Pine City, Minnesota
Pine City is a city in Pine County, Minnesota, in east central Minnesota. Pine City is the county seat of Pine County. A portion of the city is located on the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation. Founded as a railway town, it became a logging community and the surrounding lakes made it a resort town. Today, it exists in part as a commuter town to jobs in the Minneapolis–Saint Paul metropolitan area; the Dakota Indians were the first in the area. With the Ojibwa expansion, the area became a mixture of the two. By the early 19th century, the area became predominantly Ojibwa, they hunted on the land and traded furs at the nearby trading posts. With the Treaty of St. Peters of 1837, dubbed the "White Pine Treaty", lumbering began in the area. Lumbering, was limited by access to the available waterways. In the late 19th century, European settlers came to the Pine City area, still forested with thick stands of white pine, some of the largest in the state; when the railroad arrived in Pine City so began a logging expansion.
Pine City prospered and grew into a city that had everything needed to serve residents and the fast expanding lumber industry. Pine City was platted in 1869; the city was incorporated in 1881. When Buchanan County was merged with Pine County in 1861, the county seat was consolidated to Pine City because it was well-established; because of its location on the far southern edge of Pine County, there have been attempts over the years to move the county seat to more centrally located Hinckley and Sandstone. However, being the most populous city in the county, Pine City always prevailed as the county seat. In 2005, the city became the first in rural Minnesota with an annual gay pride event, East-Central Minnesota Pride, one of only two rural communities to hold such an event in the United States. A book capturing Pine City's history in vintage photos was written as part of the Images of America series and became available in 2010. Pine City is reached as a day trip for tourists from the Twin Cities who enjoy the downtown's specialty stores and restaurants as well as a nearby casino and recreational opportunities, including the scenic St. Croix River valley.
A local historical site situated along the Snake River, the Snake River Fur Post, has become a tourist draw. Pine City is home to two golf courses, the Pine City Country Club, a nine-hole, par 36 public course that opened in 1971, Pokegema Lake Golf Course, a course located just west of town; the Pine County Fair takes place in Pine City each year in late July/early August. A highlight of the fair is a three-night demolition derby, one of Minnesota's largest, drawing several thousand spectators each evening; the five-day event is a free gate fair and features free on-site parking. The Initiative Foundation named Pine City "Outstanding Community" of 2009 and the NAMM Foundation identified it as one of the "Best Communities for Music Education in America" for 2010, 2011 and 2012. In 2016, Movoto named Pine City one of "The 7 Best Towns in Minnesota for LGBT Families", it is a participant in the Green Steps program by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.91 square miles, of which 3.44 square miles is land and 0.47 square miles is water.
Below is a table of average low temperatures throughout the year in Pine City. Of note, Pine City's early years included historic temperature extremes as it was the site of three record-setting cold temperatures: March 2, 1897 November 30, 1896 December 31, 1898 As of the census of 2000, there were 3,043 residents, 1,222 households, 734 families in the city; the population density was 1,076.3 people per square mile. There were 1,275 housing units at an average density of 451.0 per square mile. 95.58% White, 1.54% Native American, 1.22% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.74% Asian, 0.26% African American, 0.19% from other races, 0.03% Pacific Islander and 1.67% from two or more races. The city has continued to grow. In fact, it is one of only three small towns in Minnesota, along with Mora and Litchfield, to have never lost population. Much of the growth of the area occurs around the lakes in the neighboring townships, in Pokegama, Chengwatana or Pine City Township, as of the latest census, the Pine City Zip Code had 9,348 residents.
There were 1,222 households out of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.9% were non-families. 34.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 25.0% from 25 to 44, 17.9% from 45 to 64, 21.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,000 and the median income for a family was $37,000. Males had a median income of $30,000 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,000. About 10.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over.
Ancestry of Pine City residents is German, Norwegian and Czech. After the
Pine County, Minnesota
Pine County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 29,750, its county seat is Pine City. The county was formed in 1856 and organized in 1872. A portion of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation is Pine County. Pine County was organized on March 1856, with Chisago County being its primary parent county. Other portions of the original Pine County originated from Ramsey County; the original county seat was Chengwatana. In 1857, Buchanan County in full and southern portions of Aitkin and Carlton counties were formed from the original Pine County, with Kanabec County organized a year later. In 1861, Buchanan County was folded into Pine County. Pine County was re-organized with Pine City becoming the new county seat. Pine County has been featured in a series of Mysteries written by Dean Hovey; the titles include: Where Evil Hides, Unforgettable, The Deacon's Demise, Family Trees. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,435 square miles, of which 1,411 square miles is land and 23 square miles is water.
Carlton County Douglas County, Wisconsin Burnett County, Wisconsin Chisago County Isanti County Kanabec County Aitkin County Saint Croix National Scenic Riverway As of the 2000 census, there were 26,530 people, 9,939 households, 6,917 families residing in the county. The population density was 19 people per square mile. There were 15,353 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.9% White, 2.0% Black or African American, 3.1% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. 2.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.3 % were of 11.1 % Norwegian and 5.5 % American ancestry. There were 17,276 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 8.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.50% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 108.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $37,379, the median income for a family was $44,058. Males had a median income of $31,600 versus $22,675 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,445. About 7.80% of families and 11.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 10.00% of those age 65 or over. National Register of Historic Places listings in Pine County, Minnesota Pine County Government's Website Mn/DOT Official Map of Southern Pine County Mn/DOT Official Map of Northern Pine County
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Willow River, Minnesota
Willow River is a city in Pine County, United States, at the confluence of the Kettle and Willow Rivers. The population was 415 at the 2010 census. Interstate 35, County Road 43, County 61 are three of the main routes in the community. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.86 square miles, of which 1.71 square miles is land and 0.15 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 415 people, 173 households, 103 families residing in the city; the population density was 242.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 199 housing units at an average density of 116.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.7% White, 0.2% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.2% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.2% of the population. There were 173 households of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.5% were non-families.
35.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 35.1 years. 26% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.7% male and 52.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 301 people, 130 households, 69 families residing in the city; the population density was 196.7 people per square mile. There were 155 housing units at an average density of 98.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.88% White, 4.53% Native American, 0.97% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.94% of the population. There were 129 households out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 45.7% were non-families. 39.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.37. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 19.7% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,938, the median income for a family was $44,167. Males had a median income of $37,656 versus $25,417 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,620. About 16.1% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 18.6% of those sixty five or over. The first known settlement in what was to become the Village of Willow River, at the junctions of the Willow and Kettle Rivers, was an encampment of Ojibway Indians. In July 1850 a roadway connecting the upper Mississippi River and the Lake Superior country, named the Point Douglas to St. Louis River Road, more known as the government military road, went from just south of St. Paul to Duluth.
Willow River was chosen as a changing station for the coach horses. In 1861 the Lake Superior and Mississippi Railroad was organized with the financial help of Jay Cooke, it wasn't until August 1879. It was the railroad that helped promote living in the northern part of Minnesota; the railroad promoted the lumber industry. Many towns and villages, including Willow River, were organized. In March 1874 the Kettle River Township was organized and Willow River at this time consisted of a railroad depot, water tank, wood yard, two section houses built for the railroad hands. Pine County records show that the three sections of land that would make up the village of Willow River were homesteaded by Edward Clough, Albert Kinney, Peter Jarvis, Joseph Nebula, Richard Abbott. In 1886 Abbott sold his section of land to the Fox-Wisdom Lumber Company. In 1888 Jarvis sold his section to Fox-Wisdom. In the spring of 1890, Warren D. Fox and John Wisdom opened the Fox-Wisdom Lumber Company in Willow River; the company platted the land to build their business and offer lots for employees.
By 1895 Kinney had leased his land to Fox-Wisdom, Clough had sold all but 80 acres of his section in the northern part of the village. Joseph Nebula's section was past the lake and unusable to the company; the Fox-Wisdom Lumber Company sawmill was constructed and opened in March 1890. It was located on the south side of the present day Willow River dam. To ease the flow of logs, dams were built along the river to store water. There were as least three maintained by Fox-Wisdom, they were known as a Half," the "Willow Lake," and the "Oak Lake" dams. Sawmill operations continued until the freeze-up of the mill pond; the mill produced lumber and shingles employing about 125 men. The mill cut 125,000 feet of lumber per day during their peak season. Many who worked in the logging camps during the winter came to the mill to work in the spring. On May 8, 1891, the village plat was filed in Pine County; the Fox-Wisdom Lumber Company and its employees made up the majority of property owners. Willow River
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income