The shilling is a unit of currency used in Austria, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. The shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, it is the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce. The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning'to separate, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent. Slang terms for the old shilling coins include "bob" and "hog". While the derivation of "bob" is uncertain, John Camden Hotten in his 1864 Slang Dictionary says the original version was "bobstick" and speculates that it may be connected with Sir Robert Walpole. One abbreviation for shilling is s, it was represented by a solidus symbol, which may have stood for a long s or ſ, thus 1/9 would be one shilling and ninepence.
A price with no pence was sometimes written with a solidus and a dash: 11/–. The solidus symbol is still used for the Kenyan shilling, rather than sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound of standard silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations; this set the weight of the shilling, its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 until 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced. In the past, the English world has had various myths about the shilling. One myth was that it was deemed to be the value of a cow in a sheep elsewhere. A shilling was a coin used in England from the reign of Henry VII; the shilling continued in use after the Acts of Union of 1707 created a new United Kingdom from the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under Article 16 of the Articles of Union, a common currency for the new United Kingdom was created. The term shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times.
The common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. In the traditional pounds and pence system, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, thus there were 240 pence in a pound. Three coins denominated in multiple shillings were in circulation at this time, they were: two shillings, which adopted the value of 10 new pence at decimalisation. At decimalisation in 1971, the shilling coin was superseded by the new five-pence piece, of identical size and weight and had the same value, inherited the shilling's slang name of a bob. Shillings remained in circulation until the five pence coin was reduced in size in 1991. Between 1701 and the unification of the currencies in 1825, the Irish shilling was valued at 13 pence and known as the "black hog", as opposed to the 12-pence English shillings which were known as "white hogs". In the Irish Free State and Republic of Ireland the shilling coin was issued as scilling in Irish.
It was worth 1/20th of an Irish pound, was interchangeable at the same value to the British coin, which continued to be used in Northern Ireland. The coin featured a bull on the reverse side; the first minting, from 1928 until 1941, contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The original Irish shilling coin ) was withdrawn from circulation on 1 January 1993, when a smaller five pence coin was introduced. Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face; the coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new ram's head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963. In 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin, where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar; the slang term for a shilling coin in Australia was "deener".
The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was "bob", the same as in the United Kingdom. After 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight. New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933 and featured the image of a Maori warrior carrying a taiaha "in a warlike attitude" on the reverse. In 1967, New Zealand's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight. Ten cent coins minted through the remainder of the 1960s included the legend "ONE SHILLING" on the reverse. Smaller 10-cent coins were introduced in 2006. Shillings were used in Malta, prior to decimalisation in 1972, had a face value of five Maltese cents. In British Ceylon, an shilling was equivalent to eight fanams. With the replacement of the rixdollar by the rupee in 1852, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to half a rupee. On the decimalisation of the currency
Royal Canadian Mint Olympic coins
Since the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, the Royal Canadian Mint has struck Summer and Winter Olympic coins to mark Games held in Canada. Most numismatists agree that the first true numismatic collection was the Olympic Five and Ten Dollar coins for the 1976 Montreal Olympics. Starting in February 1973, the Royal Canadian Mint engaged in a ambitious program. At the behest of the federal government, led by then-Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau, it was agreed that these coins would help finance and commemorate the 1976 Summer Olympics; the plan was to have thirty coins, twenty-eight silver coins with face values of $5 and $10, two gold coins. This would signify the first time that the RCM issued coins with face values of $5 and $10; these coins would be categorized into seven series with each series configured into four coin sets. The seven series were constituted as follows: Geographic Olympic Motifs Early Canadian Sports Olympic Track and Field Sports Olympic Water Sports Olympic Team and Body Contact Sports Olympic SouvenirsThe $10 denomination coins have a gross weight of 48.600 grams while the $5 denomination coins have a gross weight of 24.300 grams.
Each coin is 92.5% silver for a net silver weight of 44.955 grams and 22.478 grams of silver respectively. A key highlight of these coins were the unique finishes. All 28 coins were styled in a similar fashion; the top aspect of the coin had the Olympic logo, its denomination, the wording in the same spot. The finishes consisted of two different styles; the first finish was a frosted effect which adorned the coin. The second finish was a proof finish, which consisted of frosted lettering and a design set off against a brilliant mirror field; the RCM had to obtain special equipment to achieve the desired finish. Series 1 Series 2 Series 3 Series 4 Series 5 Series 6 Series 7 100 Dollar Gold Heading into the 1980s, the Olympics would return to Canada; the city of Calgary would host the 1988 Winter Olympics. Starting in 1985, the Federal Government, under the leadership of then-Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, issued a ten coin set to help finance and commemorate the Olympic games. In similar style to the Montreal Olympics, the RCM would introduce coins with a face value that had never been used before.
Said coins would feature a $20 face value. These coins were issued in Proof quality only, were sold with the partnership of the Royal Bank of Canada. Unlike the Montreal coins, mintage was limited to 5,000,000 coins and this would mark the first time that any silver coin had edge lettering on it. Said lettering was'XV OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES - JEUX D'OLYMPIQUES D'HIVER.' There are existing varieties. The 10 coins were available in a green felt case with an Olympic logo on the outside and a Royal Canadian Mint medallion on the inside; the cost was $370. The medallion could be removed and the gold coin, offered separately, could be placed into its place; the numbered and signed Certificate of Authenticity was included in the cases internal cover recess. The entire case was fit into a white cardboard sleeve with the Olympic logo on the outside. One Hundred Dollar Gold The International Olympic Committee decided to commemorate the Centennial of the Olympic Games by issuing a coin set; this was a collaborative effort with five Mints contributing coins.
The first three coins were issued by the RCM in 1992. The other Mints included Austria, Australia and Greece. Two of the coins were silver with a face value of $15 while the third coin was gold and had a face value of $175; the $15 coins were sold individually or in a set. The individual coins were packaged in a burgundy leatherette case while the set was featured in a wooden display case. Both $15 coins featured lettering on its edge: CITIUS, ALTIUS, FORTIUS; the $175 coin featured a Certificate of Authenticity signed by Juan Antonio Samaranch. The lettering on its edge was the same as the lettering found on the silver coins. There are a few rare examples of these coins with a plain edge; these plain edge coins were once held by the investment firm responsible for the $50 million dollar Ohio Coingate Scandal. For the first time, the 2010 Olympic Lucky Loonie does not have a loon on it, instead has the 2010 Vancouver winter Olympic symbol ilanaaq, an inukshuk. First Strikes The Vancouver 2010 Olympic Circulation Coin Program consists of 17 coins: 15 quarters and 2 Loonies.
The D. G. Regina inscription will be removed from the Queen's effigy, making the 25-cent coins one of the few "godless circulating coins", a rare event in Canadian coinage; the first circulating $1 coin will be dated 2008 but the obverse will be the standard effigy of Queen Elizabeth II by Susanna Blunt with the wording "ELIZABETH II" and "D. G. REGINA" with the Circle M privy mark. 2007 Five different Olympic commemoratives were minted for circulation. All of these coins were made available at service stations, encapsulated on a credit card-sized card. Many pressings of the Alpine Skiing coin released to service stations and to special 2010 Winter Olympic "coin boards" in October 2007 were the victim of a pressing error called a mule, with a 2008 obverse accidentally minted rather than the expected 2007. According to the Royal Canadian Mint, "sports cards" and 10,000 "coin board" sets were released with the error before it was caught.. A similar mule occurred with the Wheelchair Curling issue, with an obverse featuring the standard Vancouver 2010 logo being used instead of the Paralympic logo.
Both coins subsequently found demand in the collectors market. 20
The solidus, nomisma, or bezant was a pure gold coin issued in the Late Roman Empire. Under Constantine, who introduced it on a wide scale, it had a weight of about 4.5 grams. It was replaced in Western Europe by Pepin the Short's currency reform, which introduced the silver-based pound/shilling/penny system, under which the shilling functioned as a unit of account equivalent to 12 pence developing into the French sou. In Eastern Europe, the nomisma was debased by the Byzantine emperors until it was abolished by Alexius I in 1092, who replaced it with the hyperpyron, which came to be known as a "bezant"; the Byzantine solidus inspired the slightly less pure Arab dinar. In late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, the solidus functioned as a unit of weight equal to 1/72 of a pound; the solidus was introduced by Diocletian in AD 301 as a replacement of the aureus, composed of solid gold and minted 60 to the Roman pound. His minting was on a small scale and the coin only entered widespread circulation under Constantine I after AD 312, when it permanently replaced the aureus.
Constantine's solidus was struck at a rate of 72 to a Roman pound of pure gold. By this time, the solidus was worth 275,000 debased denarii. With the exception of the early issues of Constantine the Great and the odd usurpers the solidus today is a much more affordable gold Roman coin to collect compared to the older aureus; those of Valens Honorius and Byzantine issues. The solidus was maintained unaltered in weight and purity until the 10th century. During the 6th and 7th centuries "lightweight" solidi of 20, 22 or 23 siliquae were struck along with the standard weight issues for trade purposes or to pay tribute. Many of these lightweight coins have been found in Europe and Georgia; the lightweight solidi were distinguished by different markings on the coin in the exergue for the 20 and 22 siliquae coins and by stars in the field for the 23 siliquae coins. In theory the solidus was struck from pure gold, but because of the limits of refining techniques, in practice the coins were about 23k fine.
In the Greek-speaking world during the Roman period, in the Byzantine economy, the solidus was known as the νόμισμα nomisma. In the 10th century Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas introduced a new lightweight gold coin called the tetarteron nomisma that circulated alongside the solidus, from that time the solidus became known as the ἱστάμενον νόμισμα histamenon nomisma in the Greek speaking world, it was difficult to distinguish the two coins, as they had the same design and purity, there were no marks of value to distinguish the denominations. The only difference was the weight; the tetarteron nomisma was a lighter coin, about 4.05 grams, but the histamenon nomisma maintained the traditional weight of 4.5 grams. To eliminate confusion between the two, from the reign of Basil II the solidus was struck as a thinner coin with a larger diameter, but with the same weight and purity as before. From the middle of the 11th century the larger diameter histamenon nomisma was struck on a concave flan, though the smaller tetarteron nomisma continued to be struck on a smaller flat flan.
Former money changer Michael IV the Paphlagonian assumed the throne of Byzantium in 1034 and began the slow process of debasing both the tetarteron nomisma and the histamenon nomisma. The debasement was gradual at first, but accelerated rapidly: about 21 carats during the reign of Constantine IX, 18 carats under Constantine X, 16 carats under Romanus IV, 14 carats under Michael VII, 8 carats under Nicephorus III and 0 to 8 carats during the first eleven years of the reign of Alexius I. Alexius eliminated the solidus altogether. In its place he introduced; the weight and purity of the hyperpyron nomisma remained stable until the fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders in 1204. After that time the exiled Empire of Nicea continued to strike a debased hyperpyron nomisma. Michael VIII recaptured Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire continued to strike the debased hyperpyron nomisma until the joint reign of John V and John VI. After that time the hyperpyron nomisma continued as a unit of account, but it was no longer struck in gold.
From the 4th to the 11th centuries, solidi were minted at the Constantinopolitan Mint, but in Thessalonica, Rome, Ravenna, Alexandria, Carthage and other cities. During the 8th and 9th centuries the Syracuse mint produced a large number of solidi that failed to meet the specifications of the coins produced by the imperial mint in Constantinople; the Syracuse solidi were lighter and only 19k fine. Although imperial law forbade merchants from exporting solidi outside imperial territory, many solidi have been found in Russia, Central Europe and Syria. In the 7th century they became a desirable circulating currency in Arabian countries. Since the solidi circulating outside the empire were not used to pay taxes to the emperor, they did not get reminted, the soft pure-gold coins became worn. Through the end of the 7th century, Arabi
Commemorative banknotes of the Canadian dollar
Four banknotes of the Canadian dollar have been commemorative issues. The first was issued in 1935 to the silver jubilee of the accession of George V to the throne of the United Kingdom, the only $25 banknote issued by the Bank of Canada; the second commemorative banknote was the Centennial $1 banknote issued in January 1967 to commemorate the Canadian Centennial. The third was issued in September 2015 to commemorate Elizabeth II becoming the longest-reigning monarch of the United Kingdom and Canada. In 2017, the Bank of Canada released a commemorative $10 banknote for Canada's sesquicentennial, available by Canada Day; the first commemorative banknote issued by the Bank of Canada was a $25 banknote in the 1935 Series to commemorate the silver jubilee of the accession of George V to the throne of the United Kingdom. The royal purple banknote was issued on 6 May 1935, is the only $25 banknote issued by the Bank of Canada. On the obverse are the portraits of George V and Mary of Teck from an engraving by Will Ford and master engraver Edwin Gunn of the American Bank Note Company.
The scene on the reverse depicts Windsor Castle, the official residence of the UK royal family, from an engraving by Louis Delmoce of ABN. The banknote includes the signatures of Graham Towers, the governor of the Bank of Canada, J. A. C. Osborne, the deputy governor. On 3 January 1967, a $1 note commemorating the centennial of Canadian Confederation was introduced into circulation; the Bank of Canada stopped issuing the commemorative note in 1968. The frames of both the obverse and reverse were based on the original $1 banknote of the 1954 Series, modified to include the texts "Le centenaire de la confederation Canadienne" and "Centennial of Canadian Confederation", with English text at the top of the obverse and bottom of the reverse, French text at the bottom of the obverse and top of the reverse. On the left side of the obverse is a monochrome green adaptation of the stylised maple leaf used as the Canadian Centennial logo, marked with the years 1867 and 1967; the portrait is of an engraving of Elizabeth II adapted from a 1951 photograph by photographer Yousuf Karsh, but with the tiara she was wearing removed.
The reverse depicts the original Centre Block of the parliament buildings, which were destroyed by fire in 1916, derived from the same engraving used for a Dominion of Canada banknote designed and printed in the 19th century. There are two variants of the banknote printed; the first includes the serial number below the top of the frame on the obverse, whereas the more common second variant substitutes the years 1867 and 1967 for the serial numbers. The version without the serial number was "intended to appeal to note collectors". On 9 September 2015, the Bank of Canada released a banknote to commemorate Elizabeth II becoming the longest-reigning monarch of the United Kingdom and Canada; the banknote was revealed at a ceremony at Rideau Hall by David Johnston, the Governor General of Canada. It is part of the Frontier Series of polymer banknotes, is a modified version of the standard $20 banknote of that issue. On the commemorative banknote, the images on the metallic foil are a portrait of Elizabeth II adapted from a 1951 photograph by photographer Yousuf Karsh at the top, the royal cypher of Elizabeth II at the bottom.
This is the same portrait used for all 1954 Series banknotes and the centennial $1 banknote, but it retains the tiara, making this banknote the first Canadian banknote to depict Elizabeth II wearing a tiara. A commemorative 10 dollar banknote, with a circulation of 40 million, was issued for Canada's 150th anniversary on 1 June 2017, it is of the same polymer material and purple colour of the standard Frontier Series $10 banknote, but contains a unique design that includes four portraits of important historical Canadian figures. The obverse features four portraits: John A. Macdonald, George-Étienne Cartier, Agnes Macphail, James Gladstone, the'Canada 150' logo at upper right; the reverse has five landscapes: Capilano Lake. The holographic window includes the national coat of arms, a representation of the artwork "Owl's Bouquet" by Inuit artist Kenojuak Ashevak. Commemorative notes at the Bank of Canada Bank of Canada Unveils and Issues Commemorative $20 Bank Note at the Bank of Canada The 2015 Commemorative $20 Bank Note Revealed at the Bank of Canada
The loonie, formally the Canadian one-dollar coin, is a gold-coloured coin, introduced in 1987 and is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg. The most prevalent versions of the coin show a common loon, a bird found throughout Canada, on the reverse and Queen Elizabeth II, the nation's head of state, on the obverse. Various commemorative and specimen-set editions of the coin with special designs replacing the loon on the reverse have been minted over the years; the coin's outline is an 11-sided curve of constant width. Its diameter of 26.5 mm and its 11-sidedness matched that of the already-circulating Susan B. Anthony dollar in the United States, its thickness of 1.95 mm was a close match to the latter's 2.0 mm. Its gold colour differed from the silver-coloured Anthony dollar. Other coins using a curve of constant width include the 7-sided British twenty pence and fifty pence coins. After its introduction, the coin became the symbol of the Canadian dollar: media discuss the rate at which the loonie is trading against other currencies.
The nickname loonie became so recognized that in 2006, the Royal Canadian Mint secured the rights to it. When the Canadian two-dollar coin was introduced in 1996, it was in turn nicknamed the "toonie". Canada first minted a silver dollar coin in 1935 to celebrate the 25th anniversary of George V's reign as king; the voyageur dollar, so named because it featured an Indigenous person and a French voyageur paddling a canoe on the reverse, was minted in silver until 1967, after which it was composed of nickel. The coins did not see wide circulation due to their size and weight. By 1982, the Royal Canadian Mint had begun work on a new composition for the dollar coin that it hoped would lead to increased circulation. At the same time, vending machine operators and transit systems were lobbying the Government of Canada to replace the dollar banknotes with wider circulating coins. A Commons committee recommended in 1985 that the dollar bill be eliminated despite a lack of evidence that Canadians would support the move.
The government argued that it would save between $175 million and $250 million over 20 years by switching from bills that had a lifespan of less than a year to coins that would last two decades. The government announced on March 25, 1986, that the new dollar coin would be launched the following year as a replacement for the dollar bill, which would be phased out, it was expected to cost $31.8 million to produce the first 300 million coins, but through seigniorage, expected to make up to $40 million a year on the coins. From the proceeds, a total of $60 million over five years was dedicated toward funding the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary; the failure of the Susan B. Anthony dollar coin in the United States had been considered and it was believed Americans refused to support the coin due to its similarity to their quarter coin and its lack of esthetic appeal. In announcing the new Canadian dollar coin, the government stated it would be the same overall size as the Susan B. Anthony coin – larger than a quarter – to allow for compatibility with American manufactured vending machines, but would be eleven-sided and gold-coloured.
It was planned that the coin would continue using the voyageur theme of its predecessor, but the master dies, struck in Ottawa were lost in transit en route to the Mint's facility at Winnipeg. A Commons committee struck to investigate the loss discovered that the Mint had no documented procedures for transport of master dies and that it had shipped them via a local courier in a bid to save $43.50. It was found to be the third time that the Mint had lost master dies within five years. An internal review by the Royal Canadian Mint argued that while a policy existed to ship the obverse and reverse dies separately, the new coin dies were packaged separately but were part of the same shipment; the Mint disagreed with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police's contention that the dies were lost in transit, believing instead that they were stolen. The dies were never recovered. Fearing the possibility of counterfeiting, the government approved a new design for the reverse, replacing the voyageur with a Robert-Ralph Carmichael design of a common loon floating in water.
The coin was nicknamed the "loonie" across English Canada, became known as a "huard", French for "loon", in Quebec. The loonie entered circulation on June 30, 1987, as 40 million coins were introduced into major cities across the country. Over 800 million loonies had been struck by the coin's 20th anniversary. Two years after the loonie's introduction, the Bank of Canada ceased production of the dollar banknote; the final dollar bills were printed on June 30, 1989. Initial support for the coin was mixed; the loonie has subsequently gained iconic status within Canada, is now regarded as a national symbol. The term "loonie" has since become synonymous with the Canadian dollar itself; the town of Echo Bay, home of Robert-Ralph Carmichael, erected a large loonie monument in his honour in 1992 along the highway, similar to Sudbury's'Big Nickel'. Officials for the 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympics invited the National Hockey League's ice making consultant, Dan Craig, to oversee the city's E Center arena, where the ice hockey tournament was being held.
Nickel (Canadian coin)
The Canadian five-cent coin called a nickel, is a coin worth five cents or one-twentieth of a Canadian dollar. It was patterned on the corresponding coin in the neighbouring United States, it became the smallest-valued coin in the currency upon the discontinuation of the penny in 2013. Due to inflation, the purchasing power of the nickel continues to drop and the coin represents less than 0.5% of the country's lowest minimum hourly wage. The denomination had been introduced in 1858 as a small, thin sterling silver coin, colloquially known as a "fish scale," not a nickel; the larger base metal version made of nickel, called a "nickel," was introduced as a Canadian coin in 1922 as 99.9% nickel metal. These coins were magnetic, due to the high nickel content. Versions during World War II were minted in copper-zinc chrome and nickel-plated steel, returned again to nickel, at the end of the war. A plated steel version was again made 1951–54 during the Korean War. Rising nickel prices caused another switch to cupronickel in 1982, but more Canadian nickels are minted in nickel-plated steel, containing a small amount of copper.
Due to the aforementioned rise in nickel prices, since 1982, five cent pieces composed of 99.9% nickel, have been removed from circulation to be melted by the Royal Canadian Mint, only cupronickel and modern multi-ply plated steel five cent pieces are considered "Circulation Coins." As a result, pre-1982 five cent pieces are sought by collectors. From 1942 to 1963, Canadian five-cent coins were produced in a distinctive 12-sided shape, evocative of the British threepence coin; this was done to distinguish the copper-coloured tombac coins, from pennies. However, the characteristic shape was retained for another nineteen years after 1944 when this coin was produced in 99.9% nickel and chrome-plated steel. The coin is produced by the Royal Canadian Mint at its facility in Winnipeg; the first Canadian five-cent coins were struck by the Royal Mint in London as part of the introductory 1858 coinage of the Province of Canada. The coins were the same size and general composition as the corresponding American coins of the time, so the five-cent coin was based on the half dime.
Although the American denomination was introduced as a larger copper-nickel coin in 1866, the five-cent silver was retired in 1873, the Canadian five-cent coins remained small and silver until 1922. All Canadian coins were struck in England at the Royal Mint and the Birmingham Mint until 1908, when the Ottawa branch of the Royal Mint opened. With the exception of some 1968 dimes struck at the Philadelphia Mint, all Canadian coins since 1908 have been minted in Canada. Due to a rise in the price of silver, Canadian coinage was debased from sterling silver to 800 fine in 1920. In 1922, silver was removed from the five-cent coin, replacing it with a coin of the same dimensions and mass as the American nickel. However, unlike the American coin, 75% copper and 25% nickel, the Canadian coin was pure nickel, as Canada was the world's largest producer of the metal; this coin has since been known universally as the nickel. The five-cent coin of Newfoundland, on the other hand, remained silver until the end of the Newfoundland coinage in 1947.
The nickel's composition has changed several times, most notably during World War II and the Korean War when nickel was redirected to the war effort, where it was essential for armour production. In the latter part of 1942 and throughout 1943, the coins were minted in tombac, an 88% copper-12% zinc alloy that got its name from the Indonesian/Javanese word for brass or copper. In 1944 and 1945, again from mid-1951 to 1954, coins were made of steel, plated twice, first with nickel and chromium; the plating was applied before the blanks were struck, so the edges of these coins are dull or rusted. The composition was returned to pure nickel after both wars. More in 1982, the same copper-nickel alloy used in the American coin was adopted in the Canadian coin, with the ironic result that the nickel contained less nickel than any other circulating Canadian coin except the cent. Since late in 2000, the nickel is now made with plated steel. Since the plating is now done after the blanks are punched, the edges of the modern coins receive the plating.
Portions of the 2001 and 2006 issues were struck in cupronickel, can be identified by the lack of the letter "P" under Queen Elizabeth's portrait, for their non-magnetic quality. Starting with the 1942 tombac coins, the nickel was made dodecagonal to help distinguish it from the cent after it tarnished in circulation. Tombac was removed from the nickel in 1944 but the coins in Tombac, steel, or 99.9% nickel all remained twelve-sided until 1963. All of these coins were lighter than the US version, minted to be as close as possible to five grams. Canadian 99.9% nickel five-cent coins are nearly 0.5 gram lighter than this, its present steel coins are a full gram lighter than US "nickels." Five-cent coins dated 1921 are among the rarest and most collectible Canadian circulation coins, known as "The Prince of Canadian Coins." Estimates of the number of specimens known range between 400 and 480. In May 1921 the government of Canada passed an act authorizing the change to the larger nickel coin, subsequently the majority of the 1921 mint run was melted down.
The coin believed to be the finest known specimen sold for $115,000 U. S