interval sound debuted that year. The network's 1976 broadcasting scheduling process developed the Padrão Globo de Qualidade: two soap operas, followed by Globo Repórter newscasts, one to two more drama shows or cinema, comedy programming and others; the process was led by Walter Clark and Jose Bonifacio de Olivera Sobrinho in 1960, when Rede Excelsior was launched. The network's audience share increased in the late 1970s clinching the top ratings spot of Brazil television; this was the reason Silvio Santos, one of the network's original variety show presenters since 1965, backed out of Globo, moved his 11-year-old program to Rede Tupi, while putting up his own network, TVS in the process the next year bringing his own show there.
In the process, it would continue the first nationwide variety show telecast t
Acropolis of Athens
The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and contains the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. The word acropolis is from the Greek words ἄκρον and πόλις. Although the term acropolis is generic and there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. During ancient times it was known more properly as Cecropia, after the legendary serpent-man, the supposed first Athenian king. While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important present remains including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the Temple of Athena Nike; the Parthenon and the other buildings were damaged during the 1687 siege by the Venetians during the Morean War when gunpowder being stored in the Parthenon was hit by a cannonball and exploded.
The Acropolis is located on a flattish-topped rock that rises 150 m above sea level in the city of Athens, with a surface area of about 3 hectares. While the earliest artifacts date to the Middle Neolithic era, there have been documented habitations in Attica from the Early Neolithic period. There is little doubt that a Mycenaean megaron palace stood upon the hill during the late Bronze Age. Nothing of this megaron survives except a single limestone column-base and pieces of several sandstone steps. Soon after the palace was constructed, a Cyclopean massive circuit wall was built, 760 meters long, up to 10 meters high, ranging from 3.5 to 6 meters thick. This wall would serve as the main defense for the acropolis until the 5th century; the wall consisted of two parapets built with large stone blocks and cemented with an earth mortar called emplekton. The wall uses typical Mycenaean conventions in that it followed the natural contour of the terrain and its gate, towards the south, was arranged obliquely, with a parapet and tower overhanging the incomers' right-hand side, thus facilitating defense.
There were two lesser approaches up the hill on its north side, consisting of steep, narrow flights of steps cut in the rock. Homer is assumed to refer to this fortification when he mentions the "strong-built House of Erechtheus". At some time before the 13th century BC, an earthquake caused a fissure near the northeastern edge of the Acropolis; this fissure extended some 35 meters to a bed of soft marl. An elaborate set of stairs was built and the well served as an invaluable, protected source of drinking water during times of siege for some portion of the Mycenaean period. Not much is known about the architectural appearance of the Acropolis until the Archaic era. During the 7th and the 6th centuries BC, the site was controlled by Kylon during the failed Kylonian revolt, twice by Peisistratos. Apart from the Hekatompedon mentioned Peisistratos built an entry gate or Propylaea, it seems that a nine-gate wall, the Enneapylon, had been built around the biggest water spring, the Clepsydra, at the northwestern foot.
A temple to Athena Polias, the tutelary deity of the city, was erected between 570–550 BC. This Doric limestone building, from which many relics survive, is referred to as the Hekatompedon, Ur-Parthenon, H–Architecture or Bluebeard temple, after the pedimental three-bodied man-serpent sculpture, whose beards were painted dark blue. Whether this temple replaced an older one, or just a sacred precinct or altar, is not known; the Hekatompedon was built where the Parthenon now stands. Between 529–520 BC yet another temple was built by the Peisistratids, the Old Temple of Athena referred to as the Arkhaios Neōs; this temple of Athena Polias was built upon the Dörpfeld foundations, between the Erechtheion and the still-standing Parthenon. Arkhaios Neōs was destroyed as part of the Achaemenid destruction of Athens during the Second Persian invasion of Greece during 480-479 BC; the temple may have been burnt down during 406/405 BC as Xenophon mentions that the old temple of Athena was set afire. Pausanias does not mention it in his 2nd century AD Description of Greece.
Around 500 BC the Hekatompedon was dismantled to make place for a new grander building, the "Older Parthenon". For this reason, Athenians decided to stop the construction of the Olympieion temple, connoted with the tyrant Peisistratos and his sons and, used the Piraeus limestone destined for the Olympieion to build the Older Parthenon. In order to accommodate the new temple, the south part of the summit was cleared, made level by adding some 8,000 two-ton blocks of limestone, a foundation 11 m deep at some points, the rest was filled with soil kept in place by the retaining wall. However, after the victorious Battle of Marathon in 490 BC, the plan was revised and marble was used instead; the limestone phase of the building is referred to as Pre-Parthenon I and the marble phase as Pre-Parthenon II. In 485 BC, construction stalled to save resources as Xerxes became king of Persia and war seemed imminent; the Older Parthenon was still under