The Chickamauga Cherokee were a group that separated from the greater body of the Cherokee tribes during the American Revolutionary War. The majority of the Cherokee people wished to make peace with the Americans near the end of 1776 following several military setbacks and the reprisals that followed; the Chickamauga followers of headman Dragging Canoe moved with him down the Tennessee River away from their historic Overhill Cherokee towns in the winter of 1776–77. Relocated in a more isolated area, they established 11 new towns in order to gain distance from colonists' encroachments; the frontier Americans associated Dragging Canoe and his band with their new town on the Chickamauga Creek and began to refer to them as the Chickamaugas. Five years the Cherokee moved further west and southwest into present-day Alabama, establishing five larger settlements, they were more known as the Lower Cherokee. This term was associated with the people of these "Five Lower Towns". During the winter of 1776–77, Cherokee followers of Dragging Canoe, who had supported the British at the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, moved down the Tennessee River and away from their historic Overhill Cherokee towns.
They established nearly a dozen new towns in this frontier area in an attempt to gain distance from encroaching European-American settlers. Dragging Canoe and his followers settled at the place where the Great Indian Warpath crossed the Chickamauga Creek, near present-day Chattanooga, Tennessee, they named their town Chickamauga after the stream. The entire adjacent region was referred to in general as the Chickamauga area. American settlers adopted that term to refer to the militant Cherokee in this area as "Chickamaugas." In 1782, militia forces under John Sevier and William Campbell destroyed the eleven Cherokee towns. Dragging Canoe once again led his people further down the Tennessee River, establishing five new, Lower Cherokee towns. After the Revolutionary War, westward migration increased by pioneers from the new states of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. Dragging Canoe relocated his people west and southwest, into new settlements centered on Running Water on Running Water Creek.
The other towns founded at this time were: Nickajack, Long Island, Crow Town, Lookout Mountain Town. In time more towns spread south and west, all these were referred to as the Lower Towns; the Chickamauga Cherokee became known for their uncompromising enmity against United States settlers, who had pushed them out of their traditional territory. From Running Water town, Dragging Canoe led attacks on white settlements all over the American Southeast; the Chickamauga/Lower Cherokee and the frontiersmen were continuously at war until 1794. Chickamauga warriors raided as far as Indiana and Virginia; because of a growing belief in the Chickamauga cause, as well as the destruction of the homes of the other Native Americans, a majority of the Cherokee came to be allied against the United States. Following the death of Dragging Canoe in 1792, his hand-picked successor, John Watts, assumed control of the Lower Cherokee. Under Watts' lead, the Cherokee continued their policy of Indian unity and hostility toward European-Americans.
Watts moved his base of operations to Willstown to be closer to his Muscogee allies. Prior to this, he had concluded a treaty in Pensacola with the Spanish governor of West Florida, Arturo O'Neill de Tyrone, for arms and supplies with which to carry on the war; the Chickamauga Towns and the Lower Towns were no different from the rest of the Cherokee than were other groups of historic settlements, known as the Middle Towns, Out Towns, Lower Towns, Valley Towns, or Overhill Towns, well established by the time the Europeans first encountered these people. The groupings did not constitute separate political entities as much as groupings for geographic convenience; the only real government among the Cherokee was by town and clan, though there were regional councils, these had no binding powers. Over time, the different groups of towns developed differing ideas about relations with European-Americans, in part related to the degree of interaction and intermarriage they had with them through trading and other partnerships.
The only "national" position which existed among the people before 1788 was First Beloved Man, a chief negotiator from the Towns of the Cherokee farthest from the reach of the intruders. After 1788, there was a national council of sorts, but it met irregularly and at the time had no prescriptive or proscriptive powers. After the peace of 1794, the Cherokee were broken up into five groups: the Upper Towns, the Overhill Towns, the Hill Towns, the Valley Towns, the Lower Towns, each with their own regional ruling councils. Dragging Canoe had addressed the National Council at Ustanali, publicly acknowledged Little Turkey as the senior leader of all the Cherokee, he was memorialized by the council following his death in 1792. Leaders of the "Chickamauga" communicated with the Cherokee of other regions, they were supported in warfare against the colonists and pioneers by warriors from the Overhill Towns. Numerous Chickamauga headmen signed treaties with the federal government, along with other leaders of the Cherokee.
Following the Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse in late 1794, leaders from the Lower Cherokee dominated national affairs of the people. When the national government of
Georgia Land Lotteries
The Georgia land lotteries were an early nineteenth century system of land redistribution in Georgia. Under this system, qualifying citizens could register for a chance to win lots of land, occupied by the Creek Indians and the Cherokee Nation; the lottery system was utilized by the State of Georgia between the years 1805 and 1833. Although some other states used land lotteries, none were implemented at the scale of the Georgia contests. Land lots were surveyed in five different sizes based on the perceived quality of the land. In 1805, land lots were 202.5 acres and 490 acres. In 1807, land lots were 202.5 acres. In 1820, land lots were 490 acres. In 1821, land lots were 202.5 acres. In the 1832 Land Lottery area, land lots were 160 acres, while in the 1832 Gold Lottery area, land lots were 40 acres. Prior to 1803, Georgia distributed land via a headright system. Though designed to prohibit corruption, the system encouraged it. During early administration, the government abused this system and created what today is known as the Yazoo land scandal.
The much-abused "headright" system resulted in the adoption of the lottery system in May 1803, under governor John Milledge. The first lottery occurred in 1805. For each person subscribing to a lottery, a ticket was placed in the wheel. Since each lottery was over-subscribed, tickets were added to compensate for the over-subscription. In October 1831, Georgia voters went to the polls to vote between Governor George Gilmer who wished to reserve the Cherokee land, which contained several gold mines, for the State of Georgia, in order to pay for government projects and reduce taxes, Wilson Lumpkin, who supported giving away the lands. In an effort to keep their lands, certain Cherokees —including John Ross, Samuel Worcester and Major Ridge—took their fight against the State of Georgia to the United States Supreme Court. There were two major cases heard by the Court during the years of 1831 through 1832: Cherokee Nation v. Georgia and Worcester v. Georgia. Although the U. S. Supreme Court ruled against the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation in Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, the U.
S. Supreme granted sovereignty in Worcester v. Georgia, resulting in the invalidation of the Indian Removal Act; the U. S. President Andrew Jackson and the State of Georgia chose instead to ignore the Supreme Court ruling. Georgia continued its surveying and division of the Cherokee lands through the final "1832 Land and Gold Lotteries". President Jackson utilized the U. S. Army, forcing the "removal of the Cherokees. Land speculation in the lotteries were common, many lots were sold sight-unseen by the winners for other lots or for gold. Real estate agents, individual citizens and unscrupulous lottery officials attempted to secure promising gold belt lots or valuable Cherokee plantation lots. During the 1832 Lottery alone, some 85,000 people competed for 18,309 land lots to be given away, at least 133,000 people competed for 35,000 gold belt lots to be given away. During the 28 years that the State of Georgia used the lottery system, the rules and the methods of the system remained unchanged. Lottery fees depended on the winning ticket and the size of the lot won, but in general, they only covered the cost of running the lottery.
The State did not directly profit from allocating these lands. Fractional lots were sold in each of the lotteries, some lands those near major rivers, were exempt from the lottery; these were distributed by the State at public auctions. 1805 Land Lottery — This encompassed Creek Indian lands just west of the Oconee River ceded to the state in 1802 and a small strip of land in the southeast section of the state. 1807 Land Lottery — Included additional Creek lands. 1820 Land Lottery — After the Creek War, President Jackson demanded from the Creeks an immense area of land which would become the southern third of the entire state of Georgia. A second section of land in northeast Georgia was included; this other, smaller section defined the eastern end of the Cherokee Nation for 12 years. 1821 Land Lottery — Further Creek cessions which included the future site of Atlanta. 1827 Land Lottery — Signaled the end of the Creek Indians in Georgia. 1832 Land Lottery — This lottery, along with the 1832 Gold Lottery, gave the Cherokee Nation to Georgia settlers.
Sparked the "Trail of Tears." 1832 Gold Lottery — By the time of the gold lottery the Georgia Gold Rush was beginning to wind down. The state did not guarantee. 1833 Fractions Lottery — The State of Georgia held one final land lottery in December, 1833, to distribute fractions from the Cherokee territory and other remaining lots not drawn in previous lotteries. Georgia Land Lotteries from the state of Georgia Archives 1805 Georgia Land Lottery from 1805georgialandlottery.com 1807 Georgia Land Lottery from 1807georgialandlottery.com Georgia Land Lottery from ngeorgia.com Land Lottery Records from rootsweb.com/~usgenweb Land Lottery Records from georgiagenealogy.org
Samuel Austin Worcester, was a missionary to the Cherokee, translator of the Bible and defender of the Cherokee's sovereignty. He collaborated with Elias Boudinot in the American Southeast to establish the Cherokee Phoenix, the first Native American newspaper; the Cherokees gave him the honorary name A-tse-nu-sti. Worcester was arrested and convicted for disobeying Georgia's law restricting white missionaries from living in Cherokee territory without a state license. On appeal, he was the plaintiff in Worcester v. Georgia, a case that went to the United States Supreme Court; the court held. Chief Justice John Marshall defined in his dicta that the federal government had an exclusive relationship with the Indian nations and recognized the latter's sovereignty, above state laws. Both President Andrew Jackson and Governor George Gilmer ignored the ruling. After receiving a pardon from the subsequent governor, Worcester left Georgia on a promise to never return, he moved to Indian Territory in 1836 in the period of Cherokee removal on the Trail of Tears.
His wife died there in 1839. Worcester resumed his ministry, continued translating the Bible into Cherokee, established the first printing press in that part of the United States, working with the Cherokee to publish their newspaper. Worcester was born in Peacham, Vermont on January 19, 1798, to the Rev. Leonard Worcester, a minister, he was the seventh generation of pastors in his family, dating back to ancestors who lived in England. According to Charles Perry of the Peacham Historical Association, Leonard Worcester worked as a printer in the town; the young Worcester studied printing with his father. In 1819, he graduated with honors from the University of Vermont. Samuel Worcester decided to become a missionary. After graduating from Andover Theological Seminary in 1823, he expected to be sent to India, Palestine or the Sandwich Islands. Instead, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions sent him to the American Southeast to minister to the local Native American tribes. Worcester married Ann Orr of New Hampshire, whom he had met at Andover.
They moved to Brainerd Mission, where he was assigned as a missionary to the Cherokees in August 1825. The goals ABCFM set for them were, "...make the whole tribe English in their language, civilized in their habits and Christian in their religion." Other missionaries working among the Cherokees had learned that they first needed to learn the Cherokee language. While living at Brainerd, the Worcesters had a daughter. Two years they moved to New Echota, established in 1825 as the capital of the nation on the headwaters of Oostanaula River in what is now Georgia. Worcester worked with Elias Boudinot to establish the Cherokee Phoenix newspaper, the first among Native American nations. Samuel and Ann had seven children: Ann Eliza, Jerusha, Leonard, John Orr and Mary Eleanor. Ann Eliza grew up to become a missionary and with her husband, William Schenck Robertson, founded Nuyaka Mission in the Indian Territory. Young Samuel's uncle and namesake, Dr. Samuel Worcester, was the founder of the American Board and had served as the board's official corresponding secretary.
The elder Worcester was buried there. Worcester was influenced by a young Cherokee named Oowatie (later known by the English name he had been given, Elias Boudinot, educated in New England schools and was the nephew of Major Ridge, a wealthy and politically prominent Cherokee National Council member; the two had become close friends over the two years. The Cherokee Sequoyah developed a syllabary to create a writing system for the Cherokee language; this was a singular achievement. He and his people had admired the written papers of the European Americans, which they called the "Talking Leaves." Boudinot asked Worcester to use his printing experience to establish a Cherokee newspaper. Worcester believed the newspaper could be a tool for Cherokee literacy, a means to draw the loose Cherokee community together, he wrote a prospectus for the paper that promised to publish laws and documents of the Cherokee Nation, articles on Cherokee manners and customs, as well as "news of the day."Using his missionary connection, Worcester secured funds to build a printing office, buy the printing press and ink, cast the syllabary's characters.
Since the 86-character syllabary was new, Worcester made the metal type for each character. The two men helped produce the Cherokee Phoenix, which first rolled off the press on February 21, 1828 at New Echota; this was the first Native American newspaper. At some point, the Cherokees honored Worcester with a Cherokee name, "A-tse-nu-tsi", meaning "messenger." The westward push of European-American settlers from coastal areas continued to encroach on the Cherokee after they had made some land cessions to the US government. With the help of Worcester and his sponsor, the American Board, they made a plan to fight the encroachment by using the courts, they wanted to take a case to the US Supreme Court to define the relationship between the federal and state governments, establish the sovereignty of the Cherokee nation. No other civil authority would support Cherokee sovereignty to their land and self-government in their territory. Hiring William Wirt, a former U. S. Attorney General, the Cherokee tried to argue their position before the US Supreme Court in Georgia v. Tassel (the court gra
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of Tears, refers to the forced relocation between 1836 and 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama to the Indian Territory in the Western United States, the resultant deaths along the way and at the end of the movement of an estimated 4,000 Cherokee. The Cherokee have come to call the event Nu na da ul tsun yi. Removal actions occurred to other American Indian groups in the American South, Midwest and the Plains regions; the Chickasaw, Choctaw and were removed reluctantly. The Seminole in Florida responded to removal by the United States Army for decades with guerrilla warfare, part of the intermittent Native American Wars that lasted from 1540 to 1924; some Seminole remained in their Florida home country, while others were transported to Native American Territory in shackles. The phrase "Trail of Tears" is used to refer to similar events endured by other Indian groups among the "Five Civilized Tribes".
The phrase originated as a description of the voluntary removal of the Choctaw Nation in 1831. In the fall of 1835, a census was taken by civilian officials of the US War Department to enumerate Cherokee residing in Alabama, North Carolina, Tennessee, with a count of 16,542 Cherokee, 201 inter-married whites, 1592 slaves. Tensions between the indigenous Cherokee and white settlers developed over ownership of the land rich in gold deposits and fertile soil that could be used for farming cotton. In October of that year, Principal Chief John Ross and an Eastern visitor, John Howard Payne, were kidnapped from Ross' Tennessee home by a renegade group of the Georgia militia. Released, Ross and a delegation of tribal leaders traveled to Washington, DC to protest this high-handed action, to lobby against the removal policy of President Andrew Jackson. In an effort to reach an agreeable compromise Principal Chief John Ross met with President Jackson to discuss the possibility that Cherokee might give up some of their land for money and land to the west of the Mississippi River.
Jackson turned this deal down resulting in Ross suggesting $20 million as a base for negotiating the sale of the land and agreeing to let the US Senate decide the sale price. John Ross estimated the value of Cherokee Land at $7.23 million. A conservative estimate by Matthew T. Gregg in 2009 puts Cherokee's land value for the 1838 market at $7,055,469.70, more than $2 million over the $5 million the senate agreed to pay. In this power vacuum, U. S. Agent John F. Schermerhorn gathered a group of dissident Cherokee in the home of Elias Boudinot at the tribal capital, New Echota, Georgia. There on December 29, 1835, this rump group signed the unauthorized Treaty of New Echota, which exchanged Cherokee land in the East for lands west of the Mississippi River in Indian Territory; this agreement was never accepted by the elected tribal leadership or a majority of the Cherokee people. In February 1836, two councils convened at Red Clay, Tennessee and at Valley Town, North Carolina and produced two lists totaling some 13,000 names written in the Sequoyah writing script of Cherokee opposed to the Treaty.
The lists were presented by Chief Ross to Congress. A modified version of the treaty was ratified by the U. S. Senate by a single vote on May 23, 1836, signed into law by President Jackson; the treaty provided a grace period until May 1838 for the tribe to voluntarily remove themselves to Indian Territory. Until widespread use of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton had been such an arduous crop to grow and process because of the time-consuming process of removing the sticky seeds from each of the individual boles of cotton; this process took so long. The increased ease of cotton production due to access to the Cotton Gin, invented in 1793 by Eli Whitney, which used teeth to comb through the fluffy fibers and remove all of the seeds in a much more efficient manner, led to a major rise in the production of cotton in the south near North Carolina and Georgia. Production increased from 750,000 bales in 1830 to 2.85 million bales in 1850, earning the south the nickname King Cotton for its success.
Matthew T. Gregg writes that "According to the 1835 Cherokee census enumerators, 1,707,900 acres in the Cherokee Nation in Georgia were tillable." This land was valuable farming land, with the ideal climate and the necessary 200 frost-free days for growing cotton, would have been crucial in supporting the cotton industry's monumental growth, as would have increased ease of transportation due to railroads. The Cherokee Indians grew small family farms and only planted what was needed to survive alongside hunting and gathering. Some, heeded Silas Dinsmoor's advice, they took advantage of the growing demand for cotton and began to farm it themselves, asking for cotton cards, cotton gins, spinning wheels from the United States Government. As immigration increased throughout the 1820s and 1830s, by 1850 2.6 million people immigrated to the United States, the government saw that the land could be used for more than just small family crops and could provide a source of income for the farmers immigrating to the south and needing farmable land.
The Cherokees that did farm cotton in excess for selling became a threat to the settlers that were hoping to capitalize on the cotton industry by taking away not only valuable farm land but
Resaca is a town in Gordon County, United States, with unincorporated areas extending into Whitfield County. Resaca lies along the Oostanaula River; the population was 544 at the 2010 census. It is home to a monastery. Resaca is located at 34°34′45″N 84°56′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.9 square miles, of which 2.8 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. Resaca known as Dublin, was founded in 1848 with the arrival of the Western and Atlantic Railroad into the area. Dublin was renamed Resacca when it was incorporated as a town in 1854. In 1871, the spelling of the town was shortened to its present form of Resaca; the town was named by returning Mexican–American War inductees who fought at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma in Brownsville, Texas, in 1846. The Civil War Battle of Resaca was fought in and around Resaca in May 1864; each year a re-enactment of the Battle of Resaca, the first battle of the Atlanta Campaign, is held on the third weekend of May.
Resaca is the location of the first Confederate cemetery in the state of Georgia. The story of the cemetery is:The memory of a Georgia woman, Mary J. Green, who with her own hands gathered and interred the bones and bodies of the Confederate dead left lying on the Resaca Battlefield, should always be sacred to us; the sight that greeted the Green family when they returned to their plantation after the battle was more than they could bear. Around the house on all sides were scattered graves of Confederates, buried where they fell; the Green daughters conceived the idea of collecting all the bodies and re-interring them in a plot of land to be known as a Confederate cemetery. The one great drawback, was that they had no money. In the summer of 1866, Mary began writing to her friends around the state, begging them to try and raise money for the cemetery. Although poverty was rampant in the South, the citizenry responded by giving what they could, be it a nickel, a dime, a quarter, or a dollar. Col. Green gave his daughters 2.5 acres of land with rustic bridges spanning the stream through the grounds of their cemetery.
The account of the first Memorial Day, October 25, 1866, written by Mary Green: "The day selected for the dedication... was bright and beautiful, one of those charming days of our Indian summers where no sound was heard save the fluttering of falling leaves – a suitable accompaniment to our sad thoughts, as we stood in the'bivouac of the dead.'" This cemetery and one at Winchester, were consecrated and dedicated on the same day, each sponsoring group thinking theirs was the first Confederate Cemetery. Mathew Brady captured several photographs of the battlefield. Scenes of the conflict and.its aftermath were depicted by various artists including Adolph Metzner. The Town of Resaca was incorporated and granted a charter by the State of Georgia in 1981. Resacas are former channels of the Rio Grande. There are two explanations for the origin of the word "resaca." The less holds that it is a contraction of Spanish rio seco. The other is that the word stems from the Spanish resacar, since the primary geological function of a resaca seems to be diversion and dissipation of floodwater from the river.
Resacas are cut off from the river, having no inlet or outlet. Vernacular northern Mexican and other Latin American Spanish dialects translate'resaca' as'hangover' - undoubtedly referencing the dry cotton-mouth condition the morning after heavy alcohol consumption - as a'dry river bed.' Anecdotes abound as to the derivation of the place name, one involving the capture of an Indian maiden by settlers to be offered in marriage to the single man of her choosing. Transported by her captors to the center of the settlement in a gunnysack, she was ceremoniously unveiled to the awaiting public. Upon seeing her in the sunlight, onlookers were aghast at her homeliness, whereupon chants of "Re-sack-'er" arose. Since 1977, the Resaca area has been the home of the Monastery of the Glorious Ascension, housed in the former midcentury modern hilltop residence purchased from the late Thurman Chitwood, local entrepreneur and ordained minister in the Church of Christ; the monastery is the only Orthodox Christian monastery in the state of Georgia.
At one time it offered hospice to those afflicted with AIDS. Local detractors, with unfounded fears of casual communicability of AIDS, unsuccessfully sought to have its permitting revoked; the monastery, just across the line in Whitfield County, maintains a cemetery for Orthodox Christians. It has been under the authority of various "national" jurisdictions, not uncommon for an Orthodox monastery, it is subject to the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem and the Etropia of The Holy Sepulcher. The Resaca Beach Poster Girl Contest, a swimsuit pageant at one time known throughout the South, was founded in the nearby city of Dalton in 1983 as a marketing gimmick of Conquest Carpet Mills, Inc; the name is tongue-in-cheek, since there is no ocean for hundreds of miles, although it draws reference to a once popular bathing spot on the Oostanaula riverbank deemed Resaca Beach. Local boosterism proclaims: "Resaca Beach – North Georgia's Gateway to the Gulf." The pageant, which launched the career of Whitfield County native Marla Maples, former spouse of real estate magnate Donald Trump, has been held intermittently since the mid-1980s, most in 2008.
As of the census of 2000, there were 815 people, 263 households, 189 families residing in the city. The population density was 295.4 people per square mile. There
Cherokee Nation (1794–1907)
The Cherokee Nation from 1794–1907 was a legal, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907. Referred to as "The Nation" by its inhabitants, it should not be confused with what is known in the 21st century as the Cherokee Nation, it consisted of the Cherokee people of the southeastern United States. The Cherokee called themselves the Ani-Yun' wiya. In their language this meant "leading" or "principal" people. Before 1794, the Cherokee had no standing national government; the people dwelled in "towns" located in scattered autonomous tribal areas related by kinship throughout the southern Appalachia region. Various leaders were periodically appointed to represent the tribes to French and American authorities as was needed; the title this leader carried among the Cherokee was "First Beloved Man" —being the true translation of the title Uku, which the English translated as "chief". The chief's function was to serve as focal point for negotiations with the encroaching Europeans, such as the case of Hanging Maw, recognized as chief by the United States government, but not by the majority of Cherokee peoples.
At the end of the Cherokee–American wars, Little Turkey was recognized as "Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation" by all the towns. At that time, Cherokee tribes could be found in lands nominally under the jurisdiction of Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, the Overhill area, to become part of the state of Tennessee; the break-away Chickamauga band, under chief Dragging Canoe, had retreated to and now inhabited an area that would be the northern area of the future state of Alabama. U. S. president George Washington sought to "civilize" the southeastern American Indians, through programs overseen by US Indian Agent Benjamin Hawkins. Facilitated by the destruction of many Indian towns during the American Revolutionary War, U. S. land agents convinced many Native Americans to abandon their historic communal-land tenure and settle on isolated farmsteads. Over-harvesting by the deerskin trade had brought white-tailed deer in the region to the brink of extinction; the tribes were supplied with spinning wheels and cotton-seed, men were taught to fence and plow the land.
Women were instructed in weaving. Blacksmiths and cotton plantations were established. Succeeding Little Turkey as Principal Chief were Black Fox and Pathkiller, both former warriors of Dragging Canoe. "The separation", a phrase which the Cherokee used to describe the period after 1776 when the Chickamauga had removed themselves from the other tribes which were in close proximity to the Anglo-American settlements ended at the reunification council of 1809. Three important Cherokee–American wars veterans of the time, James Vann and his two protégés, The Ridge and Charles R. Hicks, made up the'Cherokee Triumvirate' —advocating acculturation of the people, formal education of the young, the introduction of modern farming methods. In 1801 they invited Moravian missionaries to their territory from North Carolina to teach Christianity and the'arts of civilized life.' The Moravian, Congregationalist, missionaries ran boarding schools, with a select few students chosen to be educated at the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions school in Connecticut.
These men continued to be leaders in the tribe. Hicks participated in the Red Stick War, which coincided with part of US involvement in the War of 1812, he was the de facto Principal Chief from 1813–1827. In 1802, the U. S. federal government promised to extinguish Native American titles to internal Georgia lands in return for the state's formal cession of its unincorporated western claim. In 1815, the US government established a Cherokee Reservation in the Arkansaw district of the Missouri Territory and tried to convince the Cherokee to move there voluntarily; the reservation boundaries extended from north of the Arkansas River to the southern bank of the White River. The Cherokee who moved to this reservation became known as the "Old Settlers". Additional treaties signed with the U. S. in 1817 and 1819, exchanged remaining Cherokee lands in Georgia for lands in the Arkansaw Territory west of the Mississippi River. A majority of the remaining Cherokee resisted these treaties and refused to leave their lands east of the Mississippi.
In 1830, the United States Congress enacted the Indian Removal Act to bolster the treaties and forcibly free up title to the sought over state lands. At this time, one-third of the remaining Native Americans left voluntarily because now the act was being enforced by government troops and the Georgia militia. Most of the settlements were established in the area around the western capital of Tahlontiskee; the Cherokee Nation—East had first created elec