Wheaton College (Massachusetts)
Wheaton College is a private liberal arts college in Norton, Massachusetts. Wheaton was founded in 1834 as a female seminary; the trustees changed the name of the institution to Wheaton College in 1912 after receiving a college charter from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. It remained one of the oldest institutions of higher education for women in the United States until men began to be admitted in 1988, it enrolls 1,750 students. Wheaton College is ranked among the top liberal arts colleges by various publications; the student-faculty ratio is 10:1 and the average class size is between 15 and 20. It has a reputation for athletics, ranking as one of the top NCAA Division III institutions in overall collegiate sports programs. In 1834, Eliza Wheaton Strong, the daughter of Judge Laban Wheaton, died at the age of thirty-nine. Eliza Baylies Chapin Wheaton, the judge's daughter-in-law, persuaded him to memorialize his daughter by founding a female seminary; the family called upon noted women's educator Mary Lyon for assistance in establishing the seminary.
Lyon created the first curriculum with the goal that it be equal in quality to those of men's colleges. She provided the first principal, Eunice Caldwell. Wheaton Female Seminary opened in Norton, Massachusetts on 22 April 1835, with 50 students and three teachers. Mary Lyon and Eunice Caldwell left Wheaton to open Mount Holyoke Female Seminary in 1837. After their departure, Wheaton endured a period of fluctuating enrollment and frequent changes in leadership until 1850, when Caroline Cutler Metcalf was recruited as the new principal. Metcalf made the hiring of outstanding faculty her top priority, bringing in educators who encouraged students to discuss ideas rather than to memorize facts; the most notable additions to the faculty were Lucy Larcom, who introduced the study of English Literature and founded the student literary magazine The Rushlight. Metcalf retired in 1876. A. Ellen Stanton, a teacher of French since 1871, served as principal from 1880 to 1897, she led the seminary during a difficult time, when it faced competition from increasing numbers of public high schools and colleges granting bachelor's degrees to women.
In 1897, at the suggestion of Eliza Baylies Wheaton, the trustees hired the Reverend Samuel Valentine Cole as the seminary's first male president. Preparing to seek a charter as a four-year college, Cole began a program of revitalization that included expanding and strengthening the curriculum, increasing the number and quality of the faculty, adding six new buildings; the Commonwealth of Massachusetts granted Wheaton a college charter in 1912, the trustees changed the name of the school to Wheaton College. The Student Government Association was organized to represent the "consensus of opinion of the whole student body", to encourage individual responsibility and self-government. Wheaton received authorization to establish a chapter of Phi Beta Kappa in 1932, twenty years after achieving college status. President Samuel Valentine Cole died unexpectedly in 1925 after a brief illness. During his career as president, Cole oversaw the expansion of the campus from three to 27 buildings, the growth of enrollment from 50 to 414, the establishment of an endowment.
On the campus, Cole Memorial Chapel is named after him. Its approximate geographical coordinates are: 41° 58' 2.01" N, 71° 11' 3.51" W. The Reverend John Edgar Park, who became president in 1926, continued Cole's building program, saw the college through the Great Depression, the celebration of its centennial in 1935 and World War II, he retired in 1944, was succeeded by Dartmouth College Professor of History Alexander Howard Meneely. During his tenure, the trustees voted to expand the size of the college from 525 to 800 to 1000 students, construction of "new campus" began in 1957. Meneely died in 1961 after a long illness and was succeeded in 1962 by William C. H. Prentice, a psychology professor and administrator at Swarthmore College. In the early 1960s, Wheaton completed its first endowment campaign; the development of new campus continued, student enrollment grew to 1,200. Wheaton students and faculty joined in nationwide campus protests against United States actions in Indochina in 1970. In 1975, Wheaton inaugurated its first woman president, Alice Frey Emerson, Dean of Students at the University of Pennsylvania.
During her tenure, Wheaton achieved national recognition as a pioneer in the development of a gender-balanced curriculum. Emerson would go on to receive the Valeria Knapp Award from The College Club of Boston in 1987 for establishing the Global Awareness Program at Wheaton College. Wheaton celebrated its Sesquicentennial in 1984/85 with a year-long series of symposia, dance performances and history exhibits, an endowment and capital campaign. In 1987, the trustees voted to admit men to Wheaton; the first coeducational class was enrolled in September 1988. Dale Rogers Marshall, Academic Dean at Wellesley College, was inaugurated as Wheaton's sixth president in 1992, she led the college in "The Campaign for Wheaton", to build endowed and current funds for faculty development, student scholarships, academic programs and facilities. Enrollment growth encouraged the construction of the first new residence halls since 1964, the improvement of classroom buildings and the renovation and expansion of the college's arts' facilities.
Wheaton's Board of Trustees appointed Ronald A. Crutcher as the seventh president of the college on March 23, 2004. Crutcher came to Wheaton from Miami University in Oxford, where he served as provost a
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor
Providence, Rhode Island
Providence is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. is one of the oldest cities in the United States. It was founded in 1636 by Roger Williams, a Reformed Baptist theologian and religious exile from the Massachusetts Bay Colony, he named the area in honor of "God's merciful Providence" which he believed was responsible for revealing such a haven for him and his followers. The city is situated at the mouth of the Providence River at the head of Narragansett Bay. Providence was one of the first cities in the country to industrialize and became noted for its textile manufacturing and subsequent machine tool and silverware industries. Today, the city of Providence is home to eight hospitals and seven institutions of higher learning which have shifted the city's economy into service industries, though it still retains some manufacturing activity; the city is the third most populous city in New England after Worcester, Massachusetts. Providence was one of the original Thirteen Colonies. Williams and his company were compelled to leave Massachusetts Bay Colony, Providence became a refuge for persecuted religious dissenters, as Williams himself had been exiled from Massachusetts.
The city was burned to the ground in March 1676 by the Narragansetts during King Philip's War, despite the good relations between Williams and the sachems with whom the United Colonies of New England were waging war. In the year, the Rhode Island legislature formally rebuked the other colonies for provoking the war. Providence residents were among the first Patriots to spill blood in the lead-up to the American Revolutionary War during the Gaspée Affair of 1772, Rhode Island was the first of the Thirteen Colonies to renounce its allegiance to the British Crown on May 4, 1776, it was the last of the Thirteen Colonies to ratify the United States Constitution on May 29, 1790, once assurances were made that a Bill of Rights would become part of the Constitution. Following the war, Providence was the country's ninth-largest city with 7,614 people; the economy shifted from maritime endeavors to manufacturing, in particular machinery, silverware and textiles. By the start of the 20th century, Providence hosted some of the largest manufacturing plants in the country, including Brown & Sharpe, Nicholson File, Gorham Manufacturing Company.
Providence residents ratified a city charter in 1831 as the population passed 17,000. The seat of city government was located in the Market House in Market Square from 1832 to 1878, the geographic and social center of the city; the city offices outgrew this building, the City Council resolved to create a permanent municipal building in 1845. The city offices moved into the Providence City Hall in 1878. During the American Civil War, local politics split over slavery as many had ties to Southern cotton and the slave trade. Despite ambivalence concerning the war, the number of military volunteers exceeded quota, the city's manufacturing proved invaluable to the Union. Providence thrived after the war, waves of immigrants brought the population from 54,595 in 1865 to 175,597 by 1900. By the early 1900s, Providence was one of the wealthiest cities in the United States. Immigrant labor powered one of the nation's largest industrial manufacturing centers. Providence was a major manufacturer of industrial products, from steam engines to precision tools to silverware and textiles.
Giant companies were based in or near Providence, such as Brown & Sharpe, the Corliss Steam Engine Company, Babcock & Wilcox, the Grinnell Corporation, the Gorham Manufacturing Company, Nicholson File, the Fruit of the Loom textile company. From 1975 until 1982, $606 million of local and national community development funds were invested throughout the city. In the 1990s, the city pushed for revitalization, realigning the north-south railroad tracks, removing the huge rail viaduct that separated downtown from the capitol building and moving the rivers to create Waterplace Park and river walks along the rivers' banks, constructing the Fleet Skating Rink and the Providence Place Mall. Despite new investment, poverty remains an entrenched problem. 27.9 percent of the city population is living below the poverty line. Recent increases in real estate values further exacerbate problems for those at marginal income levels, as Providence had the highest rise in median housing price of any city in the United States from 2004 to 2005.
The Providence city limits enclose a small geographical region with a total area of 20.5 square miles. Providence is located at the head of Narragansett Bay, with the Providence River running into the bay through the center of the city, formed by the confluence of the Moshassuck and Woonasquatucket Rivers; the Waterplace Park amphitheater and riverwalks line the river's banks through downtown. Providence is one of many cities claimed to be founded on seven hills like Rome; the more prominent hills are: Constitution Hill, College Hill, Federal Hill. The other four are: Tockwotten Hill at Fox Point, Smith Hill, Christian Hill at Hoyle Square, Weybosset Hill at the lower end of Weybosset Street, leveled in the early 1880s. Providence has 25 official neighborhoods, though these neighborhoods are grouped together and referred to
University of Massachusetts Amherst
The University of Massachusetts Amherst is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts. It is the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system. UMass Amherst has an annual enrollment of 1,300 faculty members and more than 30,000 students and was ranked 27th best public university by U. S. News Report in 2018 in the national universities category; the university offers academic degrees in 77 master's and 48 doctoral programs. Programs are coordinated in colleges; the main campus is situated north of downtown Amherst. In 2012, U. S. News and World Report ranked Amherst among the Top 10 Great College Towns in America, it is a member of the Five College Consortium. The University of Massachusetts Amherst is categorized as a Research University with Highest research activity by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. In fiscal year 2014, UMass Amherst had research expenditures exceeding $200 million. UMass Amherst sports teams are called the Minutemen and Minutewomen, the colors being maroon and white.
All teams participate in NCAA Division I. The university is a member of the Atlantic 10 Conference, while playing ice hockey in Hockey East and football as an FBS Independent; the university was founded in 1863 under the provisions of the Federal Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to provide instruction to Massachusetts citizens in "agricultural and military arts." Accordingly, the university was named the Massachusetts Agricultural College, popularly referred to as "Mass Aggie" or "M. A. C." In 1867, the college had yet to admit any students, been through two Presidents, had still not completed any college buildings. In that year, William S. Clark was appointed Professor of Botany, he appointed a faculty, completed the construction plan, and, in the fall of 1867, admitted the first class of 50 students. Clark became the first president to serve longterm after the schools opening and is regarded the primary founding father of the college. Of the school's founding figures, there are a traditional "founding four"- Clark, Levi Stockbridge, Charles Goessmann, Henry Goodell, described as "the botanist, the farmer, the chemist, the man of letters."The original buildings consisted of Old South College, North College, the Chemistry Laboratory known as College Hall, the Boarding House, the Botanic Museum and the Durfee Plant House.
Although enrollment was slow during the 1870s, the fledgling college built momentum under the leadership of President Henry Hill Goodell. In the 1880s, Goodell implemented an expansion plan, adding the College Drill Hall in 1883, the Old Chapel Library in 1885, the East and West Experiment Stations in 1886 and 1890; the Campus Pond, now the central focus of the University Campus, was created in 1893 by damming a small brook. The early 20th century saw great expansion in the scope of the curriculum; the first female student was admitted in 1875 on a part-time basis and the first full-time female student was admitted in 1892. In 1903, Draper Hall was constructed for the dual purpose of a dining female housing; the first female students graduated with the class of 1905. The first dedicated female dormitory, the Abigail Adams House was built in 1920. By the start of the 20th century, the college was thriving and expanded its curriculum to include the liberal arts; the Education curriculum was established in 1907.
In recognition of the higher enrollment and broader curriculum, the college was renamed Massachusetts State College in 1931. Following World War II, the G. I. Bill, facilitating financial aid for veterans, led to an explosion of applicants; the college population soared and Presidents Hugh Potter Baker and Ralph Van Meter labored to push through major construction projects in the 1940s and 1950s with regard to dormitories. Accordingly, the name of the college was changed in 1947 to the "University of Massachusetts." By the 1970s, the University continued to grow and gave rise to a shuttle bus service on campus as well as many other architectural additions. Du Bois Library, the Fine Arts Center. Over the course of the next two decades, the John W. Lederle Graduate Research Center and the Conte National Polymer Research Center were built and UMass Amherst emerged as a major research facility; the Robsham Memorial Center for Visitors welcomed thousands of guests to campus after its dedication in 1989.
For athletic and other large events, the Mullins Center was opened in 1993, hosting capacity crowds as the Minutemen basketball team ranked at number one for many weeks in the mid-1990s, reached the Final Four in 1996. UMass Amherst entered. In 2003, for the first time, the Massachusetts State Legislature designated UMass Amherst as a Research Univ
Great Friends Meeting House
Great Friends Meeting House is a meeting house of the Religious Society of Friends built in 1699 in Newport, Rhode Island. The meeting house, part of the Newport Historic District, is open as a museum owned by the Newport Historical Society, it is the oldest surviving house of worship in Rhode Island and features wide-plank floors, plain benches, a balcony, a beam ceiling, a shingle exterior. Significant additions were made in 1730, 1807, 1857, 1867; the meeting house was built on land owned by Nicholas Easton who donated his land in the 1670s and his house for the first Quaker meeting house, located nearby on Farewell Street before the current meeting house was built in 1699. The Quaker community in Newport controlled the culture and politics of the town in the 17th and 18th centuries, many Quakers lived nearby in the historic "Easton's Point" section of Newport, where their houses have survived; the meeting house was used as a house of worship until the New England Yearly Meeting of Friends departed in 1905.
The local African American community used the building as a community center until the 1970s when architect Orin M. Bullock restored the building, in 1971 its owner Mrs. Sydney L. Wright donated the structure to the Newport Historical Society. List of the oldest buildings in Rhode Island Oldest churches in the United States Portsmouth Friends Meetinghouse Parsonage and Cemetery Newport Historical Society meeting house website Mrs. William P. Buffum, "The Story of the Old Friends' Meeting House," Bulletin of the Newport Historical Society, Number 40, April, 1922 Listing with photographs, floor plans, historical data at the Historic American Buildings Survey
Amherst is a town in Hampshire County, United States, in the Connecticut River valley. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,819, making it the highest populated municipality in Hampshire County; the town is home to Amherst College, Hampshire College, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, three of the Five Colleges. The name of the town is pronounced without the h, giving rise to the local saying, "only the'h' is silent", in reference both to the pronunciation and to the town's politically active populace. Amherst has three census-designated places. Amherst is part of Massachusetts Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lying 22 miles north of the city of Springfield, Amherst is considered the northernmost town in the Hartford-Springfield Metropolitan Region, "The Knowledge Corridor"; the earliest known document of the lands now comprising Amherst is the deed of purchase dated December 1658 between John Pynchon of Springfield and three native inhabitants, referred to as Umpanchla and Chickwalopp.
According to the deed, "ye Indians of Nolwotogg upon ye River of Quinecticott" sold the entire area in exchange for "two Hundred fatham of Wampam & Twenty fatham, one large Coate at Eight fatham wch Chickwollop set of, of trusts, besides severall small giftes". Amherst was first visited by Europeans as early as 1665 when Nathaniel Dickinson surveyed the lands for its mothertown Hadley; the first permanent English settlements arrived in 1727, it was part of Hadley when it gained precinct status in 1734. It gained township in 1759; when it incorporated, the colonial governor assigned the town the name "Amherst" after Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst. Many colonial governors at the time scattered his name amidst the influx of new town applications, why several towns in the Northeast bear the name. Amherst was a hero of the French and Indian War who, according to popular legend, singlehandedly won Canada for the British and banished France from North America. Popular belief has it that he supported the American side in the Revolutionary War and resigned his commission rather than fight for the British.
Baron Amherst remained in the service of the Crown during the war—albeit in Great Britain rather than North America—where he organized the defense against the proposed Franco-Spanish Armada of 1779. Nonetheless, his previous service in the French and Indian War meant he remained popular in New England. Amherst is infamous for recommending, in a letter to a subordinate, the use of smallpox-covered blankets in warfare against the Native Americans along with any "other method that can serve to Extirpate this Execrable Race". For this reason, there have been occasional ad hoc movements. Suggested new names have included "Emily", after Emily Dickinson. Amherst celebrated its 250th anniversary in 2009; the Amherst 250th Anniversary Celebration Committee and Amherst Historical Society organized events, including a book published by the Historical Society and written by Elizabeth M. Sharpe, Amherst A to Z. According to the United States Census Bureau, Amherst has a total area of 27.7 square miles, of which 27.6 square miles are land and 0.12 square miles, or 0.48%, are water.
The town is bordered by Hadley to the west and Leverett to the north, Shutesbury and Belchertown to the east, Granby and South Hadley to the south. The highest point in the town is on the northern shoulder of Mount Norwottuck at the southern border of the town; the town is nearly equidistant from both the southern state lines. Amherst's ZIP Code of 01002 is the second-lowest number in the continental United States after Agawam. Amherst has a humid continental climate that under the Köppen system marginally falls into the warm-summer category, it is interchangeable with the hot-summer subtype dfa with July means hovering around 71.4 °F. Winters are cold and snowy, albeit daytime temperatures remain above freezing. Under the 2012 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone system, Amherst is in zone 5b; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 37,819 people, 9,259 households, 4,484 families residing in the town. There were 9,711 housing units; the racial makeup of the town was 76.9% White, 5.4% Black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 10.9% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.4% some other race, 4.1% from two or more races.
7.3 % of the population were Latino of any race. Of the 9,259 households in the town, 23.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were headed by married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.6% were non-families. Of all households, 27.3% were made up of individuals, 9.7% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, 10.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 55.7% were from 18 to 24, 13.3% were from 25 to 44, 13.6% were from 45 to 64, 7.4% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. For the period 2011-15, the estimated median annual income for a household