The Slovaks are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Slovakia who share a common ancestry, culture and speak the Slovak language. In Slovakia, c. 4.4 million are ethnic Slovaks of 5.4 million total population. There are Slovak minorities in Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary and sizeable populations of immigrants and their descendants in the United States and the United Kingdom, collectively referred to as the Slovak diaspora; the name Slovak is derived from *Slověninъ, plural *Slověně, the old name of the Slavs. The original stem has been preserved in all Slovak words except the masculine noun; the first written mention of adjective slovenský is in 1294. The original name of Slovaks Slovenin/Slovene was still recorded in Pressburg Latin-Czech Dictionary, but it changed to Slovák under the influence of Czech and Polish language; the first written mention of new form in the territory of present-day Slovakia is from Bardejov. The mentions in Czech sources are older; the change is not related to the ethnogenesis of Slovaks, but to linguistic changes in the West Slavic languages.
The word Slovak was used later as a common name for all Slavs in Czech and Slovak language together with other forms. In Hungarian "Slovak" is Tót, an exonym, it was used to refer to all Slavs including Slovenes and Croats, but came to refer to Slovaks. Many place names in Hungary such as Tótszentgyörgy, Tótszentmárton, Tótkomlós still bear the name. Tóth is a common Hungarian surname; the Slovaks have historically been variously referred to as Slovyenyn, Sclavus, Slavus, Winde, Wende, or Wenden. The final three terms are variations of the Germanic term Wends, used to refer to any Slavs living close to Germanic settlements; the early Slavs came to the territory of Slovakia in several waves from the 5th and 6th centuries and were organized on a tribal level. Original tribal names are not known due to the lack of written sources before their integration into higher political units. Weakening of tribal consciousness was accelerated by Avars, who did not respect tribal differences in the controlled territory and motivated remaining Slavs to join together and to collaborate on their defense.
In the 7th century, Slavs founded larger tribal union: Samo's empire. Regardless of Samo's empire, the integration process continued in other territories with various intensities; the final fall of the Avar Khaganate allowed new political entities to arise. The first such political unit documented by written sources is the Principality of Nitra, one of the foundations of common ethnic consciousness. At this stage in history it is not yet possible to assume a common identity of all Slovak ancestors in the territory of eastern Slovakia if it was inhabited by related Slavs; the Principality of Nitra become a part of a common state of Moravians and Slovaks. The short existence of Great Moravia prevented it from suppressing differences which resulted from its creation from two separate entities, therefore a common "Slovak-Moravian" ethnic identity failed to develop; the early political integration in the territory of present-day Slovakia was however reflected in linguistic integration. While dialects of early Slovak ancestors were divided into West Slavic and non-West Slavic, between the 8th and 9th centuries both dialects merged, thus laying the foundations of a Slovak language.
The 10th century is a milestone in the Slovak ethnogenesis. The fall of Great Moravia and further political changes supported their formation into a separate nation. At the same time, with the extinction of the Proto-Slavic language, between the 10th and 13th centuries Slovak evolved into an independent language; the early existence of the Kingdom of Hungary positively influenced the development of common consciousness and companionship among Slavs in the Northern Hungary, not only within boundaries of present-day Slovakia. The clear difference between Slovaks and Hungarians made adoption of specific name unnecessary and Slovaks preserved their original name, used in communication with other Slavic peoples. In political terms, the medieval Slovaks were a part of the multi-ethnic political nation Natio Hungarica, together with Hungarians, Germans and other ethnic groups in the Kingdom of Hungary. Since a medieval political nation did not consist of ordinary people but nobility, membership of the privileged class was necessary for all these peoples.
Like other nations, the Slovaks began to transform into a modern nation from the 18th century under the idea of national romanticism. The modern Slovak nation is the result of radical processes of modernization within the Habsburg Empire which culminated in the middle of the 19th century; the transformation process was slowed down by conflict with Hungarian nationalism and the ethnogenesis of the Slovaks become a political question regarding their deprivation and preservation of their language and national rights. In 1722, Mich
Prince George, Virginia
Prince George is a census-designated place in and the county seat of Prince George County, United States. The population as of the 2010 Census was 2,066, it is in the metro area of Virginia. The elevation is at 131 feet. Goya Foods has its Virginia offices just south of the CDP. Prince George County Public Schools operates public schools. Prince George High School is in the CDP. Appomattox Regional Library is the public library system in the area
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Jordan Point, Virginia
Jordan Point is a small unincorporated community on the south bank of the James River in the northern portion of Prince George County, United States. English settlers began arriving at Jamestown in 1607, the property at Jordan's Point was first known as "Beggars Bush in 1619. Settled by Samuel Jordan in 1619, This point of land on the James River fell within the corporation known as Charles Cittie, which he represented in the Assembly of 1619; this land survived the Indian massacre of 1622 and was identified in the Jamestown Muster as “Jordan Jorney,Charles Cittie” The settlement was first known as Beggars Bush, In 1622 Samuel Jordan received 100 acres fom the Virginia Company in Diggs Hundred), 450 acres in all. The name, Beggars Bush, is common in England, with over 120 known instances; the Elizabethan era recessions, forced people to take to the road to find employment, it became common place for the unemployed to seek shelter under bushes and step out to beg from travelers. One can only imagine why a settlement on the James was given the name Beggars Bush, other than being conceived of as a temporary shelterIt was located in Charles Cittie, a "burrough" or "incorporation" of the Virginia Company of London, the early proprietor of the Virginia Colony.
The first recorded owner was Samuel Jordan, who with his wife, her two daughters, their adult male servants, took up residence around 1620, it was subsequently patented as "Jordan's Jorney" Samuel Jordan died in 1623, his widow married William Farrar, who arrived at Jordan's Journey seeking refuge from the Indian Massacre of 1622. Jordan's Journey appears to have been abandoned by 1635. Virginia became a royal colony in 1624. Ten years in 1634, the area of Jordan's Point became part of Charles City Shire Charles City County; the area of Charles City County south of the James River became Prince George County in 1703. In 1656, the land at Jordan's Point was acquired by Theodorick Bland. In 1671, his son Richard Bland of Berkeley Plantation inherited it, established a home known as Jordan's Point Plantation there at some time before his death in 1720. Bland family cemetery is still located at Jordan Point. ”Excavations were conducted between 1990-1992 by Virginia Commonwealth University. These revealed Beggars Bush consisted of a palisade 260ft x110ft with what appeared to be gatehouse, enclosing a variety of structures.
These including four longhouses, seven outbuildings. These may have been occupied consecutively; the largest longhouse was 55ft x 16ft with a basic hall-parlour plan, an upper room. There were two other single storey dwellings. Today it is a marina, The Jordan's Point Yacht Haven, just north of the south footing of the Benjamin Harrison Bridge on the James River, on what was called Jordan's point. Jordan Point was long the southern terminus of a ferry system across the James River connecting Prince George County with Charles City County on the north shore. In 1966, the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge lift span bridge replaced the ferry system. In 1977 the tanker ship S. S. Marine Floridian steaming downstream in the early morning hours collided with the Benjamin Harrison Bridge, when its steering gear malfunctioned; the collision destroyed two spans and damaged the drawbrige. As a result, the bridge was out of service for 20 months and ferry service was temporarily reinstated; the Jordan Point Light Station was established on Jordan Point in 1855 to help guide ships up the James River.
A small airport known as the Hopewell Airport was located near Jordan Point Marina for many years. A riverfront residential development, "Jordan On The James" now occupies the former airport site, it is the location of golf course. Jordan Point Marina was devastated by the storm surge from Hurricane Isabel in 2003 and over 100 boats and yachts were damaged or destroyed; the marina has since been rebuilt. In modern times, Jordan Point Road carries State Routes 106 and 156 between State Route 10 and the Benjamin Harrison Memorial Bridge. Prince George County, Virginia official website Richard Bland Cemetery, Jordan's Point on James River, Prince George County, VA
A truck stop, known as a service station in the United Kingdom, a travel center by major chains in the United States, is a commercial facility which provides refuelling and ready-made food and other services to motorists and truck drivers. Truck stops are located on or near a busy road. Smaller truck stops might consist of only a parking area, a fueling station, a diner restaurant. Larger truck stops might have convenience stores of various sizes, showers, a small video arcade, a TV/movie theater; the largest truck stops, like Iowa 80, might have several independent businesses operating under one roof, catering to a wide range of travelers' needs, might have several major and minor fast-food chains operating a small food court. Larger truck stops tend to have full-service maintenance facilities for heavy trucks, as well as vehicle wash services that can handle anything from passenger vehicles to large trucks; some truck stops have them adjacent. Most truck stops now offer separate fueling areas with dedicated entrances, for standard-sized passenger vehicles.
The truck refueling area always offers dual pumps, one on each side, so large trucks can fill both tanks at once. The fuel islands at many truck stops can get crowded. Most trucking companies have accounts with one or two truck stop chains and, after negotiating a specific price for diesel, require their drivers to fuel at supported locations. Truck stops near a large city, or on the east or west coasts, suffer from the most congestion at their fuel islands; the retail stores in large truck stops offer a large selection of 12-volt DC products, such as coffee makers, combo television units, toaster ovens, frying pans targeted towards truck drivers, who spend extended periods of time on the road. Such shops offer a wide selection of maps, road atlases, truck stop and freeway exit guides, truck accessories, plus entertainment media such as movies, video games and audiobooks; as interstate truck drivers have become a large market for satellite radio, these retail stores sell various satellite radio receivers for both XM and Sirius as well as subscriptions to those services.
Kiosks run by cellular phone providers are common. Most long-haul tractors have sleeping berths, many truck drivers keep their diesel engines running for heating or cooling for the sake of comfort; because idling diesel engines make considerable noise they are banned from such use near residential areas. Truck stops are the main places. Modern innovations, such as truck heaters and auxiliary power units, are becoming more common, some truck stops now provide power, air conditioning, communications through systems such as IdleAir. Many truck stops used to have load board monitors for truck drivers to find real time information on loads, jobs and news. However, DAT Solutions, the largest provider of load boards, removed its monitors from thousands of truck stops and moved all its services online and to its load board mobile apps. Most chain truck stops have WLAN Internet access in their parking areas. Idle reduction — reducing the amount of fuel consumed by truck fleets during idling — is an ongoing economical and environmental effort.
The truck stop originated in the United States in the 1940s as a reliable source of diesel fuel not available at filling stations. This, coupled with the growth of the Interstate Highway System, led to the creation of the professional haulage and truck stop industries, they consist of, at the least, a diesel grade fueling station with bays wide and tall enough for modern tractor/trailer rigs, plus a large enough parking area to accommodate from five to over a hundred trucks and other heavy vehicles. Truck stops should not be confused with rest areas or motorway service areas which cater to cars and are run by or leased from a government or tollway corporation. In the United States in the late 1990s, Truckstops of America changed its name to TravelCenters of America to reflect this marketing strategy. There is no exact distinction between "truck stop" and the newer term "travel center", but some differences are size, proximity to interstate highways and major roads, the number of services, accessibility to automotive and RV travelers, a certain extra emphasis on facility appearance.
Many truck stops chains such as Flying J and T/A serve the recreational vehicle market. All the national chains have established customer loyalty programs to promote repeated patronage. In Louisiana, truck stops that meet certain criteria are allowed to have on-site casinos that can operate up to fifty video draw poker gaming devices; these truck stops are regulated by the Louisiana Gaming Enforcement Division and must maintain certain amenities to be eligible to keep the lucrative gaming devices operating. Some of the amenities required are: having a certain number of acres of land, having a certain number of 18-wheeler parking spaces, having an on-site restaurant, having trucker's supplies, telephones, television lounge, laundry services, fuel. Truck stops were depicted in films and novels as being somewhat seedy places, frequented by aggressive bikers, petty criminals, prostitutes; this may be an outdated stereotype, as most modern truck stops are clean and safe, becoming a
Prince George County, Virginia
Prince George County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,725, its county seat is Prince George. Prince George County is located within the Greater Richmond Region of the U. S. state of Virginia. Prince George County was formed in 1703 in the Virginia Colony from the portion of Charles City County, south of the James River, it was named in honor of husband of Anne, Queen of Great Britain. In 1619, "Charles Cittie" was one of four "boroughs" or "incorporations" created by the Virginia Company; the first Charles City County courthouses were located along the James River at Westover Plantation on the north side and City Point on the south side. The Virginia Company lost its charter in 1624, Virginia became a royal colony. Charles City Shire was formed in 1634 in the Virginia Colony by order of King of England, it was named as Charles City County in 1643. Charles Cittie, Charles City Shire, Charles City County all extended to both sides of the James River, the major transportation thoroughfare of the Virginia Colony throughout the 17th century.
The original central city of Charles City County was Charles City Point, in an area south of the James River at the confluence of the Appomattox River. The name was shortened to City Point. In 1703, all of the original area of Charles City County south of the James River was severed to form Prince George County; as population increased, portions were organized as several additional counties. City Point became an incorporated town in Prince George County. Annexed by the independent city of Hopewell in 1923, City Point is no longer in the county. Nearby the current bridges, this water-only section of the county at the Appomattox River was the site of a fatal bus accident at an open drawbridge on December 22, 1935. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 282 square miles, of which 265 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water; the northwestern corner of the county near the cities of Hopewell and Petersburg, the location of Fort Lee is exurban, but the rest of the county is rural with most land devoted to agriculture and timber production.
Petersburg, Virginia – independent city, northwest Chesterfield County, Virginia – northwest Hopewell, Virginia – independent city, northwest Charles City County, Virginia – north Surry County, Virginia – east Sussex County, Virginia – south Dinwiddie County, Virginia – west Colonial Heights, Virginia – east James River National Wildlife Refuge Petersburg National Battlefield Park According to the County's 2009 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the county are: Goya Foods has its Virginia offices south of the Prince George CDP. In modern times, there are no centralized towns in the county. Prince George Court House, which uses the postal address Prince George, Virginia, is the focal point of government; the County Administrator answers to the elected Board of Supervisors, who are elected from single-member districts. Prince George County is served by the Prince George County Police Department and the Prince George County Sheriff's Office; the police department's responsibility is the enforcement of the laws of the Commonwealth and local ordinances.
The primary responsibility of the Sheriff's Office is the security of the courts and service of court papers. The Sheriff's Office assists the police department in the enforcement of the laws of the Commonwealth as a secondary responsibility. Riverside Regional Jail is located west of south of the Appomattox River in the county, it serves seven member localities. It is overseen by the Riverside Regional Jail Authority Board. In addition, the Federal Correctional Institution, Petersburg is located west of the regional jail, closer to the Appomattox River as it curves south; this complex for male inmates, located west of the independent city of Hopewell, consists of both a low-security facility, with 1,111 inmates. All are managed by the Bureau of Prisons. There are no incorporated towns within Prince George County. Unincorporated towns or communities in the county include: Fort Lee Prince George Interstate Highways 95 and 295 pass through the county, as does north-south U. S. Route 301 and east-west U.
S. Route 460. State Route 10 runs along the northern shore of the James River near several of the James River plantations located in the county. State Route 106 runs through the county seat. Freight railroad service for the county is provided by CSX Transportation, which interchanges with Norfolk Southern at Petersburg; the famous 52-mile long tangent rail line between Petersburg and Suffolk of the former Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad was built by William Mahone in the 1850s, now forms a vital link of the Norfolk Southern system. A Norfolk Southern Railway automobile transloading facility is located nearby. There are future plans underway for a large Intermodal freight transport railroad-trucking transfer facility in Prince George County as well. I-95, the major north-south highway on the Eastern Seaboard, enters Prince George County from Sussex County. Access to the county is available at Exits 37, 41, 45, 46 before the road enters the City of Petersburg. I-295 is the north-south bypass around Richmond, further north.
Besides its southern terminus at Exit 46 on I-95, access to the county is available at Exits 3A and 3B before the road enters the City of Hopewell. US 301, the principal south-north route Sussex County until it was supplanted by I-
Poland the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 administrative subdivisions, covering an area of 312,696 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With a population of 38.5 million people, Poland is the sixth most populous member state of the European Union. Poland's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Łódź, Wrocław, Poznań, Gdańsk, Szczecin. Poland is bordered by the Baltic Sea, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast and Lithuania to the north and Ukraine to the east and Czech Republic, to the south, Germany to the west; the establishment of the Polish state can be traced back to AD 966, when Mieszko I, ruler of the realm coextensive with the territory of present-day Poland, converted to Christianity. The Kingdom of Poland was founded in 1025, in 1569 it cemented its longstanding political association with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by signing the Union of Lublin; this union formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th and 17th century Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first written national constitution, the Constitution of 3 May 1791.
More than a century after the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Poland regained its independence in 1918 with the Treaty of Versailles. In September 1939, World War II started with the invasion of Poland by Germany, followed by the Soviet Union invading Poland in accordance with the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. More than six million Polish citizens, including 90% of the country's Jews, perished in the war. In 1947, the Polish People's Republic was established as a satellite state under Soviet influence. In the aftermath of the Revolutions of 1989, most notably through the emergence of the Solidarity movement, Poland reestablished itself as a presidential democratic republic. Poland is regional power, it has the fifth largest economy by GDP in the European Union and one of the most dynamic economies in the world achieving a high rank on the Human Development Index. Additionally, the Polish Stock Exchange in Warsaw is the largest and most important in Central Europe. Poland is a developed country, which maintains a high-income economy along with high standards of living, life quality, safety and economic freedom.
Having a developed school educational system, the country provides free university education, state-funded social security, a universal health care system for all citizens. Poland has 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Poland is a member state of the European Union, the Schengen Area, the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Three Seas Initiative, the Visegrád Group; the origin of the name "Poland" derives from the West Slavic tribe of Polans that inhabited the Warta river basin of the historic Greater Poland region starting in the 6th century. The origin of the name "Polanie" itself derives from the early Slavic word "pole". In some languages, such as Hungarian, Lithuanian and Turkish, the exonym for Poland is Lechites, which derives from the name of a semi-legendary ruler of Polans, Lech I. Early Bronze Age in Poland begun around 2400 BC, while the Iron Age commenced in 750 BC. During this time, the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement, dating from the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age, around 700 BC.
Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about 400 BC to 500 AD. These groups are identified as Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. Recent archeological findings in the Kujawy region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland; these were most expeditionary missions sent out to protect the amber trade. The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented; the Slavic tribes who would form Poland migrated to these areas in the second half of the 5th century AD. Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in 966 AD, the main religion of Slavic tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was Slavic paganism. With the Baptism of Poland the Polish rulers accepted Christianity and the religious authority of the Roman Church.
However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the 1030s. Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first documented ruler, Mieszko I, accepted Christianity with the Baptism of Poland in 966, as the new official religion of his subjects; the bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries. In 1000, Boleslaw the Brave, continuing the policy of his father Mieszko, held a Congress of Gniezno and created the metropolis of Gniezno and the dioceses of Kraków, Kołobrzeg, Wrocław. However, the pagan unrest led to the transfer of the capital to Kraków in 1038 by Casimir I the Restorer. In 1109, Prince Bolesław III Wrymouth defeated the King of Germany Henry V at the Battle of Hundsfeld, stopping the Ge