Giovanni Battista Agostino Codazzi was an Italo-Venezuelan soldier, geographer and governor of Barinas. He made his main investigations and cartographic work in Venezuela and Colombia, thereby creating for both countries a complete set of maps and statistics after the tumultuous post-independence years from the Spanish Empire. Famous geographer and cartographer born in Lugo, arrived in South America in the 1810s and fought under the corsair Aury, claiming the independence of Florida. Attracted to the ideals of southamerican freedom, after obtaining the friendship of Bolivar and other generals, enrolled in the "Libertador" Army, where -thanks to his military expertice obtained in Italian academies- behaved as excellent artillery official. After the independence wars, he left the military service and dedicated to what he liked most, the geographical & cartographical investigation, doing his most renowned masterpiece: "The Geography and Atlas of the Venezuelan Provinces". Codazzi was born in the Italian city of Lugo.
Since young he appreciated the ideals of the French Revolution and, after his studies at the military academy "Scuola di Artiglieria" of Pavia served in the Napoleon Army. With the defeat of Napoleon in 1815 Codazzi moved away from Italy and after some travels went to Venezuela, where he offered his military knowledge to Simon Bolivar. Successively he received the task of mapping the area of the Maracaibo Lake and the borders between Venezuela and Ecuador; the Venezuelan government named him Colonel and ordered the creation of an Atlas of Venezuela, a task that gave him international fame. Agustin Codazzi meanwhile took the Venezuelan citizenship from president José Antonio Páez and became Governor of Barinas, a region of southwestern Venezuela. In those years his academic activity of geographer was continuously interrupted by his duties as a military commander, suffocating many revolts. Codazzi promoted the creation in the 1840s of the Colonia Tovar, a small German settlement in the Venezuelan central mountains that still exists today and has become one of the main tourist attractions near Maracay.
With the fall of Páez, after a military insurrection, Codazzi was forced to escape to Cúcuta, where he continued his geographic and mapping activity with military duties for the Colombian government. In 1852 Codazzi did a scientific and cartographic inspection of Panama for the British government: in 1854 - if with no official mention of Codazzi's work — the Panama Canal project was done following his indications and route. Codazzi died of malaria in February 1859 at the small town of Espíritu Santo in the Colombian mountains, in the arms of his friend Manuel María Paz, while he was mapping the area for the Comisión Corográfica; the town where he died has been renamed "Aldea Codazzi", now is a city with a population of nearly 70,000 inhabitants. Venezuela honored the memory of Agustin Codazzi placing his remains inside the National Pantheon of Venezuela in 1942, where he is considered one the Heroes of Venezuela. Colombia's national geographical and cartographical institute, a government agency, is named after Agustin Codazzi.
This is a list of main works of Agostino Codazzi: Italo-venezuelans Italian language in Venezuela Colonia Tovar Biography of Codazzi: Agustin Codazzi, Vida y Empresas, by Giorgio Antei Photo of Agostino Codazzi
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at 2,140 kilometres. Its drainage basin, sometimes known as the Orinoquia, covers 880,000 square kilometres, with 76.3 percent of it in Venezuela and the remainder in Colombia. It is the third largest river in the world by discharge volume of water; the Orinoco River and its tributaries are the major transportation system for eastern and interior Venezuela and the llanos of Colombia. The environment in the Orinoco's basin is diverse; the mouth of the Orinoco River at the Atlantic Ocean was documented by Columbus on 1 August 1498, during his third voyage. Its source at the Cerro Delgado–Chalbaud, in the Parima range, was not explored until 1951, 453 years later; the source, near the Venezuelan–Brazilian border, at 1,047 metres above sea level, was explored in 1951 by a joint Venezuelan–French team. The Orinoco Delta, tributaries in the eastern llanos such as the Apure and Meta, were explored in the 16th century by German expeditions under Ambrosius Ehinger and his successors.
In 1531 Diego de Ordaz, starting at the principal outlet in the delta, the Boca de Navios, sailed up the river to the Meta. Antonio de Berrio sailed down the Casanare to the Meta, down the Orinoco River and back to Coro. In 1595, after capturing de Berrio to obtain information while conducting an expedition to find the fabled city of El Dorado, the Englishman Sir Walter Raleigh sailed down the river, reaching the savannah country. Alexander von Humboldt explored the basin in 1800, he published extensively on the river's fauna. The first bridge across the Orinoco River was the Angostura Bridge at Ciudad Bolívar, completed in 1967. In 2006 a second bridge was completed near Ciudad Guayana, known as the Orinoquia Bridge; the first powerline crossing of the Orinoco River was completed in 1981 for an 800 kV TL single span of 1,200 metres using two towers 110 metres tall. In 1992, an overhead power line crossing for two 400 kV-circuits was completed just west of Morocure, north of the confluence of Routes 1 and 19.
It had three towers, the two spans measured 2,161 metres and 2,537 metres, respectively. The course of the Orinoco forms a wide ellipsoidal arc. At its mouth, the Orinoco River forms a wide delta that branches off into hundreds of rivers and waterways that flow through 41,000 km2 of swampy forests. In the rainy season, the Orinoco River can swell to a breadth of 22 kilometres and a depth of 100 metres. Most of the important Venezuelan rivers are tributaries of the Orinoco River, the largest being the Caroní, which joins it at Puerto Ordaz, close to the Llovizna Falls. A peculiarity of the Orinoco river system is the Casiquiare canal, which starts as an arm of the Orinoco, finds its way to the Rio Negro, a tributary of the Amazon, thus forming a'natural canal' between Orinoco and Amazon. Apure: from Venezuela through the east into the Orinoco Arauca: from Colombia to Venezuela east into the Orinoco Atabapo: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco Caroní: from the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela north into the Orinoco Casiquiare canal: in SE Venezuela, a distributary from the Orinoco flowing west to the Negro River, a major affluent to the Amazon Caura: from eastern Venezuela north into the Orinoco Guaviare: from Colombia east into the Orinoco Inírida: from Colombia southeast into the Guaviare.
Meta: from Colombia, border with Venezuela east into the Orinoco Ventuari: from eastern Venezuela southwest into the Orinoco Vichada: from Colombia east into the Orinoco The boto and the giant otter inhabit the Orinoco River system. The Orinoco crocodile is one of the rarest reptiles in the world, its range in the wild is restricted to the middle and lower Orinoco River Basin. More than 1000 fish species have been recorded in the river basin and about 15% are endemic. Among the fish in the river are species found in brackish or salt water in the Orinoco estuary, but many restricted to fresh water. By far the largest orders are Characiformes and Siluriformes, which together account for more than 80% of the fresh water species; some of the more famous are the cardinal tetra. The latter species, important in the aquarium industry, is found in the Rio Negro, re
History of South America
The history of South America is the study of the past the written record, oral histories, traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America. South America has a history that has a wide range of human forms of civilization; the Norte Chico civilization in Peru is the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the first six independent civilizations in the world. It predated the Mesoamerican Olmec by nearly two millennia. While millennia of independent development were interrupted by the Portuguese and Spanish colonization of the late 15th century and the demographic collapse that followed, the continent's mestizo and indigenous cultures remain quite distinct from those of their colonizers. Through the trans-Atlantic slave trade, South America became the home of millions of people of the African diaspora; the mixing of races led to new social structures. The tensions between colonial countries in Europe, indigenous peoples, escaped slaves shaped South America from the 16th through the 19th centuries.
With the revolution for independence from the Spanish crown achieved during the 19th century, South America underwent yet more social and political changes. These have included nation building projects, absorbing waves of immigration from Europe in the late 19th and 20th centuries, dealing with increased international trade, colonization of hinterlands, wars about territory ownership and power balance. During this period there has been the reorganization of Indigenous rights and duties, subjugation of Indigenous peoples living in the states' frontiers, that lasted until the early 1900s. In the Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic eras, South America and Africa were connected in a landmass called Gondwana, as part of the supercontinent Pangaea. In the Albian, around 110 mya, South America and Africa began to diverge along the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, giving rise to a landmass of Antarctica and South America. During the late Eocene, around 35 mya and South America separated and South America became a massive, biologically rich island-continent.
During 30 million years, the biodiversity of South America was isolated from the rest of the world, leading to the evolution of species within the continent. In the last million years since the Late Miocene, South America became connected with the continent of North America via the Panama Block that closed the marine Bolivar Trough, leading to the Great American Interchange, the interchange of biota from both continents; the first species discovered to have made the northward migration was Pliometanastes, a fossil ground sloth species the size of a modern black bear. Several migrations to the Southern Hemisphere were undertaken by tougher, North American mammal carnivores; the result of the intrusion of North American fauna was that hundreds of South American species became extinct in a short time and that about 60% of present-day South American mammals have evolved from North American species. However, some species were able to spread into North America. Apart from Pliometanastes, during the Irvingtonian stage of the mammal land stages, around 1.9 mya, species as Pampatherium, a giant armadillo, ground sloth Megatherium, giant anteater Myrmecophaga, a Neogene capybara, opossum Didelphis, Mixotoxodon followed the route north.
The terror bird Titanis was the only discovered South American carnivore species who made the journey into North America. The Americas are thought to have been first inhabited by people from eastern Asia who crossed the Bering Land Bridge to present-day Alaska. Over the course of millennia, three waves of migrants spread to all parts of the Americas. Genetic and linguistic evidence has shown that the last wave of migrant peoples settled across the northern tier, did not reach South America; the first evidence for the existence of agricultural practices in South America dates back to circa 6500 BCE, when potatoes and beans began to be cultivated for food in the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence suggests that manioc, which remains a staple foodstuff today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BCE. South American cultures began domesticating llamas and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BCE; these animals were used for both meat. Guinea pigs were domesticated as a food source at this time.
By 2000 BCE, many agrarian village communities had developed throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, with fish being the primary source of food for those communities. Irrigation systems were developed at this time, which aided in the rise of agrarian societies; the food crops were quinoa, lima beans, common beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, potatoes and squashes. Cotton was grown and was important as the only major fiber crop. Among the earliest permanent settlements, dated to 4700 BC is the Huaca Prieta site on the coast of Peru, at 3500 BC the Valdivia culture in Ecuador. Other groups formed permanent settlements. Among those groups were the Muisca or "Muysca," and the Tairona, located in present-day Colombia; the Cañari of Ecuador, Quechua of Peru, Aymara of Bolivia were the three most important Native peoples who developed societies of sedentary agriculture in South America. In the last two thousand yea
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
Joan Orpí i del Pou Juan Orpín or Juan Urpín was a Spanish conquistador, known for founding New Barcelona in Venezuela, for founding the short-lived Province of New Catalonia. In 1623 he journeyed to Araya. In 1624 the Governor of New Andalusia Province, Diego de Arroyo Daza, named Orpí Lieutenant General of the province, a position he held until 1627/8; that year the Real Audiencia of Santo Domingo recognised the law degree he had obtained in Barcelona, he began acting as a legal representative of the Audiencia in Caracas. In 1631 he moved to Santo Domingo, where the difficulty of communication between the Venezuela Province and the New Andalusia Province was a matter of some concern, he agreed to launch an expedition to secure the territory between the Unare River and the Neverí River, inhabited by the Cumanagotos, was granted the royal privilege to do so, despite opposition from others. His expedition began in 1632 but had to be called off when the privilege was revoked, he had to plead a case to the Audiencia and to the Council of the Indies to regain it, which he was able to do in 1636.
A second expedition was launched in 1637, Orpí founded New Barcelona in February 1638. New Barcelona became the capital of the Province of Nueva Cataluña he created in 1633, extending along the coast from San Felipe de Austria to Cabo Codera, down to the Orinoco River. After his death in 1645 the Province did not last long, being merged into New Andalusia Province in 1654, while New Barcelona had to be refounded in 1671. Joan Orpí, l'home de la Nova Catalunya, Pau Vila Gestas de Juan Orpín en la fundación de Barcelona y defensa de Oriente, Pau Vila
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Guayana Province was a former province of Spanish Colonial Venezuela and independent Venezuela, in northern South America. The province was part of the Spanish colonial New Andalusia Province and Captaincy General of Venezuela from 1585 to 1821, of independent Venezuela from 1821 to 1864. Guayana Province covered a territory equal to the present day country of Guyana and the Venezuelan Guayana Region from 1591 to 1739, when the province's territory was merged into the Spanish Trinidad-Guayana Province, along with Trinidad Province. Amazonas is named after the Amazon River, was part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, a region called Spanish Guyana, it was settled by the Portuguese in the early 18th century and incorporated into the Portuguese empire after the Treaty of Madrid in 1750. It became a state of the Brazilian Republic in 1889. Guayana Province was within the Spanish colonial New Andalusia Province from its establishment in 1585 to 1776, when it was incorporated into the new Captaincy General of Venezuela.
It was within the larger jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. After the Venezuelan War of Independence it was a province in new nation of Venezuela until 1864. Cantons of Guayana Province in 1840 History of Guyana Colonial Venezuela Governorate of New Andalusia New Andalusia Province Captaincy General of Venezuela