An encyclopedia or encyclopædia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of knowledge from either all branches or from a particular field or discipline. Encyclopedias are divided into articles or entries that are arranged alphabetically by article name and sometimes by thematic categories. Encyclopedia entries are more detailed than those in most dictionaries. Speaking, unlike dictionary entries—which focus on linguistic information about words, such as their etymology, pronunciation and grammatical forms—encyclopedia articles focus on factual information concerning the subject named in the article's title. Encyclopedias have existed for around 2,000 years and have evolved during that time as regards language, intent, cultural perceptions, authorship and the technologies available for their production and distribution; as a valued source of reliable information compiled by experts, printed versions found a prominent place in libraries and other educational institutions. The appearance of digital and open-source versions in the 20th century has vastly expanded the accessibility, authorship and variety of encyclopedia entries and called into question the idea of what an encyclopedia is and the relevance of applying to such dynamic productions the traditional criteria for assembling and evaluating print encyclopedias.
The word encyclopedia comes from the Koine Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, transliterated enkyklios paideia, meaning "general education" from enkyklios, meaning "circular, required general" and paideia, meaning "education, rearing of a child". However, the two separate words were reduced to a single word due to a scribal error by copyists of a Latin manuscript edition of Quintillian in 1470; the copyists took this phrase to be a single Greek word, with the same meaning, this spurious Greek word became the New Latin word "encyclopaedia", which in turn came into English. Because of this compounded word, fifteenth century readers and since have and incorrectly, thought that the Roman authors Quintillian and Pliny described an ancient genre. In the sixteenth century there was a level of ambiguity as to; as several titles illustrate, there was not a settled notion about its spelling nor its status as a noun. For example: Jacobus Philomusus's Margarita philosophica encyclopaediam exhibens, it is only with Pavao Skalić and his Encyclopediae seu orbis disciplinarum tam sacrarum quam profanarum epistemon that the term became first recognized as a noun.
There have been two examples of the oldest vernacular use of the compounded word. In 1490, Franciscus Puccius wrote a letter to Politianus thanking him for his Miscellanea, calling it an encyclopedia. More François Rabelais is cited for his use of the term in Pantagruel. Several encyclopedias have names that include the suffix -pedia, to mark the text as belonging to the genre of encyclopedias. For example, Banglapedia. Today in English, the word is most spelled encyclopedia, though encyclopaedia is used in Britain; the modern encyclopedia was developed from the dictionary in the 18th century. Both encyclopedias and dictionaries have been researched and written by well-educated, well-informed content experts, but they are different in structure. A dictionary is a linguistic work which focuses on alphabetical listing of words and their definitions. Synonymous words and those related by the subject matter are to be found scattered around the dictionary, giving no obvious place for in-depth treatment.
Thus, a dictionary provides limited information, analysis or background for the word defined. While it may offer a definition, it may leave the reader lacking in understanding the meaning, significance or limitations of a term, how the term relates to a broader field of knowledge. An encyclopedia is, not written in order to convince, although one of its goals is indeed to convince its reader of its own veracity. To address those needs, an encyclopedia article is not limited to simple definitions, is not limited to defining an individual word, but provides a more extensive meaning for a subject or discipline. In addition to defining and listing synonymous terms for the topic, the article is able to treat the topic's more extensive meaning in more depth and convey the most relevant accumulated knowledge on that subject. An encyclopedia article often includes many maps and illustrations, as well as bibliography and statistics. Four major elements define an encyclopedia: its subject matter, its scope, its method of organization, its method of production: Encyclopedias can be general, containing articles on topics in every field
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Jeremiah S. Black
Jeremiah Sullivan Black was an American statesman and lawyer. He served as a justice as the Court's Chief Justice, he served in the Cabinet of President James Buchanan, first as Attorney General, Secretary of State. Jeremiah S. Black was born on January 10, 1810, in Stony Creek, near Glades, Pennsylvania, he was the son of Representative Henry Black, Mary Black. Jeremiah Black was self-educated and was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar before he was of age, he became one of the leading American lawyers, was a member of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court, serving as Chief Justice. In 1857, he joined the administration of James Buchanan as Attorney General. In this capacity, he contested the validity of the California land claims to about 19,000 square miles of land, fraudulently alleged to have been granted to land-grabbers and others by the Mexican government prior to the close of the Mexican–American War; when Secretary of State Lewis Cass resigned in December 1860, Black was appointed to replace him, serving from December 17, 1860, to the end of Buchanan's term on March 4, 1861.
Black urged the appointment of Edwin M. Stanton as his successor as Attorney General. Black was the most influential of President Buchanan's official advisers too, during the secession crisis, he denied the constitutionality of secession, urged that Fort Sumter be properly reinforced and defended. However, he argued that a state could not be coerced by the Federal government. On February 5, 1861, President Buchanan nominated him for a seat on the Supreme Court of the United States. Subsequently, Black was named Reporter of Decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, a position he held for two years. After publishing the reports for 1861 and 1862, he resigned and devoted himself exclusively to his private law practice. After the Civil War, he vigorously opposed the Congressional plan for Reconstruction and drafted President Andrew Johnson's message vetoing the Reconstruction Act passed on March 2, 1867. Black was briefly part of the president's defense team at the outset of his 1868 impeachment trial before the United States Senate.
From 1869 to 1876, he served as Counsel for U. S. Secretary of War William W. Belknap, who in 1876 was impeached on a charge of corruption. Hayes, he died on August 19, 1883, at the age of 73, was buried at Prospect Hill Cemetery in York, Pennsylvania. On March 23, 1836, Black married the former Mary Forward, they had Rebecca Black, Chauncey Black, Henry Black, Jr. and Mary Sullivan Black. Black, C. F. Essays and Speeches of Jeremiah S. Black, with a Biographical Sketch, New York: 1885. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Black, Jeremiah Sullivan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4. Cambridge University Press. Works by or about Jeremiah S. Black at Internet Archive
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, political theorist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Marx studied law and philosophy at university, he married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum, his best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual and political history and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory. Marx's theories about society and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes that control the means of production and the working classes that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, his work has been both lauded and criticised, his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, subsequent economic thought.
Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science. Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Henriette Pressburg, he was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ethnically Jewish, his maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx. His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education, he became a lawyer and lived a wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number of Moselle vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation in the Rhineland, Herschel converted from Judaism to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.
Non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire. A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, at that time being an absolute monarchy. In 1815, Heinrich Marx began working as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra, his wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg married Lion Philips and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London. Little is known of Marx's childhood; the third of nine children, he became the eldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Young Marx and his surviving siblings, Hermann, Louise and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825.
Young Marx was educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father. By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance. In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field. Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest", Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police. Marx joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society, at one point serving as club co-president.
Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps. Although his grades
Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot known as Dion Boucicault, was an Irish actor and playwright famed for his melodramas. By the part of the 19th century, Boucicault had become known on both sides of the Atlantic as one of the most successful actor-playwright-managers in the English-speaking theatre; the New York Times hailed him in his obituary as "the most conspicuous English dramatist of the 19th century." Dionysius Lardner Boursiquot was educated in Dublin where he lived on Gardiner Street. His mother was sister of the poet and mathematician George Darley; the Darleys were an important Dublin family influential in many fields and related to the Guinnesses by marriage. Anne was married to Samuel Smith Boursiquot, of Huguenot ancestry, but the identity of the boy's father is questionable, he was Dionysius Lardner, a lodger at his mother's house at a time when she was separated from her husband, who supported Dion financially until about 1840. In the late 1830s Dion worked as a clerk at the Guinness brewery, when his brief affair with the third Arthur Guinness was revealed, he was sacked by Arthur Guinness II.
Dion went to London and was enrolled at University College School at the age of 13 and studied for a year at the University of London. After a year in London, Boursiquot/Boucicault left to pursue acting in Cheltenham; the young actor used the stage name Lee Morton. He joined William Charles Macready and made his first appearance upon the stage with Benjamin Webster at Bristol, England. Soon afterwards he began to write plays in conjunction, his first play, A Legend of the Devil's Dyke, opened in Brighton in 1838. Three years he found immediate success as a dramatist with London Assurance. Produced at Covent Garden on 4 March 1841, its cast included such well-known actors as Charles Mathews, William Farren, Mrs Nesbitt and Madame Vestris, he followed this with a number of other plays, among the most successful of the early ones being The Bastile, an "after-piece", Old Heads and Young Hearts, The School for Scheming and The Knight Arva, all at Her Majesty's Theatre, as well as his successful The Corsican Brothers and Louis XI.
The last two plays were adaptations of French plays. In his play The Vampire, Boucicault made his début as a leading actor as the vampire'Sir Alan Raby'. Although the play itself had mixed reviews, Boucicault's characterisation was praised as "a dreadful and weird thing played with immortal genius". In 1854 he played the title character in Andy Blake. From 1854 to 1860, Boucicault resided in the United States. Boucicault and his actress wife, Agnes Robertson, toured America, he wrote many successful plays there, acting in most of them. These included the popular Jessie Brown. From around 1855 his business manager and partner in New York was William Stuart, an expatriate Irish MP and adventurer. Together they leased Wallack's Theatre in 1855-1856, put on a short season at the Washington Theatre in Washington D. C. In the summer of 1859, Boucicault and William Stuart became joint lessees of Burton's New Theatre on Broadway just below Amity Street. After extensive remodelling, he renamed his new showplace the Winter Garden Theatre.
There on 5 December 1859, he premiered his new sensation, the anti-slavery potboiler The Octoroon, in which he starred. This was the first play to treat the Black American population. Boucicault fell out with Stuart over money matters, he went back to England. On his return he produced at the Adelphi Theatre a dramatic adaptation of Gerald Griffin's novel, The Collegians, entitled The Colleen Bawn; this play, one of the most successful of the times, was performed in every city of the United Kingdom and the United States. Julius Benedict used it as the basis for his Opera The Lily of Killarney. Although it made its author a handsome fortune, he lost it in the management of various London theatres. After his return to England, Boucicault was asked by the noted American comedian Joseph Jefferson, who starred in the production of Octoroon, to rework Jefferson's adaptation of Washington Irving's Rip van Winkle, their play opened in London in 1865 and on Broadway in 1866. Boucicault's next marked success was at the Princess's Theatre, London in 1864 with Arrah-na-Pogue in which he played the part of a County Wicklow, Ireland carman.
This, his admirable creation of "Conn" in his play Conn the Shaughraun, won him the reputation of being the best "stage Irishman" of his time. His reputation was mentioned by W. S. Gilbert in the libretto of his 1881 operetta Patience in the line: "The pathos of Paddy, as rendered by Boucicault". Again in partnership with William Stuart he built the New Park Theatre in 1873–1874. However, Boucicault withdrew just before the theatre opened, Stuart teamed up instead with the actor and theatre manager Charles Fechter to run the house. In 1875 Boucicault returned to New York City, where he made his home and for a time his manager was Harry J. Sargent, he wrote the melodrama Contempt of Court in 1879, but he paid occasional visits to London and elsewhere. He made his last appearance in London in his play, The Jilt, in 1885; the Streets of London and After Dark were two of his late successes as a dramatist. Boucicault was an excellent actor in pathetic parts, his uncanny ability to play these low-status roles
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson was an American essayist, lecturer and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Emerson moved away from the religious and social beliefs of his contemporaries and expressing the philosophy of transcendentalism in his 1836 essay "Nature". Following this work, he gave a speech entitled "The American Scholar" in 1837, which Oliver Wendell Holmes Sr. considered to be America's "intellectual Declaration of Independence."Emerson wrote most of his important essays as lectures first and revised them for print. His first two collections of essays, Essays: First Series and Essays: Second Series, represent the core of his thinking, they include the well-known essays "Self-Reliance", "The Over-Soul", "Circles", "The Poet", "Experience."
Together with "Nature", these essays made the decade from the mid-1830s to the mid-1840s Emerson's most fertile period. Emerson wrote on a number of subjects, never espousing fixed philosophical tenets, but developing certain ideas such as individuality, the ability for mankind to realize anything, the relationship between the soul and the surrounding world. Emerson's "nature" was more philosophical than naturalistic: "Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul." Emerson is one of several figures who "took a more pantheist or pandeist approach by rejecting views of God as separate from the world."He remains among the linchpins of the American romantic movement, his work has influenced the thinkers and poets that followed him. "In all my lectures," he wrote, "I have taught one doctrine, the infinitude of the private man." Emerson is well known as a mentor and friend of Henry David Thoreau, a fellow transcendentalist. Emerson was born in Boston, Massachusetts, on May 25, 1803, a son of Ruth Haskins and the Rev. William Emerson, a Unitarian minister.
He was named after his mother's brother his father's great-grandmother Rebecca Waldo. Ralph Waldo was the second of five sons. Three other children—Phebe, John Clarke, Mary Caroline—died in childhood. Emerson was of English ancestry, his family had been in New England since the early colonial period. Emerson's father died from stomach cancer on May 12, 1811, less than two weeks before Emerson's eighth birthday. Emerson was raised with the help of the other women in the family, she lived with the family off and on and maintained a constant correspondence with Emerson until her death in 1863. Emerson's formal schooling began at the Boston Latin School in 1812. In October 1817, at 14, Emerson went to Harvard College and was appointed freshman messenger for the president, requiring Emerson to fetch delinquent students and send messages to faculty. Midway through his junior year, Emerson began keeping a list of books he had read and started a journal in a series of notebooks that would be called "Wide World".
He took outside jobs to cover his school expenses, including as a waiter for the Junior Commons and as an occasional teacher working with his uncle Samuel and aunt Sarah Ripley in Waltham, Massachusetts. By his senior year, Emerson decided to go by Waldo. Emerson served as Class Poet, he graduated in the exact middle of his class of 59 people. In 1826, faced with poor health, Emerson went to seek a warmer climate, he first found the weather was still too cold. He went farther south, to St. Augustine, where he took long walks on the beach and began writing poetry. While in St. Augustine he made the acquaintance of Prince Achille Murat, the nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte. Murat was two years his senior; the two engaged in enlightening discussions of religion, society and government. Emerson considered Murat an important figure in his intellectual education. While in St. Augustine, Emerson had his first encounter with slavery. At one point, he attended a meeting of the Bible Society while a slave auction was taking place in the yard outside.
He wrote, "One ear therefore heard the glad tidings of great joy, whilst the other was regaled with'Going, going!'" After Harvard, Emerson assisted his brother William in a school for young women established in their mother's house, after he had established his own school in Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Emerson was accepted into the Harvard Divinity School in late 1824, was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa in 1828. Emerson's brother Edward, two years younger than he, entered the office of the lawyer Daniel Webster, after graduating from Harvard first in his class. Edward's physical health began to deteriorate, he soon suffered a mental collapse as well. Although he recovered his mental equilibrium, he died in 1834 from long-standing tuberculosis. Another of Emerson's bright and promising younger brothers, born in 1808, died in 1836 of tuberculos
Friedrich Engels was a German philosopher, social scientist and businessman. His father was an owner of large textile factories in Barmen, Prussia. Engels developed what is now known as Marxist theory together with Karl Marx and in 1845 he published The Condition of the Working Class in England, based on personal observations and research in English cities. In 1848, Engels co-authored The Communist Manifesto with Marx and authored and co-authored many other works. Engels supported Marx financially, allowing him to do research and write Das Kapital. After Marx's death, Engels edited the third volumes of Das Kapital. Additionally, Engels organised Marx's notes on the Theories of Surplus Value, which he published as the "fourth volume" of Capital. In 1884, he published The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State on the basis of Marx's ethnographic research. Engels died in London on 5 August 1895, at the age of 74 and following cremation his ashes were scattered off Beachy Head, near Eastbourne.
Engels was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Rhine Province, Prussia as eldest son of Friedrich Engels Sr. and of Elisabeth "Elise" Franziska Mauritia von Haar. The wealthy Engels family owned large cotton-textile mills in Barmen and Salford, both expanding industrial metropoles. Friedrich's parents were devout Pietist Protestants and they raised their children accordingly. At the age of 13, Engels attended high school in the adjacent city of Elberfeld but had to leave at 17, due to pressure of his father, who wanted him to become a businessman and start to work as mercantile apprentice in his firm. After a year in Barmen, the young Engels was in 1838 sent by his father to undertake an apprenticeship at a commercial house in Bremen, his parents expected. Their son's revolutionary activities disappointed them, it would be some years. Whilst at Bremen, Engels began reading the philosophy of Hegel, whose teachings dominated German philosophy at that time. In September 1838 he published his first work, a poem entitled "The Bedouin", in the Bremisches Conversationsblatt No. 40.
He engaged in other literary work and began writing newspaper articles critiquing the societal ills of industrialisation. He wrote under the pseudonym "Friedrich Oswald" to avoid connecting his family with his provocative writings. In 1841 Engels performed his military service in the Prussian Army as a member of the Household Artillery. Assigned to Berlin, he attended university lectures at the University of Berlin and began to associate with groups of Young Hegelians, he anonymously published articles in the Rheinische Zeitung, exposing the poor employment- and living-conditions endured by factory workers. The editor of the Rheinische Zeitung was Karl Marx, but Engels would not meet Marx until late November 1842. Engels acknowledged the influence of German philosophy on his intellectual development throughout his career, he wrote, "To get the most out of life you must be active, you must live and you must have the courage to taste the thrill of being young... ". Engels developed his relationship with his parents became strained.
In 1842, his parents sent the 22-year-old Engels to Manchester, England, a manufacturing centre where industrialisation was on the rise. He was to work in Weaste in the offices of Ermen and Engels's Victoria Mill, which made sewing threads. Engels's father thought that working at the Manchester firm might make his son reconsider some of his radical opinions. On his way to Manchester, Engels visited the office of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne and met Karl Marx for the first time, they were not impressed with each other. Marx mistakenly thought that Engels was still associated with the Berliner Young Hegelians, with whom Marx had just broken off ties. In Manchester, Engels met Mary Burns, a fierce young Irish woman with radical opinions who worked in the Engels factory, they began a relationship that lasted 20 years until her death in 1863. The two never married. While Engels regarded stable monogamy as a virtue, he considered the current state and church-regulated marriage as a form of class oppression.
Burns guided Engels through Manchester and Salford, showing him the worst districts for his research. While in Manchester between October and November 1843, Engels wrote his first economic work, entitled "Outline of a Critique of Political Economy." Engels sent the article to Paris, where Marx published it in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher in 1844. While observing the slums of Manchester in close detail, Engels took notes of its horrors, notably child labour, the despoiled environment, overworked and impoverished labourers, he sent a trilogy of articles to Marx. These were published in the Rheinische Zeitung and in the Deutsch–Französische Jahrbücher, chronicling the conditions among the working class in Manchester, he collected these articles for his influential first book, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Written between September 1844 and March 1845, the book was published in German in 1845. In the book, Engels described the "grim future of capitalism and the industrial age", noting the details of the squalor in which the working people lived.
The book was published in English in 1887. Archival resources contemporary to Engels's stay in Manchester shed light on some of the conditions he describes, including a manuscript (MMM/10