Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II
The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force. It is referred to by the nicknames "Warthog" or "Hog", although the A-10's official name comes from the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, a World War II fighter-bomber effective at attacking ground targets; the A-10 was designed for close air support of friendly ground troops, attacking armored vehicles and tanks, providing quick-action support against enemy ground forces. It entered service in 1976 and is the only production-built aircraft that has served in the USAF, designed for CAS, its secondary mission is to provide forward air controller – airborne support, by directing other aircraft in attacks on ground targets. Aircraft used in this role are designated OA-10; the A-10 was intended to improve on the performance of its lesser firepower. The A-10 was designed around the 30 mm GAU-8 Avenger rotary cannon, its airframe was designed for durability, with measures such as 1,200 pounds of titanium armor to protect the cockpit and aircraft systems, enabling it to absorb a significant amount of damage and continue flying.
Its short takeoff and landing capability permits operation from airstrips close to the front lines, its simple design enables maintenance with minimal facilities. The A-10 served in the Gulf War, the American led intervention against Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, where the A-10 distinguished itself; the A-10 participated in other conflicts such as in Grenada, the Balkans, Afghanistan and against Islamic State in the Middle East. The A-10A single-seat variant was the only version produced, though one pre-production airframe was modified into the YA-10B twin-seat prototype to test an all-weather night capable version. In 2005, a program was started to upgrade remaining A-10A aircraft to the A-10C configuration, with modern avionics for use with precision weaponry; the U. S. Air Force had stated the F-35 would replace the A-10 as it entered service, but this remains contentious within the USAF and in political circles. With a variety of upgrades and wing replacements, the A-10's service life can be extended to 2040.
Post-World War II development of conventionally armed attack aircraft in the United States had stagnated. Design efforts for tactical aircraft focused on the delivery of nuclear weapons using high-speed designs like the F-101 Voodoo and F-105 Thunderchief. Designs concentrating on conventional weapons had been ignored, leaving their entry into the Vietnam War led by the Korean War-era Douglas A-1 Skyraider. While a capable aircraft for its era, with a large payload and long loiter times, the propeller-driven design was relatively slow and vulnerable to ground fire; the U. S. Air Force and Marine Corps lost 266 A-1s in action in Vietnam from small arms fire; the A-1 Skyraider had poor firepower. The lack of modern conventional attack capability prompted calls for a specialized attack aircraft. On 7 June 1961, Secretary of Defense McNamara ordered the USAF to develop two tactical aircraft, one for the long-range strike and interdictor role, the other focusing on the fighter-bomber mission; the former became the Tactical Fighter Experimental, or TFX, which emerged as the F-111, while the second was filled by a version of the U.
S. Navy's F-4 Phantom II. While the Phantom went on to be one of the most successful fighter designs of the 1960s, proved to be a capable fighter-bomber, its lack of loiter time was a major problem, to a lesser extent, its poor low-speed performance, it was expensive to buy and operate, with a flyaway cost of $2 million in FY1965, operational costs over $900 per hour. After a broad review of its tactical force structure, the U. S. Air Force decided to adopt a low-cost aircraft to supplement the F-4 and F-111, it first focused on the Northrop F-5. A 1965 cost-effectiveness study shifted the focus from the F-5 to the less expensive LTV A-7D, a contract was awarded. However, this aircraft doubled in cost with demands for new avionics. During this period, the United States Army had been introducing the UH-1 Iroquois into service. First used in its intended role as a transport, it was soon modified in the field to carry more machine guns in what became known as the helicopter gunship role; this proved effective against the armed enemy, new gun and rocket pods were added.
Soon the AH-1 Cobra was introduced. This was an attack helicopter armed with long-range BGM-71 TOW missiles able to destroy tanks from outside the range of defensive fire; the helicopter was effective, prompted the U. S. military to change its defensive strategy in Europe by blunting any Warsaw Pact advance with anti-tank helicopters instead of the tactical nuclear weapons, the basis for NATO's battle plans since the 1950s. The Cobra was a made helicopter based on the UH-1 Iroquois, in the late 1960s the U. S. Army was designing the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne, a much more capable attack aircraft with greater speed; these developments worried the USAF, which saw the anti-tank helicopter overtaking its nuclear-armed tactical aircraft as the primary anti-armor force in Europe. A 1966 Air Force study of existing close air support capabilities revealed gaps in the escort and fire suppression roles, which the Cheyenne could fill; the study concluded that the service should acquire a simple, dedicated CAS aircraft at least as capable as the A-1, that it should develop doctrine and procedures for
Bell UH-1 Iroquois variants
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois military helicopter, first introduced in 1959, is the first production member of the prolific Huey family of helicopters, was itself developed in over twenty variants, which are listed below. The first Bell helicopter to use a turbine engine was a modified Model 47, which had its initial flight in October 1954; the U. S. Army began a competition for a new helicopter for general utility and medical/casualty evacuation in 1955. In June 1955, Bell Helicopter was awarded a contract to develop the next generation turbine-powered utility helicopter for the U. S. Army; the resulting Bell Model 204 was designated XH-40 by the U. S. military and first flew on 22 October 1956. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, six YH-40 pre-production helicopters were delivered in 1958; the YH-40's cabin was lengthened by 12 in, had more ground clearance compared to the XH-40. Bell believed the YH-40 was ideal for troop transport and cargo carrying as well as the medevac role, a view soon adopted by the Army.
The HU-1A was the first turbine-equipped U. S. helicopter to go into production, production models first entered service with the 101st Airborne Division at Fort Campbell, the 82nd Airborne Division and the 57th Medical Detachment. Although they were intended for evaluation only, the Army pressed them into operational service and Hueys with the 57th Medical Detachment arrived in Vietnam in March 1962; the helicopter was designated the HU-1A, where it received its nickname - "Huey." The official U. S. Army designation Iroquois was never used in practice. Fourteen of the original order of UH-1As were designated as TH-1A which were used for crew training and a single aircraft was redesignated XH-1A for grenade launcher testing in 1960; the first UH-1As to arrive in Vietnam after the 57th Medical Detachment were with a new test unit, the US Army's Utility Tactical Transport Company. UTTCO had 20 "Alpha" Hueys and deployed to Vietnam in the fall of 1962; these aircraft were used as armed escorts to the existing H-21 Shawnees and H-34 Choctaws troop carriers.
In use the UH-1A proved under-powered with their Lycoming T53-L-1 powerplants of just 860 shp and indicated the need for improved follow-on models of the Huey. The HU-1B was an improved model, equipped with the Lycoming T53-L-5 engine of 960 shp, revised main rotor blades of 44-foot diameter and 21-inch chord, 13 inch higher rotor mast and a longer cabin that could accommodate seven passengers; this version was redesignated UH-1B in 1962. Production UH-1Bs were equipped with Lycoming T53-L-9 and L-11 engines of 1,100 shp. Gross weight was 8,500 lb and the standard empty weight was 4,513 lb. Army testing of the "B" model started in November 1960 with first production aircraft arriving in March 1961. A total of 1010 "Bravo" models were delivered to the US Army. First deployment was in November 1963 when eleven were sent to Vietnam to join the "Alpha" models in use by UTTCO. One NUH-1B was produced for test purposes. Bell certified a civil version of the UH-1B incorporating some minor safety improvements, such as improved door locks.
The aircraft was marketed as the Bell 204B. On as the "long cabin" Hueys supplanted the Bravo in the transport role, the UH-1B became used in a "gunship" role equipped with machine guns and rockets. However, it had insufficient power to maintain full capability when used with the heaviest armament subsystems, leading to the UH-1C; the UH-1C was developed as a gunship version until the "interim" attack helicopter, the Bell AH-1G Huey Cobra was available and to correct the deficiencies of the UH-1B when it was used in the armed role. The UH-1C was referred to as the "Huey Hog" in US Army service; the "Charlie" model was fitted with the 1,100 shp T53-L-9 or L-11 engine to provide the power needed to lift the weapons systems in use or under development at the time. It incorporated the new Bell 540 rotor system with 27-inch chord blades; the increased power lead Bell's engineers to design a new tailboom for the "C" which incorporated a wider chord fin on a longer boom and larger synchronized elevators.
The "C" introduced a dual hydraulic control system for redundancy in battle and an improved inlet filter system for the dusty conditions found in southeast Asia. Fuel was increased to 242 US gallons and gross weight to 9,500 lb, giving a nominal useful load of 4,673 lb. Development on the "C" model had commenced in 1960, with production starting in June 1966. A total of 766 "C" models were completed, including five for the Royal Australian Navy and five for Norway; the balance went to the US Army. Many UH-1Cs were re-engined with the 1,400 shp Lycoming T53-L-13 powerplant. With this engine they were redesignated UH-1M; the earlier "short-body" Hueys were a success in the gunship role, but lacked the cabin space to be an effective troop transport. The US Army wanted a version that could carry a crew of four and deliver an infantry section of eight to ten soldiers. Bell's solution was to stretch the UH-1B fuselage by 41 inches and use the extra space to fit two sideways-facing seats on either side of the transmission.
This brought the total seating capacity including crew seats. The new Huey was designated UH-1D as the Model 205 by Bell; the enlarged cabin could accommodate six stretchers, double that of the earlier models, making the "Delta"
The Fokker Dr. I known as the Fokker Triplane, was a World War I fighter aircraft built by Fokker-Flugzeugwerke; the Dr. I saw widespread service in the spring of 1918, it became famous as the aircraft in which Manfred von Richthofen gained his last 19 victories, in which he was killed on 21 April 1918. In February 1917, the Sopwith Triplane began to appear over the Western Front. Despite its single Vickers machine gun armament, the Sopwith swiftly proved itself superior to the more armed Albatros fighters in use by the Luftstreitkräfte. In April 1917, Anthony Fokker viewed a captured Sopwith Triplane while visiting Jasta 11. Upon his return to the Schwerin factory, Fokker instructed Reinhold Platz to build a triplane, but gave him no further information about the Sopwith design. Platz responded with the V.4, a small, rotary-powered triplane with a steel tube fuselage and thick cantilever wings, first developed during Fokker's government-mandated collaboration with Hugo Junkers. Initial tests revealed that the V.4 had unacceptably high control forces resulting from the use of unbalanced ailerons and elevators.
Instead of submitting the V.4 for a type test, Fokker produced a revised prototype designated V.5. The most notable changes were the introduction of horn-balanced ailerons and elevators, as well as longer-span wings; the V.5 featured interplane struts, which were not necessary from a structural standpoint, but which minimized wing flexing. On 14 July 1917, Idflieg issued an order for 20 pre-production aircraft; the V.5 prototype, serial 101/17, was tested to destruction at Adlershof on 11 August 1917. The first two pre-production triplanes were designated F. I, in accord with Idflieg's early class prefix for triplanes; these aircraft, serials 102/17 and 103/17, were the only machines to receive the F. I designation and could be distinguished from subsequent aircraft by a slight convex curve of the tailplane's leading edge; the two aircraft were sent to Jastas 10 and 11 for combat evaluation, arriving at Markebeeke, Belgium on 28 August 1917. Richthofen first flew 102/17 on 1 September 1917 and shot down two enemy aircraft in the next two days.
He reported to the Kogenluft that the F. I was superior to the Sopwith Triplane. Richthofen recommended that fighter squadrons be reequipped with the new aircraft as soon as possible; the combat evaluation came to an abrupt conclusion when Oberleutnant Kurt Wolff, Staffelführer of Jasta 11, was shot down in 102/17 on 15 September, Leutnant Werner Voss, Staffelführer of Jasta 10, was killed in 103/17 on 23 September. The remaining pre-production aircraft, designated Dr. I, were delivered to Jasta 11. Idflieg issued a production order for 100 triplanes in September, followed by an order for 200 in November. Apart from the straight leading edge of the tailplane, these aircraft were identical to the F. I; the primary distinguishing feature was the addition of wingtip skids, which proved necessary because the aircraft was tricky to land and prone to ground looping. In October, Fokker began delivering the Dr. I to squadrons within Richthofen's Jagdgeschwader I. Compared with the Albatros and Pfalz fighters, the Dr.
I offered exceptional maneuverability. Though the ailerons were not effective, the rudder and elevator controls were light and powerful. Rapid turns to the right, were facilitated by the triplane's marked directional instability. Vizefeldwebel Franz Hemer of Jasta 6 said, "The triplane was my favorite fighting machine because it had such wonderful flying qualities. I could let myself stunt – looping and rolling – and could avoid an enemy by diving with perfect safety; the triplane had to be given up because although it was maneuverable, it was no longer fast enough." As Hemer noted, the Dr. I was slower than contemporary Allied fighters in level flight and in a dive. While initial rate of climb was excellent, performance fell off at higher altitudes because of the low compression of the Oberursel Ur. II, a clone of the Le Rhône 9J rotary engine; as the war continued, chronic shortages of castor oil made rotary operation difficult. The poor quality of German ersatz lubricant resulted in many engine failures during the summer of 1918.
The Dr. I suffered other deficiencies; the pilot's view was poor during landing. The cockpit was furnished with materials of inferior quality. Furthermore, the proximity of the gun butts to the cockpit, combined with inadequate crash padding, left the pilot vulnerable to serious head injury in the event of a crash landing. On 29 October 1917, Leutnant der Reserve Heinrich Gontermann, Staffelführer of Jasta 15, was performing aerobatics when his triplane broke up. Gontermann was fatally injured in the ensuing crash landing. Leutnant der Reserve Günther Pastor of Jasta 11 was killed two days when his triplane broke up in level flight. Inspection of the wrecked aircraft showed. Examination of other high-time triplanes confirmed these findings. On 2 November, Idflieg grounded all remaining triplanes pending an inquiry. Idflieg convened a Sturzkommission which concluded that poor construction and lack of waterproofing had allowed moisture to damage the wing structure; this caused the wing ribs to the ailerons to break away in flight.
In response to the crash investigation, Fokker improved quality control on the production line varnishing of the wing spars and ribs, to combat moisture. Fokker strengthened the rib structures and the attachment of the auxiliary spars to the ribs. Existing triplanes were modified at Fokker's expense. After testing a modified wing at Adlershof, Idflieg authorize
National Air and Space Museum
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution called the Air and Space Museum, is a museum in Washington, D. C, it was established in 1946 as the National Air Museum and opened its main building on the National Mall near L'Enfant Plaza in 1976. In 2016, the museum saw 7.5 million visitors, making it the third most visited museum in the world, the most visited museum in the United States. The museum contains the Apollo 11 command module, the Friendship 7 capsule, flown by John Glenn, Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis, the Bell X-1 which broke the sound barrier, the model of the starship Enterprise used in the science fiction television show Star Trek: The Original Series, the Wright brothers' airplane near the entrance; the National Air and Space Museum is a center for research into the history and science of aviation and spaceflight, as well as planetary science and terrestrial geology and geophysics. All space and aircraft on display are originals or the original backup craft.
It operates an annex, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, at Dulles International Airport, which opened in 2003 and itself encompasses 760,000 square feet; the museum conducts restoration of its collection at the Paul E. Garber Preservation and Storage Facility in Suitland, while moving such restoration and archival activities into the Mary Baker Engen Restoration Hangar, a part of the Udvar-Hazy annex facilities as of 2014; because of the museum's close proximity to the United States Capitol, the Smithsonian wanted a building that would be architecturally impressive but would not stand out too boldly against the Capitol building. St. Louis-based architect Gyo Obata of HOK designed the museum as four simple marble-encased cubes containing the smaller and more theatrical exhibits, connected by three spacious steel-and-glass atria which house the larger exhibits such as missiles and spacecraft; the mass of the museum is similar to the National Gallery of Art across the National Mall, uses the same pink Tennessee marble as the National Gallery.
Built by Gilbane Building Company, the museum was completed in 1976. The west glass wall of the building is used for the installation of airplanes, functioning as a giant door; the museum's prominent site on the National Mall once housed the city's armory, during the Civil War, Armory Square Hospital nursed the worst wounded cases who were transported to Washington after battles. The Air and Space Museum was called the National Air Museum when formed on August 12, 1946 by an act of Congress and signed into law by President Harry S. Truman; some pieces in the National Air and Space Museum collection date back to the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia after which the Chinese Imperial Commission donated a group of kites to the Smithsonian after Smithsonian Secretary Spencer Fullerton Baird convinced exhibiters that shipping them home would be too costly. The Stringfellow steam engine intended for aircraft was added to the collection in 1889, the first piece acquired by the Smithsonian now in the current NASM collection.
After the establishment of the museum, there was no one building that could hold all the items to be displayed, many obtained from the United States Army and United States Navy collections of domestic and captured aircraft from World War I. Some pieces were on display in the Arts and Industries Building, some were stored in the Aircraft Building, a large temporary metal shed in the Smithsonian Castle's south yard. Larger missiles and rockets were displayed outdoors in; the shed housed a large Martin bomber, a LePere fighter-bomber, an Aeromarine 39B floatplane. Still, much of the collection remained in storage due to a lack of display space; the combination of the large numbers of aircraft donated to the Smithsonian after World War II and the need for hangar and factory space for the Korean War drove the Smithsonian to look for its own facility to store and restore aircraft. The current Garber Facility was ceded to the Smithsonian by the Maryland-National Capital Park and Planning Commission in 1952 after the curator Paul E. Garber spotted the wooded area from the air.
Bulldozers from Fort Belvoir and prefabricated buildings from the United States Navy kept the initial costs low. The space race in the 1950s and 1960s led to the renaming of the museum to the National Air and Space Museum, congressional passage of appropriations for the construction of the new exhibition hall, which opened July 1, 1976 at the height of the United States Bicentennial festivities under the leadership of Director Michael Collins, who had flown to the Moon on Apollo 11; the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center opened in 2003, funded by a private donation; the museum received COSTAR, the corrective optics instrument installed in the Hubble Space Telescope during its first servicing mission, when it was removed and returned to Earth after Space Shuttle mission STS-125. The museum holds the backup mirror for the Hubble which, unlike the one, launched, was ground to the correct shape. There were once plans for it to be installed to the Hubble itself, but plans to return the satellite to Earth were scrapped after the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in 2003.
The Smithsonian has been promised the International Cometary Explorer, in a solar orbit that brings it back to Earth, should NASA attempt to recover it. The Air and Space Museum announced a two-year renovation of its main entrance hall, "Milestones of Flight" in April 2014; the renovation to the main hall was funded by a $30 mil
De Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver
The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver is a single-engined high-wing propeller-driven short takeoff and landing aircraft developed and manufactured by de Havilland Canada. It has been operated as a bush plane and has been used for a wide variety of utility roles, such as cargo and passenger hauling, aerial application, civil aviation duties. Shortly after the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada made the decision to orient itself towards civilian operators. Based upon feedback from pilots, the company decided that the envisioned aircraft should have excellent STOL performance, all-metal construction, accommodate many features sought by the operators of bush planes. On 16 August 1947, the maiden flight of the aircraft, which had received the designation DHC-2 Beaver, took place. In April 1948, the first production aircraft was delivered to the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests. In addition to its use in civilian operations, the Beaver has been adopted by armed forces as a utility aircraft.
The United States Army purchased several hundred aircraft. S. Air Force Auxiliary for search and rescue. By 1967, in excess of 1,600 Beavers had been constructed prior to the closure of the original assembly line. Various aircraft have been upgraded. Additionally, various proposals have been mooted to return the Beaver to production; the Beaver has become one of the more iconic aircraft to have been produced in Canada. One of the more significant events involving the type occurred in 1958, when a Royal New Zealand Air Force Beaver played a supporting role in Sir Edmund Hillary's famous Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition to the South Pole. Due to its success, the Royal Canadian Mint commemorated the aircraft on a special edition Canadian quarter in November 1999. In 1987, the Canadian Engineering Centennial Board named the DHC-2 one of the top ten Canadian engineering achievements of the 20th century. Large numbers continue to be operational into the 21st century, while the tooling and type certificate for the Beaver have been acquired by Viking Air who continue to produce replacement components and refurbish examples of the type.
Following the end of the Second World War, de Havilland Canada's management team, recognising that there were would be a corresponding downturn in military orders in the immediate post-war climate, decided to focus the company's energies upon finding work within the civilian sector. The company had hired Punch Dickins as Director of Sales, it was on the basis of this information from the prospective operators themselves, as opposed to aerodynamic research or fiscal data, that the future aircraft has its origins. In response without exception, these pilots specified their desire for tremendous extra power and STOL performance, in a design that could be fitted with wheels, skis or floats; when de Havilland engineers noted this would result in poor cruise performance, one pilot replied, "You only have to be faster than a dog sled to be a winner". Other suggestions that were mundane, but important in the bush plane world, included the installation of full-sized doors on both sides of the aircraft, which meant that it could be loaded no matter which side of a dock it tied up on.
On 17 September 1946, de Havilland put together a design team consisting of Fred Buller, Dick Hiscocks, Jim Houston and W. Jakimiuk, led by Phil Garratt; the new aircraft was designed to be all-metal, using "steel from the engine to the firewall, heavy aluminum truss frames with panels and doors throughout the front seat area, lighter trusses toward the rear and all monocoque construction aft". At the time, de Havilland Canada was still a British-owned company and there were plans to fit the evolving design with the British de Havilland Gipsy engine; as a result of its comparatively limited power, the wing area was increased in order to maintain STOL performance. When Pratt & Whitney Canada offered to supply war-surplus 450 hp Wasp Junior radial engines at a low price, the aircraft ended up with extra power as well as the original long wing; the result was unbeatable STOL performance for an aircraft of its size. In line with the convention for aircraft produced by de Havilland Canada being named after animals, it was decided that the new bush plane would be named after the beaver, known for its hard-working nature.
On 16 August 1947, the maiden flight of the DHC-2 Beaver was in Ontario. After completing its flight test programme, the prototype received several adjustments and improvements in order for it to serve as a flying demonstration model ready for the sales circuit; the prototype was sold to Central British Columbia Airways, as a routine day-to-day working air-taxi airplane and continued to fly as such with various until 1980, after which it was retired and preserved. In April 1948, the first production aircraft was delivered to the Ontario Department of Lands and Forests, a design partner. Initial sales were slow two or three a month but as the plane was demonstrated sales started to improve. A key event in the Beaver's history occurred the next year, when the US Army commenced its search for a new utility aircraft to replace their fleet of Cessnas; the competition boiled down to the Bea
Dassault Falcon 20
The Dassault Falcon 20 is a French business jet developed and manufactured by Dassault Aviation. The first business jet developed by the firm, it became the first of a family of business jets to be produced under the same name. Known as the Dassault-Breguet Mystère 20, approval to proceed with development of the aircraft was issued during December 1961, it is a low-wing monoplane design, powered by a pair of rear-mounted General Electric CF700 turbojet engine. On 4 May 1963 the prototype made its maiden flight; the first production aircraft was introduced on 3 June 1965. On 10 June 1965, French aviator Jacqueline Auriol achieved the women's world speed record using the first prototype; as a result of an early distributor arrangement with American airline Pan American, American-delivered aircraft were marketed under the name Fan Jet Falcon. American orders proved valuable early on. Further major orders were soon placed for the type by several operators, both military. An improved model of the aircraft, designated the Falcon 200, was developed.
This variant, powered by a pair of Garrett ATF3 engines, featured several major improvements to increase its range and comfort. Additionally, a number of Falcon 20s, powered by the CF700 engines were re-engined with the Garrett TFE731 turbofan engine; the aircraft proved to be so popular that production did not end until 1988, by which point it had been superseded by more advanced developments of the Falcon family. Due to the increasing implementation of noise abatement regulations, the Falcon 20 has either been subject to restrictions on its use in some nations, or been retrofitted with Stage 3 noise-compliant engines or hush kits upon its non-compliant engines; the type has been used as a flying test bed and aerial laboratory by a number of operators, including NASA and Cobham Aviation. In November 2012, a Falcon 20 had the distinction of becoming the first civil jet to fly on 100 percent biofuel. During the 1950s and 1960s, the French government, which had taken a significant interest in the re-establishment and growth of its national aviation industries in the aftermath of the Second World War, developed a detailed request for a combined liaison/trainer aircraft, to be equipped with twin-turbofan engines.
Among those companies that took interest in the government request was French aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation. In December 1961, French aircraft designer and head of Dassault Aviation, Marcel Dassault, gave the go-ahead to proceed with work towards the production of an eight-to-ten-seat executive jet/military liaison aircraft, named as the Dassault-Breguet Mystère 20; the emerging design was of a low-wing monoplane which drew upon the aerodynamics of the transonic Dassault Mystère IV fighter-bomber and was equipped with a pair of rear-mounted Pratt & Whitney JT12A-8 turbojet engines. On 4 May 1963, the Mystère 20 prototype, registered F-WLKB, conducted its maiden flight from Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport, France. By this stage, attention in the programme was centered around the commercial opportunities for the type the large North American market. According to aerospace publication Flying Magazine, while Dassault had achieved satisfactory technical progress on the Mystère 20, it was recognised by the company's officials that the firm lacked both the sales presence and the experience in order to market the type across English-speaking nations.
Accordingly, the option of directly selling the type was discarded in favour of seeking an established US distributor. Coincidentally, management at American airline Pan American World Airways happened to be seeking a suitable aircraft to launch its planned corporate jet aircraft sales division and, following a review of a range of available business jets of the era, took an interest in the Mystère 20. Progress between Dassault and Pan American was rapid, moving from engineering evaluations of the type to the formation of general agreements between the two companies. In response to feedback received from Pan American, the aircraft was re-engined with a pair of General Electric CF700 engines and several dimensions were increased. Accordingly, Pan American formed an agreement with Dassault to distribute the Mystère 20 in the western hemisphere. On 10 July 1964, the re-engined aircraft made its first flight. On 1 January 1965, the first production aircraft performed its maiden flight. On 10 June 1965, French aviator Jacqueline Auriol achieved the women's world speed record using the first Mystère 20 prototype, having flown at an average recorded speed of 859 kilometers per hour over a distance of 1000 km.
Deliveries of the type soon commenced to Pan American's outfitting facility at Burbank Airport, California. All non-American aircraft were fitted out prior to delivery at Bordeaux-Merignac. During 1966, the company re-designated the American-delivered aircraft as the Fan Jet Falcon, this was subsequently shortened to the Falcon 20. During 1967, Pan American Business Jets Division decided to increase their firm orders for the type to 160 Falcon 20s. Military orders for the type were received from Australia and Canada, in addition those placed by France. A number of Falcon 20s, powered by CF700 engines were re-engined with the G