Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Progressive Conservative Party of Canada
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada was a federal political party in Canada. In 2003, the party membership voted to dissolve the party and merge with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada. One member of the Senate of Canada, Elaine McCoy, sat as an "Independent Progressive Conservative" until 2016; the conservative parties in most Canadian provinces still use the Progressive Conservative name. Some PC Party members formed the Progressive Canadian Party, which has attracted only marginal support. Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, belonged to the Liberal-Conservative Party, but in advance of confederation in 1867, the Conservative Party took in a large number of defectors from the Liberals who supported the establishment of a Canadian Confederation. Thereafter, the Conservative Party became the Liberal-Conservative Party until the turn of the twentieth century; the federal Tories governed Canada for over forty of the country's first 70 years of existence.
However, the party spent the majority of its history in opposition as the nation's number-two federal party, behind the Liberal Party of Canada. From 1896 to 1993 the Tories formed a government only five times—from 1911 to 1921, from 1930 to 1935, from 1957 to 1963, from 1979 to 1980 and from 1984 to 1993, it stands as the only Canadian party to have won more than 200 seats in an election—a feat it accomplished twice: in 1958 and 1984. The party suffered a decade-long decline following the 1993 federal election and formally dissolved on 7 December 2003, when it merged with the Canadian Alliance to form the modern-day Conservative Party of Canada; the last meeting of the Progressive Conservative federal caucus was held in early 2004. The Conservative Party of Canada took power in 2006 and governed under the leadership of Stephen Harper until 2015, when it was defeated by the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau. Between the party's founding in 1867, its adoption of the "Progressive Conservative" name in 1942, the party changed its name several times.
It was most known as the Conservative Party. Several loosely associated provincial Progressive Conservative parties continue to exist in Manitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador; as well, a small rump of Senators opposed the merger, continued to sit in the Parliament of Canada as Progressive Conservatives. The last one of them rescinded their party status in 2016; the Yukon association of the party renamed itself as the Yukon Party in 1990. The British Columbia Progressive Conservative Party changed its name to the British Columbia Conservative Party in 1991. Saskatchewan's Progressive Conservative Party ceased to exist in 1997, when the Saskatchewan Party formed – from former PC Members of the Legislative Assembly with a few Saskatchewan Liberal MLAs joining them; the party adopted the "Progressive Conservative" party name in 1942 when Manitoba Premier John Bracken, a long-time leader of that province's Progressive Party, agreed to become leader of the federal Conservatives on condition that the party add Progressive to its name.
Despite the name change, most former Progressive supporters continued to support the Liberal Party of Canada or the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Bracken's leadership of the Conservative Party came to an end in 1948. Many Canadians continued to refer to the party as "the Conservatives". A major weakness of the party since 1885 was its inability to win support in Quebec, estranged by that year's execution of Louis Riel; the Conscription Crisis of 1917 exacerbated the issue. Though the Conservative Party of Quebec dominated politics in that province for the first 30 years of Confederation at both the federal and provincial levels, in the 20th century the party was never able to become a force in provincial politics, losing power in 1897, dissolving in 1935 into the Union Nationale, which took power in 1936 under Maurice Duplessis. In 20th-century federal politics, the Conservatives were seen as insensitive to French-Canadian ambitions and interests and succeeded in winning more than a handful of seats in Quebec, with a few notable exceptions: the 1930 federal election, in which Richard Bedford Bennett led the party to a thin majority government victory by securing 24 seats in rural Quebec.
The party never recovered from the fragmentation of Mulroney's broad coalition in the late 1980s resulting from Anglophone Canada's failure to ratify the Meech Lake Accord. Prior to its merger with the Canadian Alliance, it held only 15 of 301 seats in the House of Commons of Canada; the party did not hold more than 20 seats in Parliament between 1993 and 2003. The party pre-dates confederation in 1867, when it accepted many conservative-leaning former members of the Liberal Party into its ranks. At confederation, the Liberal-Conservative Party of Canada became Canada's first governing party under Sir John A. Macdonald, for years was either the governing party of Canada or the largest opposition party; the party changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada following the election as leader of Progressive Party of Manitoba Premier John Bracken in December 1942, who insisted on the name change as a condition of becoming leader. The Progressive Conservative Party was on the
The Bloc Québécois is a federal political party in Canada devoted to Quebec nationalism and the promotion of Quebec sovereignty. The Bloc was formed by Members of Parliament who defected from the federal Progressive Conservative Party and Liberal Party during the collapse of the Meech Lake Accord. Founder Lucien Bouchard was a cabinet minister in the federal Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney; the party seeks to create the conditions necessary for the political secession of Quebec from Canada and campaigns only within the province during federal elections. The party has been described as social separatist; the Bloc was the largest party in Quebec, either the second or third largest party in the House of Commons, for seven straight federal elections, from the 1993 election until 2011. The 2011 election saw the party win just four seats and lose official party status after a wave of support for the New Democratic Party. By 2014 the party had been reduced to two seats because of expulsions.
In the 2015 federal election, the Bloc won 10 seats in the House of Commons though the party's leader Gilles Duceppe failed to win a seat. The Bloc has strong informal ties to the Parti Québécois, a provincial party that advocates for the secession of Quebec from Canada and its independence, but the two are not linked organizationally; as with its provincial counterpart, the Bloc Québécois has been supported by a wide range of voters in Quebec, from sections of organized labour to more conservative rural voters. Members and supporters are known in French as Bloquistes. An incomplete list of Bloc Québécois political positions. Among other things the Bloc Québécois has advocated are: Quebec sovereignty, up to independence repeal of the Clarity Act and opposition to the Muskrat Falls hydroelectric project. Environmentalism supporting the Kyoto Accord. Abortion rights. LGBT rights, including the legalization of same-sex marriage. Decriminalization of cannabis. Legalization of assisted suicide. Abolition of the Canadian Senate.
Withdrawal of Canadian troops from Afghanistan. Opposition to Canadian participation in the Iraq War in 2003. Abolition of the monarchy; the Bloc Québécois was formed in 1991 as an informal coalition of Progressive Conservative and Liberal Members of Parliament from Quebec, who left their original parties around the time of the defeat of the Meech Lake Accord. The party was intended to be temporary and was given the goal of the promotion of sovereignty at the federal level; the party aimed to disband following a successful referendum on secession from Canada. As with most parties, it has lost prominent supporters over the years; the initial coalition that led to the Bloc was headed by Lucien Bouchard, federal Minister of the Environment in the Progressive Conservative government of Brian Mulroney. Bouchard abandoned the government in May 1990 in response to the report of a commission headed by Jean Charest that suggested changes to the Meech Lake Accord. Bouchard felt the recommendations for change undermined the objectives and spirit of the accord.
According to The Secret Mulroney Tapes he was fired by Prime Minister Mulroney. Bouchard was joined by five of his fellow Tories, along with two Liberals; the first Bloquiste candidate to be elected was Gilles Duceppe a union organizer, in a by-election for the Montreal riding of Laurier—Sainte-Marie on 13 August 1990. He ran as an independent. Jean Lapierre rejoined the Liberals during the leadership of Paul Martin. In the 1993 federal election, the Bloc won 54 seats in Quebec, sweeping nearly all of the francophone ridings; because the opposition vote in the rest of Canada was split between the Reform Party, the Progressive Conservative Party, the New Democratic Party, the Bloc narrowly won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, therefore became the official opposition. While Reform finished second in the national popular vote, the Bloc's heavy concentration of support in Quebec was larger than Reform's concentration in the West. Soon after the new Parliament was sworn in, Bouchard announced that Bloquiste MPs would only speak French on the floor of the House of Commons, a policy that remains in force to this day.
This was out of necessity. The election of such a large number of Bloquistes was the first of The Three Periods, a plan intended to lay out the way to sovereignty created by PQ leader Jacques Parizeau. Parizeau became Premier of Quebec in the Quebec election of 1994; because the Bloc was the official opposition, it had considerable privileges over the other parties although all of its MPs had been elected in one province. For instance, Question Periods during the 35th Parliament were dominated by issues of national unity. However, the governing Liberals regarded Reform as their main opposition on non-Quebec matters. In 1995, when Bouchard garnered an invitation to meet visiting US President Bill Clinton by virtue of being Opposition Leader, Reform leader Preston Manning was given a meeting with Clinton in order to defuse Bouchard's separatist leverage. In 1995, the PQ government called the second referendum on independence in Quebec history; the B
1975 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1975 was held on September 18, 1975, to elect the 125 members of the 30th Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by Bill Davis and campaigning under the slogan, "Your Future. Your choice.", won a tenth consecutive term in office. It lost its majority in the legislature, for the first time since the 1945 election; the PC Party lost 27 seats from its result in the previous election. The social democratic Ontario New Democratic Party, led by Stephen Lewis with the slogan "Tomorrow starts today", doubled its representation in the legislature, became the Official Opposition on the strength of a campaign which called for rent control in Ontario and highlighted horror stories of individuals and bad landlords who imposed exorbitant rent increases; the campaign forced the Davis' Tories to promise to implement rent controls shortly before the election. The Ontario Liberal Party, led by Robert Nixon, won 15 additional seats, but lost the role of Official Opposition to the NDP.
One member of its caucus was elected as a Liberal-Labour candidate. There were 12 Social Credit League of Ontario candidates but they were not recognized as such as the party did not run enough candidates or otherwise qualify for official party status under the newly passed Election Finances Reform Act, 1975. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario candidates, 1975 Ontario provincial election Independent candidates, 1975 Ontario provincial election
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Denis Paradis is a Canadian politician and lawyer serving as the Member of Parliament for Brome—Missisquoi since 2015 holding the position from 1995 to 2006. A member of the Liberal Party of Canada, Paradis was Minister of State for Financial Institutions from 2003 to 2004, his brother, Pierre Paradis, is a member of the National Assembly of Quebec and a provincial cabinet minister. The Paradis brothers are political allies. Paradis was born in Quebec, he has a Bachelor of Commerce degree and a Bachelor of Civil Law degree from the University of Ottawa and was admitted to the Quebec Bar in 1976. In 1985, he co-authored the book. After working as a partner in the firm Paradis-Poulin, he became the president of the Quebec Bar Association in 1993. In June of the same year, he criticized the overcrowded state of some provincial courthouses, he owns a winery in Quebec. Paradis was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a 1995 by-election, called after Gaston Péloquin, the sitting Bloc Québécois member for Brome—Missisquoi, was killed in an automobile accident.
Paradis championed the Canadian federalist cause in the campaign and said that his election would confirm Brome-Missisquoi's place within a united Canada. The election was considered too close to call, but Paradis won by a significant margin, his victory was seen as helping the federalist cause in the buildup to the 1995 Quebec referendum on sovereignty. Paradis entered parliament as a backbench supporter of Jean Chrétien's government. In late 1995, he helped launch a Summer Work/Student Exchange project that encouraged students to develop their second-language skills, he was elected chair of the Liberal Party's Quebec caucus in February 1997. Paradis was returned to a second parliamentary mandate in the 1997 federal election, in late 1997 he co-chaired a special committee that recommended Quebec's schools be divided on linguistic rather than denominational lines, he was named as parliamentary secretary to the minister for International Cooperation in January 1999, in September of the same year he was promoted to parliamentary secretary to the minister of Foreign Affairs.
He was again returned to parliament in the 2000 federal election. Paradis was appointed as Secretary of State for La Francophonie and Secretary of State for Latin America and Africa in Chrétien's government on January 15, 2002; these were ministerial positions but not full cabinet portfolios. AfricaShortly after his appointment, Paradis met with Nigerian Information Minister Jerry Gana in an effort to prevent the execution of Safiya Hussaini, he supported the Commonwealth's decision to suspend Zimbabwe for one year in the aftermath of that country's disputed 2002 presidential election. Paradis accompanied Chrétien on a 2002 delegation to Africa that included stops in Morocco, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa, he supported the New Partnership for Africa's Development, in October 2002 he pledged more than two million dollars to promote security and good governance in francophone Africa. In March 2003, Paradis announced that Canada would provide one hundred million dollars to Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali and Tanzania under the Canada Fund for Africa.
The stated intent of this funding was to recognize improved commitments to human rights and democracy. In the same year, Paradis represented Canada at Olusegun Obasanjo's inauguration for a second term as President of Nigeria. Paradis nominated former United Nations Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to be named to the Order of Canada in 2002. Boutros-Ghali received the honour in 2004. Latin AmericaParadis led a Canadian trade delegation to Cuba in November 2002; this visit marked an improvement in relations between the countries, strained for three years due to Canadian concerns about Cuba's human rights practices. In January 2003, Paradis hosted. At this meeting, representatives from Canada, the United States of America, the Organization of American States discussed Haiti's political future. No representatives of the Haitian government were present. A few months journalist Michel Vastel leaked information about the meeting that he said was given to him by Paradis. Writing in L'Actualité, Vastel claimed that the delegates decided that Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide should be replaced by a United Nations trusteeship within a year.
Paradis has denied Vastel's claim. The FrancophonieIn December 2002, Paradis called for the creation of a watchdog organization to target human rights violations in Francophonie nations. Paradis was not, during Jean Chrétien's tenure as Prime Minister, among the group of Liberal parliamentarians who supported Paul Martin's leadership ambitions, he supported Martin at the 2003 Liberal Party leadership convention, held to elect Chrétien's successor. Martin won a landslide victory and became prime minister on December 12, 2003; when he formed his first ministry, he appointed Paradis as minister of state for Financial Institutions. Paradis led several roundtable discussions with business and social groups in months that followed, during the buildup to the Martin government's 2004 budget. Shortly before budget day, he said that the government would return to a practice of setting aside four billion dollars per year to cover emergency spending or the possibility of an economic downturn. Paradis was narrowly re-elected in the 2004 federal election over Bloc challenger Christian Ouellet.
He was not returned to the government backbenches. He lost his seat to Ouellet in the 2006 election, amid losses for th