2008 United States presidential election
The 2008 United States presidential election was the 56th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 2008. The Democratic ticket of Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois, Joe Biden, the senior Senator from Delaware, defeated the Republican ticket of John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska. Obama became the first African American to be elected as president. Incumbent Republican President George W. Bush was ineligible to pursue a third term due to the term limits established by the 22nd Amendment; as neither Bush nor Vice President Dick Cheney sought the presidency, the 2008 election was the first election since 1952 in which neither major party's presidential nominee was the incumbent president or the incumbent vice president. McCain secured the Republican nomination by March 2008, defeating Mitt Romney, Mike Huckabee, other challengers; the Democratic primaries were marked by a sharp contest between Obama and the initial front-runner, Senator Hillary Clinton.
Clinton's victory in the New Hampshire primary made her the first woman to win a major party's presidential primary. After a long primary season, Obama clinched the Democratic nomination in June 2008. Early campaigning focused on the Iraq War and Bush's unpopularity. McCain supported the war, as well as a troop surge that had begun in 2007, while Obama opposed the war. Bush endorsed McCain, but the two did not campaign together, Bush did not appear in person at the 2008 Republican National Convention. Obama campaigned on the theme that "Washington must change,"; the campaign was affected by the onset of a major financial crisis, which peaked in September 2008. McCain's decision to suspend his campaign during the height of the financial crisis backfired as voters viewed his response as erratic. Obama won a decisive victory over McCain, winning the Electoral College and the popular vote by a sizable margin, including states that had not voted for the Democratic presidential candidate since 1976 and 1964.
Obama received the largest share of the popular vote won by a Democrat since Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964; as of the 2016 presidential election Obama's total count of 69.5 million votes still stands as the largest tally won by a presidential candidate. Hillary Clinton, U. S. Senator from New York John Edwards, former U. S. Senator from North Carolina Bill Richardson, Governor of New Mexico Dennis Kucinich, U. S. Representative from Ohio Joe Biden, U. S. Senator from Delaware Mike Gravel, former U. S. Senator from Alaska Christopher Dodd, U. S. Senator from Connecticut Evan Bayh, U. S. Senator from Indiana Tom Vilsack, former Governor of Iowa Media speculation had begun immediately after the results of the 2004 presidential election were released. In the 2006 midterm elections, the Democrats regained majorities in both houses of the U. S. Congress. Early polls taken before anyone had announced a candidacy had shown Senators Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama as the most popular potential Democratic candidates.
The media speculated on several other candidates, including Al Gore, the runner-up in the 2000 election. Edwards was one of the first to formally announce his candidacy for the presidency, on December 28, 2006; this run would be his second attempt at the presidency. Clinton announced intentions to run in the Democratic primaries on January 20, 2007. Obama announced his candidacy on February 10 in his home state of Illinois. Early in the year, the support for Barack Obama started to increase in the polls, he passed Clinton for the top spot in Iowa. Obama's win was fueled by first time caucus-goers and Independents and showed voters viewed him as the "candidate of change." Iowa has since been viewed as the state that jump-started Obama's campaign and set him on track to win both the nomination and the presidency. After the Iowa caucus, Joe Biden and Christopher Dodd withdrew from the nomination contest. Obama became the new front runner in New Hampshire, when his poll numbers skyrocketed after his Iowa victory The Clinton campaign was struggling after a huge loss in Iowa and no strategy beyond the early primaries and caucuses.
According to The Vancouver Sun, Campaign strategists had "mapped a victory scenario that envisioned the former first lady wrapping up the Democratic presidential nomination by Super Tuesday on Feb. 5." In what is considered a turning point for her campaign, Clinton had a strong performance at the Saint Anselm College, ABC, Facebook debates several days before the New Hampshire primary as well as an emotional interview in a public broadcast live on TV. Clinton won that primary by 2% of the vote, contrary to the predictions of pollsters who had her trailing Obama for a few days up to the primary date. Clinton's win was the
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, regulations enacted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States between 1933 and 1936, it responded to needs for relief and recovery from the Great Depression. Major federal programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, the Civil Works Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933 and the Social Security Administration, they provided support for farmers, the unemployed and the elderly. The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply. New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt; the programs focused on what historians refer to as the "3 Rs": relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy back to normal levels and reform of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression.
The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in liberal ideas, the South, traditional Democrats, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions and ethnic minorities. The Republicans were split, with conservatives opposing the entire New Deal as hostile to business and economic growth and liberals in support; the realignment crystallized into the New Deal coalition that dominated presidential elections into the 1960s while the opposing conservative coalition controlled Congress in domestic affairs from 1937 to 1964. By 1936, the term "liberal" was used for supporters of the New Deal and "conservative" for its opponents. From 1934 to 1938, Roosevelt was assisted in his endeavors by a "pro-spender" majority in Congress. In the 1938 midterm election and his liberal supporters lost control of Congress to the bipartisan conservative coalition. Many historians distinguish between a First New Deal and a Second New Deal, with the second one more liberal and more controversial.
The First New Deal dealt with the pressing banking crises through the Emergency Banking Act and the 1933 Banking Act. The Federal Emergency Relief Administration provided $500 million for relief operations by states and cities, while the short-lived CWA gave locals money to operate make-work projects in 1933–1934; the Securities Act of 1933 was enacted to prevent a repeated stock market crash. The controversial work of the National Recovery Administration was part of the First New Deal; the Second New Deal in 1935–1938 included the Wagner Act to protect labor organizing, the Works Progress Administration relief program, the Social Security Act and new programs to aid tenant farmers and migrant workers. The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; the FSA was one of the oversight authorities of the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, which administered relief efforts to Puerto Rican citizens affected by the Great Depression.
The economic downturn of 1937–1938 and the bitter split between the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations labor unions led to major Republican gains in Congress in 1938. Conservative Republicans and Democrats in Congress joined in the informal conservative coalition. By 1942–1943, they shut down relief programs such as the WPA and the CCC and blocked major liberal proposals. Nonetheless, Roosevelt turned his attention to the war effort and won reelection in 1940–1944. Furthermore, the Supreme Court declared the NRA and the first version of the Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional, but the AAA was rewritten and upheld. Republican president Dwight D. Eisenhower left the New Deal intact expanding it in some areas. In the 1960s, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society used the New Deal as inspiration for a dramatic expansion of liberal programs, which Republican Richard Nixon retained. However, after 1974 the call for deregulation of the economy gained bipartisan support.
The New Deal regulation of banking lasted. Several New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority; the largest programs still in existence today are the Social Security System and the Securities and Exchange Commission. From 1929 to 1933 manufacturing output decreased by one third, which economists call the Great Contraction. Prices fell by 20 %. Unemployment in the United States increased from 4% to 25%. Additionally, one-third of all employed persons were downgraded to working part-time on much smaller paychecks. In the aggregate 50% of the nation's human work-power was going unused. Before the New Deal, there was no insurance on deposits at banks; when thousands of banks closed, depositors lost their savings as at that time there was no national safety net, no public unemployment insurance and no Social Security.
Relief for the poor was the respons
1948 United States presidential election
The 1948 United States presidential election was the 41st quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Truman's victory is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history. Truman had acceded to the presidency in April 1945 after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. Defeating attempts to drop him from the ticket, Truman won the presidential nomination at the 1948 Democratic National Convention; the Democratic convention's civil rights plank caused a walk-out by several Southern delegates, who launched a third-party "Dixiecrat" ticket led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. The Dixiecrats hoped to win enough electoral votes to force a contingent election in the House of Representatives, where they could extract concessions from either Dewey or Truman in exchange for their support. Truman faced a challenge from the left in the form of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, who launched the Progressive Party and challenged Truman's confrontational Cold War policies.
Dewey, the leader of his party's moderate eastern wing and had been the 1944 Republican presidential nominee, defeated Senator Robert A. Taft and other challengers at the 1948 Republican National Convention. Truman's feisty campaign style energized his base of traditional Democrats, consisting of most of the white South, as well as Catholic and Jewish voters. Dewey ran a low risk campaign and avoided directly criticizing Truman. With the three-way split in the Democratic Party, with Truman's low approval ratings, Truman was considered to be the underdog in the race; every prediction indicated that Truman would be defeated by Dewey. Defying predictions of his defeat, Truman won the 1948 election, garnering 303 electoral votes to Dewey's 189. Truman won 49.6% of the popular vote compared to Dewey's 45.1%, while the third party candidacies of Thurmond and Wallace each won less than 3% of the popular vote, with Thurmond carrying four southern states. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive presidential win for the Democratic Party, the longest winning streak for either party since the 1880 election.
With simultaneous success in the 1948 congressional elections, the Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress, which they had lost in 1946. Thus, Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party. For both Republicans and Democrats, there was a boom for General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the most popular general of World War II and a favorite in the polls. Unlike the latter movement within the Democratic party, the Republican draft movement came from the grassroots of the party. By January 23, 1948, the grassroots movement had entered Eisenhower's name into every state holding a Republican presidential primary, polls gave him a significant lead against all other contenders. With the first state primary approaching, Eisenhower was forced to make a quick decision. Stating that soldiers should keep out of politics, Eisenhower declined to run and requested that the grassroots draft movement cease its activities. After a number of failed efforts to get Eisenhower to reconsider, the organization disbanded, with the majority of its leadership endorsing the presidential campaign of the former Governor of Minnesota, Harold Stassen.
With Eisenhower refusing to run, the contest for the Republican nomination was between Stassen, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio, California Governor Earl Warren, General Douglas MacArthur, Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg from Michigan, the senior Republican in the Senate. Dewey, the Republican nominee in 1944, was regarded as the frontrunner when the primaries began. Dewey was the acknowledged leader of the Republican Party's Eastern Establishment. In 1946 he had been re-elected governor of New York by the largest margin in state history. Dewey's handicap was. Taft was the leader of the Republican Party's conservative wing, strongest in the Midwest and parts of the South. Taft called for abolishing many New Deal welfare programs, which he felt were harmful to business interests, he was skeptical of American involvement in foreign alliances such as the United Nations. Taft had two major weaknesses: He was a plodding, dull campaigner, he was viewed by most party leaders as being too conservative and controversial to win a presidential election.
Both Vandenberg and Warren were popular in their home states, but each refused to campaign in the primaries, which limited their chances of winning the nomination. Their supporters, hoped that in the event of a Dewey-Taft-Stassen deadlock, the convention would turn to their man as a compromise candidate. General MacArthur, the famous war hero, was popular among conservatives. Since he was serving in Japan as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers occupying that nation, he was unable to campaign for the nomination, he did make it known, that he would accept the GOP nomination if it were offered to him, some conservative Republicans hoped that by winning a primary contest he could prove his popularity with voters. They chose to enter his name in the Wisconsin primary; the "surprise" candidate of 1948 was a liberal from Minnesota. In 1938, Stassen had been elected governor of Minnesota at the age of 31. In 1945 he served on the committee. Stassen was regarded as
Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969. He twice served in the United States Senate, representing Minnesota from 1949 to 1964 and 1971 to 1978, he was the Democratic Party's nominee in the 1968 presidential election, losing to Republican nominee Richard Nixon. Born in Wallace, South Dakota, Humphrey attended the University of Minnesota. At one point he helped run his father's pharmacy, he earned a master's degree from Louisiana State University and worked for the Works Progress Administration, the Minnesota war service program, the War Manpower Commission. In 1943, he became a professor of political science at Macalester College and ran a failed campaign for mayor of Minneapolis, he helped found the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party in 1944. In 1945, he won election as mayor of Minneapolis, serving until 1948 and co-founding the liberal anti-communist group Americans for Democratic Action in 1947.
In 1948, he was elected to the U. S. Senate and advocated for the inclusion of a proposal to end racial segregation in the 1948 Democratic National Convention's party platform. Humphrey served three terms in the Senate from 1949 to 1964, he was the Senate Majority Whip from 1961 to 1964. During his tenure, he was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, sponsored the clause of the McCarran Act that threatened concentration camps for "subversives", proposed making Communist Party membership a felony, chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament, he unsuccessfully sought his party's presidential nomination in 1952 and 1960. After Lyndon B. Johnson acceded to the presidency, he chose Humphrey as his running mate, the Democratic ticket was elected in the landslide 1964 election. In March 1968 Johnson made his surprise announcement that he would not seek reelection, Humphrey launched his campaign for the presidency. Loyal to the Johnson administration's policies on the Vietnam War, he saw opposition from many within his own party and avoided the primaries to focus on winning the delegates of non-primary states at the Democratic Convention.
His delegate strategy succeeded in clinching the nomination, he chose Senator Edmund Muskie as his running mate. In the general election, he nearly matched Nixon's tally in the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a wide margin. After the defeat, he returned to the Senate until his death in 1978. Humphrey was born in a room over his father's drugstore in South Dakota, he was the son of Ragnild Kristine Sannes, a Norwegian immigrant, Hubert Horatio Humphrey Sr.. Humphrey spent most of his youth in South Dakota, on the Dakota prairie, his father was a licensed pharmacist who served as a town council member. In the late 1920s, a severe economic downturn hit Doland. After his son graduated from Doland's high school, Hubert Sr. left Doland and opened a new drugstore in the larger town of Huron, South Dakota, where he hoped to improve his fortunes. Because of the family's financial struggles, Humphrey had to leave the University of Minnesota after just one year, he earned a pharmacist's license from the Capitol College of Pharmacy in Denver and helped his father run his store from 1931 to 1937.
Both father and son were innovative in finding ways to attract customers: "to supplement their business, the Humphreys had become manufacturers... of patent medicines for both hogs and humans. A sign featuring a wooden pig was hung over the drugstore to tell the public about this unusual service. Farmers got the message, it was Humphrey's that became known as the farmer's drugstore." One biographer noted, "while Hubert Jr. minded the store and stirred the concoctions in the basement, Hubert Sr. went on the road selling'Humphrey's BTV', a mineral supplement and dewormer for hogs, and'Humphrey's Chest Oil' and'Humphrey's Sniffles' for two-legged sufferers." Humphrey wrote, "we made'Humphrey's Sniffles', a substitute for Vick's Nose Drops. I felt. Vick's used mineral oil, not absorbent, we used a vegetable-oil base, which was. I added benzocaine, a local anesthetic, so that if the sniffles didn't get better, you felt it less." The various "Humphrey cures... worked well enough and constituted an important part of the family income... the farmers that bought the medicines were good customers."
Over time Humphrey's Drug Store became the family again prospered. While living in Huron, Humphrey attended Huron's largest Methodist church and became the scoutmaster of the church's Boy Scout group, Troop 6, he "started basketball games in the church basement... although his scouts had no money for camp in 1931, Hubert found a way in the worst of that summer's dust-storm grit and depression to lead an overnight."Humphrey did not enjoy working as a pharmacist, his dream remained to earn a doctorate in political science and become a college professor. His unhappiness was manifested in "stomach pains and fainting spells", though doctors could find nothing wrong with him. In August 1937, he told his father. Hubert Sr. tried to convince his son not to leave by offering him a full partnership in the store, but Hubert Jr. refused and told his father "how d
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Gore was Bill Clinton's running mate in their successful campaign in 1992, the pair was re-elected in 1996. Near the end of Clinton's second term, Gore was selected as the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election but lost the election in a close race after a Florida recount. After his term as vice-president ended in 2001, Gore remained prominent as an author and environmental activist, whose work in climate change activism earned him the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. Gore was an elected official for 24 years, he was a representative from 1985 to 1993 served as one of the state's senators. He served as vice president during the Clinton administration from 1993 to 2001; the 2000 presidential election was one of the closest presidential races in history. Gore won the popular vote, but after a controversial election dispute over a Florida recount, he lost the election to Republican opponent George W. Bush in the Electoral College.
Gore is the founder and current chair of the Alliance for Climate Protection, the co-founder and chair of Generation Investment Management and the now-defunct Current TV network, a member of the Board of Directors of Apple Inc. and a senior adviser to Google. Gore is a partner in the venture capital firm Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, heading its climate change solutions group, he has served as a visiting professor at Middle Tennessee State University, Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, Fisk University, the University of California, Los Angeles. He served on the Board of Directors of World Resources Institute. Gore has received a number of awards that include the Nobel Peace Prize, a Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album for his book An Inconvenient Truth, a Primetime Emmy Award for Current TV, a Webby Award. Gore was the subject of the Academy Award-winning documentary An Inconvenient Truth in 2006. In 2007, he was named a runner-up for Time's 2007 Person of the Year. Gore was born on March 31, 1948, in Washington, D.
C. the second of two children of Albert Gore Sr. a U. S. Representative who served for 18 years as a U. S. Senator from Tennessee, Pauline Gore, one of the first women to graduate from Vanderbilt University Law School. Gore is a descendant of Scots-Irish immigrants who first settled in Virginia in the mid-17th-century and moved to Tennessee after the Revolutionary War, his older sister Nancy LaFon Gore died of lung cancer. During the school year he lived with his family in The Fairfax Hotel in the Embassy Row section in Washington D. C. During the summer months, he worked on the family farm in Carthage, where the Gores grew tobacco and hay and raised cattle. Gore attended St. Albans School, an independent college preparatory day and boarding school for boys in Washington, D. C. from 1956 to 1965, a prestigious feeder school for the Ivy League. He was the captain of the football team, threw discus for the track and field team, participated in basketball and government, he applied to Harvard and was accepted.
Gore met Mary Elizabeth "Tipper" Aitcheson at his St. Albans senior prom in 1965, she was from the nearby St. Agnes School. Tipper followed Gore to Boston to attend college, they married at the Washington National Cathedral on May 19, 1970, they have four children—Karenna Gore, Kristin Carlson Gore, Sarah LaFon Gore, Albert Arnold Gore III. In June 2010, the Gores announced in an e-mail to friends that after "long and careful consideration", they had made a mutual decision to separate. In May 2012, it was reported. Gore enrolled in Harvard College in 1965. On his second day on campus, he began campaigning for the freshman student government council and was elected its president. Gore was an avid reader who fell in love with scientific and mathematical theories, but he did not do well in science classes and avoided taking math. During his first two years, his grades placed him in the lower one-fifth of his class. During his sophomore year, he spent much of his time watching television, shooting pool, smoking marijuana.
In his junior and senior years, he became earning As and Bs. In his senior year, he took a class with oceanographer and global warming theorist Roger Revelle, who sparked Gore's interest in global warming and other environmental issues. Gore earned an A on his thesis, "The Impact of Television on the Conduct of the Presidency, 1947–1969", graduated with an A. B. cum laude in June 1969. Gore was in college during the era of anti-Vietnam War protests, he was against that war. He thought that it was silly and juvenile to use a private university as a venue to vent anger at the war, he and his friends did not participate in Harvard demonstrations. John Tyson, a former roommate, recalled that "We distrusted these movements a lot... We were a pretty traditional bunch of guys, positive for civil rights and women's rights but formal, transformed by the social revolution to some extent but not buying into something we considered detrimental to our country." Gore helped his father write an anti-war address to the Democratic National Convention of 1968 but stayed with hi
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
James Aloysius "Jim" Farley was one of the first Irish Catholic politicians in American history to achieve success on a national level. He served as chairman of the New York State Democratic Committee, chairman of the Democratic National Committee, Postmaster General under the first two administrations of President Franklin Roosevelt. A business executive and dignitary and a Knight of Malta, Farley was referred to as a political kingmaker, he was responsible for Roosevelt's rise to the presidency. Farley was the campaign manager for New York State politician Alfred E. Smith's 1922 gubernatorial campaign and Roosevelt's 1928 and 1930 gubernatorial campaigns as well as Roosevelt's presidential campaigns of 1932 and 1936. Farley predicted large landslides in both, revolutionized the use of polling data, he was responsible for pulling together the New Deal Coalition of Catholics, labor unions, African Americans, farmers. Farley and the administration's patronage machine over which he presided helped to fuel the social and infrastructure programs of the New Deal.
He handled most mid-level and lower-level appointments, in consultation with state and local Democratic organizations. Farley helped to normalize diplomatic relations with the Holy See and in 1933, he was the first high-ranking government official to travel to Rome, where he had an audience with Pope Pius XI and dinner with Cardinal Pacelli. Farley opposed Roosevelt for breaking the two-term tradition of the presidency; as of 1942, Farley was considered the supreme Democratic Party boss of New York. In 1947, President Harry S. Truman appointed Farley to serve a senior post as a commissioner on the Hoover Commission known as the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of the Government. Farley's work on the commission would lead to the development and ratification of the 22nd Amendment of the US Constitution, establishing the modern executive term-limit law, it was viewed by many, including Farley, as vindication for his public opposition to Roosevelt's third term. Farley guided and remained at the helm of Coca-Cola International for over 30 years and was responsible for the company's global expansion as a quasi-government agency in World War II.
It was used as a boost to the energy levels of the fighting men. Shipped with food and ammunition as a "war priority item," the deal spread Coke's market worldwide at government expense. At US expense, after the war, 59 new Coke plants were installed to help rebuild Europe; the Landmark James Farley Post Office in New York City is designated in his honor and as a monument to his career in public service. He was born in Grassy Point, New York, one of five sons whose grandparents were Irish Catholic immigrants, his father, James Farley, was involved in the brick-making industry, first as a laborer and as a part-owner of three small schooners engaged in the brick-carrying trade. His mother was the former Ellen Goldrick. After his father died Farley helped his mother tend a bar and grocery store that she purchased to support the family. After graduating from high school, he attended Packard Business College in New York City to study bookkeeping and other business skills. After his graduation, he was employed by the United States Gypsum Corporation.
In 1911, Farley began his service as a politician, when he was elected town clerk of Stony Point, New York. Despite Stony Point's Republican leanings, Farley was reelected twice, he was elected chairman of the Rockland County Democratic Party in 1918, he used the position to curry favor with Tammany Hall Boss Charles F. Murphy by convincing him that Alfred E. Smith would be the best choice for governor. Farley married the former Elizabeth A. Finnegan on April 28, 1920, they had two daughters and one son, Elizabeth and James Aloysius Farley, Jr. Farley managed to secured the upstate vote for Smith north of the Bronx line, when he ran for governor the same year; the Democrats could not win north of the Bronx line before Farley organized the Upstate New York Democratic organization. After helping Smith become Governor of New York State, Farley was awarded the post of Port Warden of New York City, he was the last Democrat to hold the post, taken over by the Port Authority of New York. Farley ran for the New York State Assembly in 1922 and won in Rockland County a solid Republican stronghold.
He sat in the 146th New York State Legislature in 1923, but he lost it at the next election for having voted "wet," for the repeal of the Mullan–Gage Act, the state law to enforce Prohibition. Farley was appointed to the New York State Athletic Commission at the suggestion of State Senator Jimmy Walker in 1923, Farley served as a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention, where he befriended Roosevelt, who would give his famous "Happy Warrior" speech for Smith. Farley fought for civil rights for black Americans as chairman of the New York State Athletic Commission. In 1926, Farley threatened to resign his post as Athletic Commissioner if boxing champion Jack Dempsey did not fight the mandatory challenger, African-American fighter Harry Wills. Farley banned Dempsey from fighting Gene Tunney and publicly threatened to revoke Tex Rickard's Madison Square Garden license if he ignored the ruling of the commission. Farley's public stand for black rights proved to be a valuable asset to the Democratic Party for generations, it would sow the seeds of the black bloc of the New Deal.
Wills was the most well known victim of the "color line" drawn by white heavyweight champions after the title reign of Jack Johnson. Wills fought between 1911 and 1932 and was ranked as the number one challenger for the throne, but he was never given the op