Sportswear or activewear is clothing, including footwear, worn for sport or physical exercise. Sport-specific clothing is worn for most sports and physical exercise, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Typical sport-specific garments include shorts, T-shirts and polo shirts. Specialized garments include wet suits, ski suits and leotards. Sports footwear include trainers, football boots, riding boots, ice skates. Sportswear includes bikini and some crop tops and undergarments, such as the jockstrap and sports bra. Sportswear is at times worn as casual fashion clothing. For most sports the athletes wear a combination of different items of clothing, e.g. sport shoes and shirts. In some sports, protective gear may need to be worn, such as helmets or American football body armour. Sports fabrics are technical materials; the type of fabric required will depend upon the intensity of the activity. Yoga clothing should use fabrics with good stretch ability for easy movement which will require the fabric to be of a knitted construction.
Apparel for long distance running will keep the wearer in good comfort if it has excellent moisture wicking properties to enable sweat to transfer from the inside to the outside for the garment. Performance clothing for outdoor sports in the winter or snow sports ought to use breathable fabrics with good insulating properties. Sportswear is designed to be lightweight so as not to encumber the wearer; the best athletic wear for some forms of exercise, for example cycling, should not create drag or be too bulky. On the other hand, sportswear should be loose enough; some sports have specific style requirements, for example the keikogi used in karate. Various physically dangerous sports require protective gear, e.g. for fencing, American football, or ice hockey. Standardized sportswear may function as a uniform. In team sports the opposing sides are identified by the colors of their clothing, while individual team members can be recognized by a back number on a shirt. In some sports, specific items of clothing are worn to differentiate roles within a team.
For example, in volleyball, the libero wears a different colour to that of their teammates. In sports such as soccer and GAA codes, a contrasting colour or pattern is worn by the goalkeeper. In other sports, clothing may indicate past achievements of a participant. In cycling disciplines, the rainbow jersey indicates the current world champion, in major road cycling races, jerseys of particular colours are worn by the race leader and leaders of auxiliary classifications. Spandex is the preferred material for form-fitting sportswear, such as used in wrestling, track & field, gymnastics, speed skating, swimming. Sportswear is used as a means for the promotion of sponsors of a sportsperson or team. In some sports, there are regulations limiting the size or design of sponsorship brand names and logos on items of clothing. Sportswear design must consider the thermal insulation needs of the wearer. In hot situations, sportswear should allow the wearer to stay cool. Sportswear should be able to transfer sweat away from the skin, for example, moisture transferring fabric.
Spandex is a popular material used as base layers to soak up sweat. For example, in activities such as skiing and mountain climbing this is achieved by using layering: moisture transferring materials are worn next to the skin, followed by an insulating layer, wind and water resistant shell garments. Moisture-wicking fabrics are a class of hi-tech fabrics that provide moisture control for an athlete's skin, they move perspiration away from the body to the fabric's outer surface. These fabrics are soft and stretchy—in other words, they are suited for making activewear. Moisture-wicking means that the fabric is absorbent and this can leave a barrier of wet fabric on your skin. Drywicking is the newest variation of moisture wicking, it is a smart two tier fabric that breaks the surface tension of sweat and propels it through the hydrophobic layer into a natural wicking outer layer like cotton where it is assisted by evaporative cooling leaving your skin dry. Besides the fact that your body can perform better, it will chemically free prevent odors because a bacteria microclimate cannot grow on dry skin.
This broad category of fabrics is used to make garments like T-shirts, sports bras and cycling jerseys, socks and polo-style shirts for any physical activity where the goal is to keep your skin as cool and dry as possible. Moisture-wicking fabrics are used to make apparel for outdoor activities such as hiking, mountain biking, snow skiing, mountain climbing. Due to the popularity of garments made from these fabrics, more variations are being introduced to the market. Golf has a long tradition of specialized attire—attire that reflects the tradition of Scottish aristocrats taking in fresh air while walking around the golf course, swinging their golf clubs, exercising in a refined, genteel sort of way. Golf attire though, is being influenced by modern fabrics and trends that stress function and durability. Golfers, like athletes in other sports, are athletes first, public figures second. Athletes in all sports are showing a preference for moisture-wicking fabrics, crisp details, modern fashionable colors.
As activewear becomes more fashionable and more popular with consumers, sales have increased. Total U. S
Boston University is a private research university in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, but has been affiliated with the United Methodist Church; the university has more than 3,900 faculty members and nearly 33,000 students, is one of Boston's largest employers. It offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, doctorates, medical, dental and law degrees through 17 schools and colleges on two urban campuses; the main campus is situated along the Charles River in Boston's Fenway-Kenmore and Allston neighborhoods, while the Boston University Medical Campus is in Boston's South End neighborhood. BU is categorized as an R1: Doctoral University in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. BU is a member of the Boston Consortium for Higher Education and the Association of American Universities; the university was ranked 42nd among undergraduate programs at national universities, 46th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2018 rankings.
Among its alumni and current or past faculty, the university counts eight Nobel Laureates, 23 Pulitzer Prize winners, 10 Rhodes Scholars, six Marshall Scholars, 48 Sloan Fellows, nine Academy Award winners, several Emmy and Tony Award winners. BU has MacArthur, Fulbright and Guggenheim Fellowship holders as well as American Academy of Arts and Sciences and National Academy of Sciences members among its past and present graduates and faculty. In 1876, BU professor Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in a BU lab; the Boston University Terriers compete in the NCAA Division I. BU athletic teams compete in the Patriot League, Hockey East conferences, their mascot is Rhett the Boston Terrier. Boston University is well known for men's hockey, in which it has won five national championships, most in 2009. Boston University traces its roots to the establishment of the Newbury Biblical Institute in Newbury, Vermont in 1839, was chartered with the name "Boston University" by the Massachusetts Legislature in 1869.
The University organized formal Centennial observances both in 1939 and 1969. On April 24–25, 1839 a group of Methodist ministers and laymen at the Old Bromfield Street Church in Boston elected to establish a Methodist theological school. Set up in Newbury, the school was named the "Newbury Biblical Institute". In 1847, the Congregational Society in Concord, New Hampshire, invited the Institute to relocate to Concord and offered a disused Congregational church building with a capacity of 1200 people. Other citizens of Concord covered the remodeling costs. One stipulation of the invitation was; the charter issued by New Hampshire designated the school the "Methodist General Biblical Institute", but it was called the "Concord Biblical Institute." With the agreed twenty years coming to a close, the trustees of the Concord Biblical Institute purchased 30 acres on Aspinwall Hill in Brookline, Massachusetts, as a possible relocation site. The institute moved in 1867 to 23 Pinkney Street in Boston, received a Massachusetts Charter as the "Boston Theological Seminary".
In 1869, three trustees of the Boston Theological Institute obtained from the Massachusetts Legislature a charter for a university by name of "Boston University". These trustees were successful Boston businessmen and Methodist laymen, with a history of involvement in educational enterprises and became the founders of Boston University, they were Isaac Rich, Lee Claflin, Jacob Sleeper, for whom Boston University's three West Campus dormitories are named. Lee Claflin's son, was Governor of Massachusetts and signed the University Charter on May 26, 1869 after it was passed by the Legislature; as reported by Kathleen Kilgore in her book, Transformations, A History of Boston University, the founders directed the inclusion in the Charter of the following provision, unusual for its time: No instructor in said University shall be required by the Trustees to profess any particular religious opinions as a test of office, no student shall be refused admission... on account of the religious opinions he may entertain.
Every department of the new university was open to all on an equal footing regardless of sex, race, or religion. The Boston Theological Institute was absorbed into Boston University in 1871 as the BU School of Theology. In January 1872 Isaac Rich died, leaving the vast bulk of his estate to a trust that would go to Boston University after ten years of growth while the University was organized. Most of this bequest consisted of real estate throughout the core of the city of Boston, appraised at more than $1.5 million. Kilgore describes this as the largest single donation to an American college or university to that time. By December, the Great Boston Fire of 1872 had destroyed all but one of the buildings Rich had left to the University, the insurance companies with which they had been insured were bankrupt; the value of his estate, when turned over to the University in 1882, was half what it had been in 1872. As a result, the University was unable to build its contemplated campus on Aspinwall Hill, the land was sold piecemeal as development sites.
Street names in the area, including Claflin Road, Claflin Path, University Road, are the only remaining evidence of University ownership in this area. Following the fire, Boston University established its new facilities in buildings scattered throughout Beacon Hill and expanded into the Boyls
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Tufts University is a private research university in Medford and Somerville, Massachusetts. A charter member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference, Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian universalists who worked for years to open a nonsectarian institution of higher learning, it was a small New England liberal arts college until its transformation into a larger research university in the 1970s. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all its disciplines, is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs. Tufts is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate degree programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in the Boston metropolitan area and the French Alps. Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Tufts' largest school is the School of Arts and Sciences, which offers undergraduate and graduate degrees and includes both the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts University, affiliated with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
The School of Engineering has an entrepreneurial focus with the Gordon Institute and maintains close connections with the original college. The university has a campus in Downtown Boston that houses the medical and nutrition schools, affiliated with several medical centers in the area; the university offers joint undergraduate degree programs with the New England Conservatory, the Sciences Po Paris with additional programs with the University of Paris, University of Oxford and constituents of the University of London. Several of its programs have affiliations with the nearby institutions of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alumni and affiliates include Nobel laureates, heads of state, senators, representatives and Academy Award winners, National Academy members. Tufts has graduated several Rhodes, Fulbright, Goldwater scholars. Other notable alumni include numerous CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high ranking U. S. diplomats, Pulitzer Prize winners.
In the 1840s, the Universalist Church wanted to open a college in New England, Charles Tufts donated 20 acres to the church in 1852 to help them achieve this goal. Charles Tufts had inherited the land, a barren hill, one of the highest points in the Boston area, called Walnut Hill, when asked by a family member what he intended to do with the land, he said "I will put a light on it", his 20-acre donation is still at the heart of Tufts' now-150 acre campus, straddling Somerville and Medford. It was in 1852 that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts chartered Tufts College, noting the college should promote "virtue and piety and learning in such of the languages and liberal and useful arts as shall be recommended". During his tenure, Ballou spent a year studying in the United Kingdom; the methods of instruction which he initiated were based on the tutorials that were conducted in the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh. Now more than 160 years old, Tufts is the third-oldest college in the Boston area.
Having been one of the biggest influences in the establishment of the College, Hosea Ballou II became the first president in 1853, College Hall, the first building on campus, was completed the following year. That building now bears Ballou's name; the campus opened in August 1854. President Ballou was succeeded by Alonzo Ames Miner. Though not a college graduate, his presidency was marked by several advances; these include the establishment of preparatory schools for Tufts which include Goddard Seminary, Westbrook Seminary, Dean Academy. During the Civil War the college supported the Union cause; the mansion of Major George L. Stearns which stood on part of the campus was a station on the Underground Railroad. In addition to having the largest classes spring up, 63 graduates served in the Union army; the first course of a three-year program leading to a degree in civil engineering was established in 1865, the same year MIT was founded. By 1869, the Crane Theological School was organized. Miner's successor, Elmer Capen was the first president to be a Tufts alumnus.
During his time, one of the earliest innovators was Amos Dolbear. In 1875, as chair of the physics department, he installed a working telephone which connected his lab in Ballou Hall to his home on Professors Row. Two years Alexander Graham Bell would receive the patent. Dolbear's work in Tufts was continued by Marconi and Tesla. Other famous scholars include William Leslie Hooper who in addition to serving as acting president, designed the first slotted armature for dynamos, his student at the college, Frederick Stark Pearson, would become one of America's pioneers of the electrical power industry. He became responsible for the development of the electric power and electric street car systems which many cities in South America and Europe used. Another notable figure is Stephen M. Babcock who developed the first practical test to determine the amount of butterfat in milk. Since its development in the college, the Babcock Test has hardly been modified. Expansion of the chemistry and biology departments were led by scholars Arthur Michael, one of the first organic chemists in the U.
S. and John Sterling Kingsley, one of the first scholars of comparative anatomy. P. T. Barnum was one of the earliest benefactors of Tufts College, the Barnum Museum of Natural History was constructed in 1884 with funds donated by him to house his collection of animal specimens and the stuffed hide of Jumbo the elephant, who would become the university'
Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the basic shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, C is denoted △ A B C. In Euclidean geometry any three points, when non-collinear, determine a unique triangle and a unique plane. In other words, there is only one plane that contains that triangle, every triangle is contained in some plane. If the entire geometry is only the Euclidean plane, there is only one plane and all triangles are contained in it; this article is about triangles in Euclidean geometry, in particular, the Euclidean plane, except where otherwise noted. Triangles can be classified according to the lengths of their sides: An equilateral triangle has all sides the same length. An equilateral triangle is a regular polygon with all angles measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length. An isosceles triangle has two angles of the same measure, namely the angles opposite to the two sides of the same length; some mathematicians define an isosceles triangle to have two equal sides, whereas others define an isosceles triangle as one with at least two equal sides.
The latter definition would make all equilateral triangles isosceles triangles. The 45–45–90 right triangle, which appears in the tetrakis square tiling, is isosceles. A scalene triangle has all its sides of different lengths. Equivalently, it has all angles of different measure. Hatch marks called tick marks, are used in diagrams of triangles and other geometric figures to identify sides of equal lengths. A side can be marked with a pattern of short line segments in the form of tally marks. In a triangle, the pattern is no more than 3 ticks. An equilateral triangle has the same pattern on all 3 sides, an isosceles triangle has the same pattern on just 2 sides, a scalene triangle has different patterns on all sides since no sides are equal. Patterns of 1, 2, or 3 concentric arcs inside the angles are used to indicate equal angles. An equilateral triangle has the same pattern on all 3 angles, an isosceles triangle has the same pattern on just 2 angles, a scalene triangle has different patterns on all angles since no angles are equal.
Triangles can be classified according to their internal angles, measured here in degrees. A right triangle has one of its interior angles measuring 90°; the side opposite to the right angle is the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the catheti of the triangle. Right triangles obey the Pythagorean theorem: the sum of the squares of the lengths of the two legs is equal to the square of the length of the hypotenuse: a2 + b2 = c2, where a and b are the lengths of the legs and c is the length of the hypotenuse. Special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. One of the two most famous is the 3–4–5 right triangle, where 32 + 42 = 52. In this situation, 3, 4, 5 are a Pythagorean triple; the other one is an isosceles triangle. Triangles that do not have an angle measuring 90° are called oblique triangles. A triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle.
If c is the length of the longest side a2 + b2 > c2, where a and b are the lengths of the other sides. A triangle with one interior angle measuring more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side a2 + b2 < c2, where a and b are the lengths of the other sides. A triangle with an interior angle of 180° is degenerate. A right degenerate triangle has collinear vertices. A triangle that has two angles with the same measure has two sides with the same length, therefore it is an isosceles triangle, it follows that in a triangle where all angles have the same measure, all three sides have the same length, such a triangle is therefore equilateral. Triangles are assumed to be two-dimensional plane figures. In rigorous treatments, a triangle is therefore called a 2-simplex. Elementary facts about triangles were presented by Euclid in books 1–4 of his Elements, around 300 BC; the sum of the measures of the interior angles of a triangle in Euclidean space is always 180 degrees.
This fact is equivalent to Euclid's parallel postulate. This allows determination of the measure of the third angle of any triangle given the measure of two angles. An exterior angle of a triangle is an angle, a linear pair to an interior angle; the measure of an exterior angle of a triangle is equal to the sum of the measures of the two interior angles that are not adjacent to it. The sum of the measures of the three exterior angles of any triangle is 360 degrees. Two triangles are said to be similar if every angle of one triangle has the same measure as the corresponding angle in the other triangle; the corresponding sides of similar triangles have lengths that are in the same proportion, this property is sufficient to establish similarity. Some basic theorems about similar triangles are: If and only if one pair of internal angles of two triangles have the sam
Melbourne Football Club
The Melbourne Football Club, nicknamed the Demons, is a professional Australian rules football club, playing in the Australian Football League. It is named after and based in the city of Melbourne and plays its home games at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Melbourne is the world's oldest professional club of any football code; the club's origins can be traced to an 1858 letter in which Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with its own "code of laws". An informal Melbourne team played that winter and was formed in May 1859 when Wills and three other members codified "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club"—the basis of Australian rules football; the club was a dominant force in the earliest Australian rules football competition, the Challenge Cup, was a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association in 1877 and the Victorian Football League in 1896, which became the national Australian Football League. Melbourne has won 12 VFL/AFL premierships, the latest in 1964.
The club celebrated its 150th anniversary in 2008 by naming "150 Heroes" as well as creating a birthday logo which appeared on its official guernsey. The football club has been a sporting section of the Melbourne Cricket Club since 2009, having been associated with the MCC between 1889 and 1980. In the winter and spring of 1858, a loosely organised football team known as Melbourne played in a series of scratch matches in the parklands outside the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this team was captained by Tom Wills, a prominent athlete and captain of the Victoria cricket team, who, on 10 July that year, had a letter of his published by the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle, in which he calls for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. Other figures associated with this embryonic Melbourne side include cricketers Jerry Bryant, William Hammersley and J. B. Thompson, teacher Thomas H. Smith. During meetings held on 17 and 21 May 1859, Hammersley and Smith met near the MCG at the Parade Hotel, owned by Bryant, to draft "The Rules of the Melbourne Football Club".
The resulting ten codified rules are the laws. The first mention of an interclub match played under the new code was between Melbourne and South Yarra in July 1859, with Hammersley as Melbourne's inaugural captain. In 1861, Melbourne participated in the Caledonian Society's Challenge Cup, but lost the trophy to the Melbourne University Football Club; the club pushed for its rules to be the accepted rules, however many of the early suburban matches were played under compromised rules decided between the captains of the competing clubs. Although some Melbourne players and officials were associated with the cricket club, the football club was not allowed to use the MCG, so it used a nearby field at Yarra Park as its home ground instead. By 1866 several other clubs had adopted an updated version of Melbourne's rules, drafted at a meeting chaired by Wills' cousin, H. C. A. Harrison. Harrison was a key figure in the early years of the club. Due to his popular reputation and administrative efforts, he was named "Father of Australian Football" in 1908, the year of the sport's golden jubilee.
During the 1870s, Melbourne fielded teams in the Seven South Yarra Cup competitions. After a visit to England by one of the club's officials, the colours of red and green were adopted by the club. Shortly afterward, the club began wearing a predominantly red strip and became informally known by supporters as the "Redlegs"; the name "Redlegs" was coined after a Melbourne official returned from a trip to England with one set of red and another of blue woollen socks. Melbourne wore the red set while the blue set was given to the Carlton Football Club; this may be the source of Carlton's nickname,'The Blueboys'. In 1877, the club became a foundation member of the Victorian Football Association. During the same year the club took part in the first interstate football match involving a South Australian side, defeating the home side 1-0. During this time, the club was known as the "Fuchsias". Melbourne never won a VFA premiership, although they were one of the stronger teams in the competition, finishing runner-up four times, to Carlton in 1877, to Geelong in 1878 and twice to Essendon in 1893 and 1894.
In 1889, the MFC was reincorporated into the MCC, for many years the two organisations remained unhappily linked. The MFC's close association with the MCC allowed it to claim the MCG as its home ground and gave it access to a wealthy membership base, but Melbourne's reputation as an "establishment" club was not always an advantage. MCC members have the automatic right to attend all events at the ground, including MFC football games; this meant many potential members had a reduced incentive to join the football club, Melbourne's membership remained one of the lowest in the competition. In 1897, the MFC was part of the breakaway Victorian Football League, has been a part of the competition since; the team became known as the "Redlegs". This nickname is still used by some members and supporter groups within the club. In 1900 Melbourne won its first VFL premiership. Melbourne's greatest player of these early years of the VFL was Ivor Warne-Smith, who in 1926 won the club's first Brownlow Medal, the League's annual award for the fairest and best player.
In that year Melbourne won its second flag. Warne-Smith went on to win a second Brownlow in 1928. Frank'Checker' Hughes became Melbourne's coach in 1933, a