Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport
Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport is a civil-military airport five miles south of downtown Milwaukee, United States. It is included in the Federal Aviation Administration National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2019–2023, in which it is categorized as a medium-hub primary commercial service facility, it is named after United States Army Air Service General Billy Mitchell, raised in Milwaukee and is regarded as the father of the United States Air Force. Along with being the primary airport for Milwaukee, Mitchell International has sometimes been described as Chicago's third airport, as many travelers in the suburbs north of Chicago use it instead of Chicago's O'Hare and Midway airports, it is used by travellers throughout Wisconsin and Northern Illinois. An Amtrak railway station opened at the airport in 2005. Since March 1941, the airport's weather station has been used as the official point for Milwaukee weather observations and records by the National Weather Service, whose area office is located in Sullivan.
The original airfield was established in 1920 as Hamilton Airport by local business owner and aviator, Thomas Hamilton. Milwaukee County purchased the land on October 1926, for the Milwaukee County Airport; the first airport terminal there, the Hirschbuehl Farmhouse, opened in July 1927. That month, Northwest Inc. began air service from Milwaukee to Chicago and Minneapolis/St. Paul. In August 1927, world-renowned aviator Charles Lindbergh visited the Milwaukee airport. Kohler Aviation Corporation began providing passenger service across Lake Michigan on August 31, 1929. During the late depression years, a new two-story passenger terminal building was constructed by the Works Progress Administration. On March 17, 1941 the airport was renamed General Mitchell Field after Milwaukee's military airpower advocate, Brigadier General William "Billy" Mitchell. On January 4, 1945, Mitchell Field was leased to the War Department for use as a World War II prisoner-of-war camp. Over 3,000 prisoners and 250 enlisted men stayed at the work camp.
Escaped German prisoners were surprised to find a large German American population just beyond the fence. The present terminal was designed by Leigh Fisher and Associates, it was renovated and expanded in 1985, designed by Miller, Kenyon, Cooper Architects and Planners Inc. The "hammerhead" section of the D concourse was added in 1990. On June 19, 1986 the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors renamed the airport General Mitchell International Airport. On February 4, 2019, the airport was renamed Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport; the airport was a hub for AirTran Airways, Frontier Airlines and Midwest Airlines. On December 28, 2014, the airport became a focus city for Southwest Airlines, after finalizing their merger with AirTran Airways; the airport is owned and operated by Milwaukee County, but some Milwaukee business leaders and politicians have advocated privatization or leasing it to a third party for financial reasons. In February 2019, the airport was renamed from "General Mitchell International Airport" to "Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport," a rebranding meant to highlight the airport's location.
In October 2008 a Condé Nast Traveler poll ranked Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport fourth in the nation using categories of Location and Access, Design and Baggage, Perceived Safety and Security, as well as Food and Amenities. Mitchell International expanded the runway safety area at the end of the runways after an accident on January 21, 2007, when Northwest Airlines Flight 1726 skidded off the runway following an aborted takeoff. According to the FAA, most airports are encouraged to have a runway safety area no shorter than 1,000 feet, though many airports do not. Construction of the runway safety areas began at the end of summer 2009 and was completed in fall 2012. There is a "Master Plan" idea to increase terminal area by stretching the existing terminal or begin construction of a separate terminal. Nearly all cases would involve major reconstruction on the airport itself, would have a huge impact on the airport's traffic; these plans were, drafted before Mitchell saw a significant reduction in carriers and flights.
More in 2012, there have been discussions of closing one concourse as a cost-cutting move. The approved 2018 Milwaukee County Budget contains initial funding for replacement of the now-closed Concourse E with a new International Terminal, it will replace the current International Arrivals Terminal which has limited capacity and is not connected to the main terminal building. The new terminal is planned to open in 2020. During October 2018, airport and Milwaukee County officials set a timeline for design and completion of the new International terminal. Pre-design work and bidding is set to conclude in November 2018, with construction set to begin in early 2020 and concluding in mid-2021. Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport covers 2,180 acres and has five asphalt and concrete runways ranging from 4,183 to 9,990 ft. A helipad measuring 100 by 100 ft is on the south side of the airport property; the 07R/25L runway has an overpass with Howell Avenue running underneath. For the year ending June 30, 2018, the airport had 112,932 aircraft operations, an average of 309 per day: 56% commercial airline, 32% air taxi, 10% general aviation and 2% military.
In March 2019, there were 95 aircraft based at this airport: 33
Administrative divisions of Wisconsin
The administrative divisions of Wisconsin include counties, cities and towns. In Wisconsin, all of these are units of general-purpose local government. There are a number of special-purpose districts formed to handle regional concerns, such as school districts. Whether a municipality is a city, village or town is not dependent on the community's population or area, but on the form of government selected by the residents and approved by the Wisconsin State Legislature. Cities and villages can overlap county boundaries; the county is the primary political subdivision of Wisconsin. Every county has a county seat a populous or centrally located city or village, where the government offices for the county are located. Within each county are cities and towns; as of 2016, Wisconsin had 72 counties. A Board of Supervisors is the main legislative entity of the county. Supervisors are elected in nonpartisan elections for two-year terms. In May 2013, the Wisconsin Legislature passed a bill that will reduce the terms of office from four years to two years for the Milwaukee County Board of Supervisors.
The type of executive official in each county varies: 11 counties have a County Executive elected in a nonpartisan election for a four-year term. Other officials include sheriffs, district attorneys, treasurers, surveyors, registers of deeds, clerks of circuit court. In most counties, elected coroners have been replaced by appointed medical examiners. State law permits counties to appoint a registered land surveyor in place of electing a surveyor. Counties are responsible for social services, such as child welfare, job training, care of the elderly. Law enforcement and road maintenance are administered by the county, in conjunction with local municipalities; as of January 1, 2018, 66 of the state's 72 counties maintain their own sales tax separate from the state for items such as local county road maintenance averaging around.1-.5% in addition to the state 5% sales tax. In Wisconsin, a city is an autonomous incorporated area within one or more counties, it provides all services to its residents and has the highest degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction of all municipalities.
Cities are more urbanized than towns. The city of Milwaukee, the only "first class city" in the state, has its own special rules apart from all other cities; as of 2015, Wisconsin had 190 cities. The home rule authority granted to cities allows them to make their own decision about their affairs and much of their public policy, subject to state law. Cities can choose to hire a city city manager, instead of electing a mayor. In cities that have city administrators, the head of the common council may be referred to as mayor. Cities are governed by Common or City Councils consisting of the mayor or city manager and elected aldermen or council members. City officers include mayor or city manager, clerk and health officials. Cities may by their discretion, have an engineer, assessors, street commissioner, a board of public works. Cities in Wisconsin are divided into four classes: First class: Cities with 150,000 or more residents Second class: Cities with 39,000 to 149,999 residents Third class: Cities with 10,000 to 38,999 residents Fourth class: Cities with 9,999 or fewer residentsThere are exceptions to these classes, however.
For these reasons, Madison is a second class city though it exceeds the 150,000 resident threshold, several cities with a population of over 10,000 are fourth class cities. In order to incorporate as a city, a community must have at least 1,000 citizens if it is in a rural area or 5,000 if it is in an urban area. Cities are able to expand their area by annexing land from towns when land owners request local service. In Wisconsin, a village is an autonomous incorporated area within one or more counties, it provides various services to its residents and has a degree of home rule and taxing jurisdiction over them. As of 2015, Wisconsin had 407 villages. In order to incorporate as a village, a community must have at least 150 citizens if it is in a rural area or 2,500 if it is in an urban area; the home rule authority granted to villages allows them to make their own decisions about their affairs and much of their public policy, subject to state law. Villages are governed by a Board of Trustees. Village officers include a president, clerk and assessor.
Villages may elect to hire a village manager to oversee day-to-day operations instead of an elected village president. An additional 77 villages in Wisconsin employ village administrators. In Wisconsin, a town is an unincorporated jurisdiction within a county. All residents of Wisconsin who do not live in a city or village live in a town. Towns provide a limited number of services to their residents; the U. S. Census Bureau considers Wisconsin towns to be minor civil divisions; as of 2015, Wisconsin had 1,255 towns. Towns have the same names as adjacen
Milwaukee County, Wisconsin
Milwaukee County is a county in the U. S. state of Wisconsin. As of the 2010 census, the population was 947,735 and was estimated to be 951,448 in 2016, it is the most populous county in Wisconsin and the 45th most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Milwaukee, the most populous city in the state; the county was organized the following year. Milwaukee County is the most populous county of the Milwaukee-Waukesha-West Allis, WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, as well as of the Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI Combined Statistical Area. There are 19 cities in Milwaukee County, the largest being Milwaukee, West Allis, Oak Creek, Greenfield, in that order. Milwaukee County is the most densely populated county, ranks in the top 50 most populated counties when excluding Cook County, Illinois and the five New York City burroughs from the list; the county is home to two professional sports teams, the world's largest music festival. Portions of what is now Milwaukee County are known to have been inhabited by a number of Native American tribes, including the Sauk, Meskwaki or "Fox", Menomonee and Potawotami, with elements of other tribes attested as well.
In 1818, when the land to be Wisconsin was made part of Michigan Territory, territorial governor Lewis Cass created Brown County, which at that time included all the land now part of Milwaukee County. It remained a part of Brown county until 1834, when Milwaukee County was created, including the area south of the line between townships eleven and twelve north, west of Lake Michigan, north of Illinois, east of the line which now separates Green and Rock counties; this territory encompassed all of what are now Milwaukee, Kenosha, Racine, Walworth and Waukesha counties, as well as large parts of the present-day Columbia and Dodge counties. Milwaukee County remained attached to Brown County for judicial purposes until Aug. 25, 1835, when an act was passed by the Michigan territorial legislature giving it an independent organization. In 1836, the legislature divided the area south and east of the Wisconsin and Fox rivers into counties, as a consequence reducing Milwaukee County's extent to what is now Milwaukee and Waukesha counties.
In 1846 Waukesha County was created by taking from Milwaukee all of the territory west of range 21, reducing Milwaukee County to its present boundaries. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,189 square miles, of which 241 square miles is land and 948 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in Wisconsin by land area. It is watered by the Milwaukee, Menomonee and Root Rivers; the surface is undulating, the soil calcareous and fertile. Ozaukee County - north Racine County - south Waukesha County - west Washington County - northwest Lake Michigan - east As of the 2010 census, there were 947,735 people, 383,591 households, 221,019 families residing in the county; the population density was 3,932 people per square mile. There were 418,053 housing units at an average density of 1,734 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.6% White, 26.8% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 3.4% Asian, 0.003% Pacific Islander, 5.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races.
13.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 383,591 households, of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.1% were married couples living together, 17.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.4% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 3.14. In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 24.9% under the age of 18, 11.4% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 11.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33.6 years. For every 100 females there were 93.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. As of the 2000 census, there were 940,164 people, 377,729 households and 225,126 families resided in the county; the population density was 3,931 people per square mile. There were 400,093 housing units at an average density of 1,656 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 65.6% White, 24.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.2% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. 8.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.0 % were of 10.9 % Polish and 5.3 % Irish ancestry. There were 377,729 households, of which 29.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.0% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.4% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the age distribution was spread out, with 26.4% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 12.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.1 males.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, from 1980 to 2000, the residential pattern of Blacks versus Whites in Milwaukee County was the most segregated in the country. Milwaukee County is governed through an eighteen-mem
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of land managed by a federally recognized Native American tribe under the U. S. Bureau of Indian Affairs rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located; each of the 326 Indian reservations in the United States is associated with a particular Native American nation. Not all of the country's 567 recognized tribes have a reservation—some tribes have more than one reservation, while some share reservations. In addition, because of past land allotments, leading to some sales to non–Native Americans, some reservations are fragmented, with each piece of tribal and held land being a separate enclave; this jumble of private and public real estate creates significant administrative and legal difficulties. The collective geographical area of all reservations is 56,200,000 acres the size of Idaho. While most reservations are small compared to U. S. states, there are 12 Indian reservations larger than the state of Rhode Island.
The largest reservation, the Navajo Nation Reservation, is similar in size to West Virginia. Reservations are unevenly distributed throughout the country; because tribes possess the concept of tribal sovereignty though it is limited, laws on tribal lands vary from those of the surrounding area. These laws can permit legal casinos for example, which attract tourists; the tribal council, not the local government or the United States federal government has jurisdiction over reservations. Different reservations have different systems of government, which may or may not replicate the forms of government found outside the reservation. Most Native American reservations were established by the federal government; the name "reservation" comes from the conception of the Native American tribes as independent sovereigns at the time the U. S. Constitution was ratified. Thus, the early peace treaties in which Native American tribes surrendered large portions of land to the U. S. designated parcels which the tribes, as sovereigns, "reserved" to themselves, those parcels came to be called "reservations".
The term remained in use after the federal government began to forcibly relocate tribes to parcels of land to which they had no historical connection. Today a majority of Native Americans and Alaska Natives live somewhere other than the reservations in larger western cities such as Phoenix and Los Angeles. In 2012, there were with about 1 million living on reservations. From the beginning of the European colonization of the Americas, Europeans removed native peoples from lands they wished to occupy; the means varied, including treaties made under considerable duress, forceful ejection, violence, in a few cases voluntary moves based on mutual agreement. The removal caused many problems such as tribes losing means of livelihood by being subjected to a defined area, farmers having inadmissible land for agriculture, hostility between tribes; the first reservation was established in southern New Jersey on 29 August 1758. It was called Brotherton Indian Reservation and Edgepillock or Edgepelick; the area was 3284 acres.
Today it is called Indian Mills in Shamong Township. In 1764 the "Plan for the Future Management of Indian Affairs" was proposed by the Board of Trade. Although never adopted formally, the plan established the imperial government's expectation that land would only be bought by colonial governments, not individuals, that land would only be purchased at public meetings. Additionally, this plan dictated that the Indians would be properly consulted when ascertaining and defining the boundaries of colonial settlement; the private contracts that once characterized the sale of Indian land to various individuals and groups—from farmers to towns—were replaced by treaties between sovereigns. This protocol was adopted by the United States Government after the American Revolution. On 11 March 1824, John C. Calhoun founded the Office of Indian Affairs as a division of the United States Department of War, to solve the land problem with 38 treaties with American Indian tribes; the document “Indian Treaties, Laws and Regulations Relating to Indian Affairs”’ published in 1825 in Washington City, America was signed by president Andrew Jackson.
He states that “we have placed the land reserves in a better state for the benefit of society” with approval of Indigenous reservations prior to 1850. The letter is signed by Isaac Shelby and the American President and discusses several regulations regarding Indigenous people of America and the approval of Indigenous segregation and the reservation system. President Martin Van Buren writes a Treaty with the Saginaw Tribe of Chippewas in 1837 to build a light house; the President of the United States of America was directly involved in the creation of new Treaties regarding Indian Reservations before 1850. He says Indigenous Reservations are “all their reserves of land in the state of Michigan, on the principle of said reserves being sold at the public land offices for their benefit and the actual proceeds being paid to them.” The agreement is for the Indigenous Tribe to sell their land, based on a Reservation to build a “lighthouse.” President, Martin Van Buren wants to buy Indigenous Reservation Land to build infrastructure.
A Treaty signed by John Forsyth, the Secretary of State on behalf of, President Martin Van Buren of the United
Lake, Milwaukee County, Wisconsin
The Town of Lake was a town in Milwaukee County, United States, which existed from January 2, 1838 to April 6, 1954. After 1840, using current street names, the Town of Lake encompassed the area bordered by Greenfield Ave to the north, Lake Michigan to the east, College Avenue to the south and 27th Street to the west; these areas now make up the cities of St. Francis and Cudahy as well as part of the South Side of the City of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. On January 2, 1838, the territorial legislature divided the County into two townships: the Town of Milwaukee, encompassing everything north of the present Greenfield Avenue, the Town of Lake, encompassing everything South of the present Greenfield Avenue. On March 8, 1839, a new Town of Kinnikennick was created; as of the 1840 census, the population of the Town of Lake was 418. According to the 1855 Wisconsin State Census, the Town of Lake's population was 2,127, with 1,308 of them having foreign birth; the next diminution of the town took place in 1879.
Milwaukee annexed the north portions of the town soon after, Bay View voted to allow Milwaukee to annex it in 1887. Patrick Cudahy bought land in the area in 1892 for his meatpacking business. In 1895, this area was incorporated as the Village of Cudahy. After becoming a city, Cudahy annexed lands south to the border of South Milwaukee. In July 1951, the area along Lake Michigan north of Cudahy and south of Milwaukee incorporated as the City of St. Francis in order to prevent annexation from Milwaukee and keep profits from the South Shore Power Plant in the area; the City of Milwaukee annexed the remaining portion of the town on April 6, 1954, at which point the town ceased to exist. The City of Milwaukee grew by about 15,000 people overnight; as part of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Public Works Administration New Deal, an octagonal tower was built in 1938, it was to doubled as a water tower. This landmark features Art Deco details such as empire lines on the façade, scallops above the entrance and stair railings with chevron designs in them.
No longer needed by the neighboring Department of Water Works treatment plant to equalize water pressure, the internal tank was abandoned and the building updated for use as municipal office space in 2001. In 1993, the Howard Avenue Water Purification Plant became the source of the Milwaukee Cryptosporidium outbreak, the largest documented waterborne disease outbreak in United States history. Neighborhoods of Milwaukee Milwaukee Neighborhoods Map Town of Lake Landmark NGS survey of the tower Town of Lake in Milwaukee Neighborhoods Guide from UWM Libraries
Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of