The South West Africa People’s Organisation, known as SWAPO Party of Namibia, is a political party and former independence movement in Namibia. It has been the governing party in Namibia since the country achieved independence in 1990; the party continues to be dominated in influence by the Ovambo ethnic group. In the general election held in November 2014, the party won 86.73% of the popular vote and 77 out of the 104 seats in the National Assembly as well as 40 out of the 42 seats in the National Council. As of November 2017, Namibian President Hage Geingob has been the president of SWAPO. After World War I the League of Nations gave South West Africa a German colony, to the United Kingdom as a mandate under the administration of South Africa; when the National Party won the 1948 election in South Africa and subsequently introduced apartheid legislation, these laws were applied as well to South West Africa. It was considered the de facto fifth province of South Africa. SWAPO was founded on 19 April 1960 as the successor of the Ovamboland People's Organization.
Leaders renamed the party to show. But, the organisation had its base among the Ovambo people of northern Namibia, who constituted nearly half the total population. During 1962 SWAPO had emerged as the dominant nationalist organisation for the Namibian people, it co-opted other groups such as the South West Africa National Union, in 1976 the Namibia African People's Democratic Organisation. SWAPO used guerrilla tactics to fight the South African Defence Force. On 26 August 1966, the first major clash of the conflict took place, when a unit of the South African Police, supported by the South African Air Force, exchanged fire with SWAPO forces; this date is regarded as the start of what became known in South Africa as the Border War. In 1972 the United Nations General Assembly recognised SWAPO as the'sole legitimate representative' of Namibia's people; the Norwegian government began giving aid directly to SWAPO in 1974. The country of Angola gained its independence on 11 November 1975 following its war for independence.
The leftist Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola, supported by Cuba and the Soviet Union, came to power. In March 1976, the MPLA offered SWAPO bases in Angola for launching attacks against the South African military; when Namibia gained its independence in 1990, SWAPO became the dominant political party. Though the organisation rejected the term South West Africa and insisted on replacing it with Namibia, the organisation's own name—derived from the territory's old name—was too rooted in the independence movement to be changed. However, the original full name is no longer used. SWAPO, with it much of Namibia's government and administration, continues to be dominated by the Ovambo ethnic group, despite "considerable efforts to counter perception". SWAPO president Sam Nujoma was declared Namibia's first President after SWAPO won the inaugural election in 1989. A decade Nujoma had the constitution changed so he could run for a third term in 1999, as it limits the presidency to two terms.
In 2004 the SWAPO presidential candidate was Hifikepunye Pohamba, described as Nujoma's hand-picked successor. In 2014 the SWAPO presidential candidate was Hage Geingob, the Vice-President of SWAPO; the party president is the top position of SWAPO. The vice-president is Namibia's current president Hage Geingob, elected to that position in 2007 and reconfirmed at the SWAPO congress in December 2012; the third highest position in SWAPO is the Secretary-General, a position held in December 2012 by Nangolo Mbumba. Number four is Omaheke Governor Laura McLeod-Katjirua. Like many socialist and communist parties, SWAPO is governed by a Central Committee; the party leadership is advised by a Youth League, a Women's Council, an Elders Council. The Politburo of SWAPO is a body that consists of: The Party President: Hage Geingob The Party former President: Hifikepunye Pohamba The Secretary-General: Sophia Shaningwa The Deputy Secretary-General: Marco Hausiku Two Members appointed by the Party President 18 Members elected by the SWAPO Central Committee: SWAPO's Central Committee consists of: The President The Vice-President The Secretary-General The Deputy Secretary-General The Founding President of SWAPO as a permanent member 13 SWAPO Party Regional Coordinators 54 members elected at the party congress 10 members appointed by the party presidentThe current members are: Hage Geingob Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah Sophia Shaningwa Marco Hausiku Sam Nujoma Hifikepunye Pohamba Elected members: President-appointed members: Sam Nujoma- Hifikepunye Pohamba- Hage Geingob-, Although SWAPO receives finances from government for its operations, the party holds extensive business interests.
Through Kalahari Holdings it entered into joint ventures with several companies, most prominently the Namibian branch of MultiChoice, a private satellite TV provider, of which it owns 51%. Kalahari Holdings has further joint ventures with Radio Energy, Africa Online, businesses in the tourism, security services and health insurance sectors, it owns Namib Contract Haulage, Kudu investment, the Ndilimani Cultural Troupe. Nami
Allgemeine Zeitung (Namibia)
The Allgemeine Zeitung founded in 1916, is the oldest daily newspaper in Namibia and the only German-language daily in Africa. The Allgemeine Zeitung is a Namibian newspaper, it is written by 10 editors. The newspaper leans liberal-conservative. With a growing circulation from about 5,300 copies to about 6,200 copies the "AZ" is read by German-speaking Namibians. A few hundred papers are sent to South Africa and some to Germany. Once a month, an extra for tourists is added; the circulation increases to about 12,000 copies. In 1991 Democratic Media Holdings bought the Newspaper; the managing editor since 2004 is Stefan Fischer. He modernized the design, which increased demand and led to initial profit for the Allgemeine Zeitung. DMH prints and releases Die Republikein, written in Afrikaans, the Namibian Sun. All editorial content in the newspaper is written in a common language in Namibia; the Allgemeine Zeitung was founded on 22 July 1916 under the name Der Kriegsbote and reported on the events of the First World War.
After Germany was defeated and lost German South West Africa to South Africa, the name was changed to Allgemeine Zeitung on 1 July 1919. In 1937, the newspaper was bought by the publisher John Meinert Ltd; the newspaper was released daily, with a circulation of 1,800 copies. Most of the readers surroundings. At that time the tagline was changed to indicate the intent to "support German national interests". For a short while starting in 1939, the newspaper was released under the name Deutscher Beobachter. At the same time, smaller newspapers were released, such as Der Farmer, Das Volksblatt owned by the Workers Association of South Africa, the Karakulzüchter, founded in 1933, the Heimat, a German paper for Africa's evangelical community. In 1958, Kurt Dahlmann, Germany's highest-decorated Jabo pilot of World War II, was hired as editor-in-chief. Writing under the pen name Stachus, symbolised as a potted cactus with an oblique dip pen, Dahlmann was adamant about the fleeting nature of apartheid.
He wrote many editorials on this topic, suggesting ways that Namibia and South Africa should address the issue of inevitable black rule in both countries. In 1978, when the AZ and the Windhoek Advertiser were the only independent newspapers in South West Africa, Diether Lauenstein purchased both papers. Dahlmann alleged. Dahlmann was fired and Lauenstein took over the editorship himself with the aim of bringing the paper "on a more conservative, pro-South African, pro-Apartheid and anti-Independence course". In 1981 Hans Feddersen became editor-in-chief. Karl Bömer: Handbuch der Weltpresse: Eine Darstellung des Zeitungswesens aller Länder. Leipzig, Frankfurt am Main: Armanen-Verlag, 1937. Regina Reinsperger: Diether Lauenstein und die Apartheid. Allgemeine Zeitung via yumpu.com, last accessed on 2 October 2017 Media of Namibia Website of "Allgemeine Zeitung"
Media of Namibia
Media in Namibia includes radio and online and print formats. Although Namibia's population is small, the country has a diverse choice of media; as of 2014, Namibia had 3 television stations, 13 newspapers, 25 radio stations. Additionally, a mentionable amount of foreign media South African, is available. Online media are based on print publication contents. Namibia has a state-owned Press Agency, called NAMPA. Overall c. 300 journalists work in the country. Compared to neighbouring countries, Namibia has a large degree of media freedom. Over the past years, the country ranked in the upper quarter of the Press Freedom Index of Reporters without Borders, reaching position 21 in 2010, being on par with Canada and the best-positioned African country; the African Media Barometer shows positive results. However, as in other countries, there is still mentionable influence of representatives of state and economy on media in Namibia. In 2009, Namibia dropped to position 36 on the Press Freedom Index. In 2013, it was 19th.
In 2014 it ranked 22nd Media and journalists in Namibia are represented by the Namibian chapter of the Media Institute of Southern Africa and the Editors' Forum of Namibia. An independent media ombudsman was appointed in 2009 to prevent a state-controlled media council; the first newspaper in Namibia was the German-language Windhoeker Anzeiger, founded 1898. During German rule, the newspapers reflected the living reality and the view of the white German-speaking minority; the black majority was depicted as a threat. During South African rule, the white bias continued, with mentionable influence of the Pretoria government on the "South West African" media system. Independent newspapers were seen as a menace to the existing order, critical journalists threatened. Current daily newspapers are the private publications The Namibian, Die Republikein, Allgemeine Zeitung and Namibian Sun as well as the state-owned New Era. Except for the most circulated newspaper, The Namibian, owned by a trust, the other mentioned private newspapers are part of the Democratic Media Holdings.
Weekly publications are the tabloid Informanté owned by TrustCo, Windhoek Observer, Namibia Economist, as well as the regional Namib Times. Current affairs magazines include Insight Namibia, Vision2030 Focus magazine and Prime FOCUS. Monthly publications are Sister Namibia magazine, the longest running NGO magazine in Namibia and Namibia Sport, the only national sport magazine. Furthermore, the print market is complemented with party publications, student newspapers and PR publications. See also: List of radio stations in Namibia, List of radio stations in Africa#Namibia, Telecommunications in Namibia#Radio and TelevisionRadio was introduced in 1969 with Radio Owambo, an FM channel destined for the indigenous Ovambo people. However, people in Namibia owned short wave radio sets to receive international channels, such that FM radio broadcasts were not received. Today the Namibian Broadcasting Corporation is the public broadcaster and offers a "National Radio" in English and nine language services in locally spoken languages.
The nine private radio stations in the country are English-language channels, except for Radio Omulunga and Kosmos 94.1. CurrentKanaal 7/Channel 7 Katutura Community Radio Kudu FM NBC UNAM Radio, University of NamibiaDefunctVoice of Namibia, 1966-1990 Television service in Namibia started in 1981 with rebroadcasts of programs of the South African Broadcasting Corporation; the service was at least a day late as the cassettes had to be flown in from South Africa, it was available only in the capital Windhoek. TV was available in Oshakati and in Walvis Bay, over time local content was added. Namibian Broadcasting Corporation One Africa Television DSTV Telecommunications in Namibia Communications Regulatory Authority of Namibia Namibia Press Agency Editors’ Forum of Namibia Regional Media Institute of Southern Africa, headquartered in Windhoek, Namibia Windhoek Declaration of press freedom, 1991 Media of South Africa, some consumed in Namibia William Heuva. Media and Resistance Politics: The Alternative Press in Namibia, 1960-1990.
Basler Afrika Bibliographien. Basel: P. Schlettwein. ISBN 978-3-908193-10-4. Carsten von Nahmen. Deutschsprachige Medien in Namibia: vom Windhoeker Anzeiger zum Deutschen Hörfunkprogramm der Namibian Broadcasting Corporation, 1898-1998. Windhoek: Namibia Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft. ISBN 999164024X. "Namibia: Directory: the Press". Africa South of the Sahara 2003. Regional Surveys of the World. Europa Publications. 2003. P. 744+. ISSN 0065-3896. Martin Buch Larsen. Media environment in Namibia, 1990-2007. Windhoek: Media Institute of Southern Africa. ISBN 9789994568239. Andreas Rothe. Media System and News Selections in Namibia. Münster: LIT Verlag. ISBN 9783643111944. Toyin Falola. "Namibia: Media". Africa: an Encyclopedia of Culture and Society. ABC-CLIO. P. 909. ISBN 978-1-59884-666-9. "Namibia", Freedom of the Press, USA: Freedom House, 2015, OCLC 57509361 Karen Fung, African Studies Association. "News: Namibia". Africa South of the Sahara. USA – via Stanford University. Annotated directory DMOZ. Namibia: News and Media
Windhoek, is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia. It is located in central Namibia in the Khomas Highland plateau area, at around 1,700 metres above sea level exactly at the country's geographical centre; the population of Windhoek in 2011 was 325,858, growing continually due to an influx from all over Namibia. The city developed at the site of a permanent hot spring known to the indigenous pastoral communities, it developed after Jonker Afrikaner, Captain of the Orlam, settled here in 1840 and built a stone church for his community. In the decades following, multiple wars and armed hostilities resulted in the neglect and destruction of the new settlement. Windhoek was founded a second time in 1890 by Imperial German Army Major Curt von François, when the territory was colonised by the German Empire. Windhoek is the social, economic and cultural centre of the country. Nearly every Namibian national enterprise, governmental body and cultural institution is headquartered there.
Theories vary on. Most believe. Another theory suggests that Captain Jonker Afrikaner named Windhoek after the Winterhoek Mountains at Tulbagh in South Africa, where his ancestors had lived; the first known mention of the name Windhoek was in a letter from Jonker Afrikaner to Joseph Tindall, dated 12 August 1844. In 1840 Jonker Afrikaner established an Orlam settlement at Windhoek, he and his followers stayed near one of the main hot springs, located in the present-day Klein Windhoek suburb. He built a stone church. Two Rhenish missionaries, Carl Hugo Hahn and Franz Heinrich Kleinschmidt, started working there in late 1842. Two years they were driven out by two Methodist Wesleyans, Richard Haddy and Joseph Tindall. Gardens were laid for a while Windhoek prospered. Wars between the Nama and Herero peoples destroyed the settlement. After a long absence, Hahn visited Windhoek again in 1873 and was dismayed to see that nothing remained of the town's former prosperity. In June 1885, a Swiss botanist found only jackals and starving guinea fowl amongst neglected fruit trees.
In 1878, Britain annexed Walvis Bay and incorporated it into the Cape of Good Hope colony in 1884, but Britain did not extend its influence into the interior. A request by merchants from Lüderitzbucht resulted in the declaration of a German protectorate over what was called German South West Africa in 1884; the borders of the German colony were determined in 1890 and Germany sent a protective corps, the Schutztruppe under Major Curt von François, to maintain order. Von François stationed his garrison at Windhoek, strategically situated as a buffer between the Nama and Herero peoples; the twelve strong springs provided water for the cultivation of produce and grains. Colonial Windhoek was founded on 18 October 1890, when von François fixed the foundation stone of the fort, now known as the Alte Feste. After 1907, development accelerated as indigenous people migrated from the countryside to the growing town to seek work. More European settlers arrived from South Africa. Businesses were erected on Kaiser Street, along the dominant mountain ridge over the city.
At this time, Windhoek's three castles, Heinitzburg and Schwerinsburg, were built. The German colonial era came to an end during World War I when South African troops occupied Windhoek in May 1915 on behalf of the British Empire. For the next five years, a South African military government administered South West Africa, it was assigned to the United Kingdom as a mandate territory by the newly formed League of Nations, South Africa administered it. Development of the city of Windhoek and the nation to be known as Namibia came to a virtual standstill. After World War II, Windhoek's development gained momentum, as more capital became available to improve the area's economy. After 1955, large public projects were undertaken, such as the building of new schools and hospitals, tarring of the city's roads, the building of dams and pipelines to stabilise the water supply; the city introduced the world's first potable re-use plant in 1958, treating recycled sewage and sending it directly into the town's water supply.
On 1 October 1966 the Administrator of South West Africa granted Windhoek the coat of arms, registered on 2 October 1970 with the South African Bureau of Heraldry. A stylized aloe was the principal emblem, but this was amended to a natural aloe on 15 September 1972; the Coat of Arms is described as "a Windhoek aloe with a raceme of three flowers on an island. Crest: A mural crown Or. Motto: SUUM CUIQUE". Windhoek formally received its town privileges on 18 October 1965 on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the second foundation of the town by von François. Since independence in 1990, Windhoek has remained the national capital, as well as the provincial capital of the central Khomas Region. Since independence and the end of warfare, the city has had accelerated development. Expanding the town area has – apart from financial restrictions – proven to be challenging due to its geographical location. In southern and western directions, Windhoek is surrounded by rocky, mountainous areas, which make land development costly.
The southern side is not suitable for industrial development because of the presence of underground aquifers. This leaves the vast Brakwater area north of town the only feasible place for Windhoek's expansion. Windhoek's City Council has plans to dramatica
Namibia the Republic of Namibia, is a country in southern Africa. Its western border is the Atlantic Ocean. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, less than 200 metres of the Zambezi River separates the two countries. Namibia gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence, its capital and largest city is Windhoek, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations. Namibia, the driest country in Sub-Saharan Africa, was inhabited since early times by the San and Nama peoples. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu peoples arrived as part of the Bantu expansion. Since the Bantu groups, the largest being the Ovambo, have dominated the population of the country. In 1878, the Cape of Good Hope a British colony, had annexed the port of Walvis Bay and the offshore Penguin Islands. In 1884 the German Empire established rule over most of the territory as a protectorate.
It began to develop infrastructure and farming and maintained this German colony until 1915, when South African forces defeated its military. In 1920, after the end of World War I, the League of Nations mandated the country to the United Kingdom, under administration by South Africa, it imposed its laws, including racial rules. From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid to what was known as South West Africa. In the 20th century and demands for political representation by native African political activists seeking independence resulted in the UN assuming direct responsibility over the territory in 1966, but South Africa maintained de facto rule. In 1973 the UN recognised the South West Africa People's Organisation as the official representative of the Namibian people. Following continued guerrilla warfare, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990. However, Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands remained under South African control until 1994.
Namibia has a population of a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding and the mining industry – including mining for gem diamonds, gold and base metals – form the basis of its economy; the large, arid Namib Desert has resulted in Namibia being overall one of the least densely populated countries in the world. The name of the country is derived from the Namib Desert, considered to be the oldest desert in the world; the name Namib itself is of Nama origin and means "vast place". Before its independence in 1990, the area was known first as German South-West Africa as South-West Africa, reflecting the colonial occupation by the Germans and the South Africans; the dry lands of Namibia have been inhabited since early times by San and Nama. Around the 14th century, immigrating Bantu people began to arrive during the Bantu expansion from central Africa. From the late 18th century onward, Oorlam people from Cape Colony crossed the Orange River and moved into the area that today is southern Namibia.
Their encounters with the nomadic Nama tribes were peaceful. They received the missionaries accompanying the Oorlam well, granting them the right to use waterholes and grazing against an annual payment. On their way further north, the Oorlam encountered clans of the Herero at Windhoek and Okahandja, who resisted their encroachment; the Nama-Herero War broke out in 1880, with hostilities ebbing only after the German Empire deployed troops to the contested places and cemented the status quo among the Nama and Herero. The first Europeans to disembark and explore the region were the Portuguese navigators Diogo Cão in 1485 and Bartolomeu Dias in 1486, but the Portuguese did not try to claim the area. Like most of interior Sub-Saharan Africa, Namibia was not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century. At that time traders and settlers came principally from Sweden. In the late 19th century, Dorsland Trekkers crossed the area on their way from the Transvaal to Angola; some of them settled in Namibia instead of continuing their journey.
Namibia became a German colony in 1884 under Otto von Bismarck to forestall perceived British encroachment and was known as German South West Africa. The Palgrave Commission by the British governor in Cape Town determined that only the natural deep-water harbor of Walvis Bay was worth occupying and thus annexed it to the Cape province of British South Africa. From 1904 to 1907, the Herero and the Namaqua took up arms against brutal German colonialism. In calculated punitive action by the German occupiers, government officials ordered extinction of the natives in the Herero and Namaqua genocide. In what has been called the "first genocide of the 20th century", the Germans systematically killed 10,000 Nama and 65,000 Herero; the survivors, when released from detention, were subjected to a policy of dispossession, forced labor, racial segregation, and
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent and Zimbabwe. It evolved from the Dutch vernacular of South Holland spoken by the Dutch settlers of what is now South Africa, where it began to develop distinguishing characteristics in the course of the 18th century. Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, was referred to as "Cape Dutch" or "kitchen Dutch". However, it is variously described as a creole or as a creolised language; the term is derived from Dutch Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". Although Afrikaans has adopted words from other languages, including German and the Khoisan languages, an estimated 90 to 95% of the vocabulary of Afrikaans is of Dutch origin. Therefore, differences with Dutch lie in the more analytic-type morphology and grammar of Afrikaans, a spelling that expresses Afrikaans pronunciation rather than standard Dutch. There is a large degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages—especially in written form.
With about 7 million native speakers in South Africa, or 13.5% of the population, it is the third-most-spoken language in the country. It has the widest geographical and racial distribution of all the 11 official languages of South Africa, is spoken and understood as a second or third language, it is the majority language of the western half of South Africa—the provinces of the Northern Cape and Western Cape—and the first language of 75.8% of Coloured South Africans, 60.8% of White South Africans. In addition, many native speakers of Bantu languages and English speak Afrikaans as a second language, it is taught with about 10.3 million second-language students. One reason for the expansion of Afrikaans is its development in the public realm: it is used in newspapers, radio programs, TV, several translations of the Bible have been published since the first one was completed in 1933. In neighbouring Namibia, Afrikaans is spoken as a second language and used as a lingua franca, while as a native language it is spoken in 10.4% of households concentrated in the capital Windhoek, Walvis Bay and the southern regions of Hardap and ǁKaras.
It, along with German, was among the official languages of Namibia until the country became independent in 1990, 25% of the population of Windhoek spoke Afrikaans at home. Both Afrikaans and German are recognised regional languages in Namibia, although only English has official status within the government. Estimates of the total number of Afrikaans speakers range between 23 million; the term is derived from the Dutch term Afrikaans-Hollands meaning "African Dutch". An estimated 90 to 95% of the Afrikaans lexicon is of Dutch origin, there are few lexical differences between the two languages. Afrikaans has a more regular morphology and spelling. There is a degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages in written form. Afrikaans acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Khoisan languages and Bantu languages, Afrikaans has been influenced by South African English. Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.
Mutual intelligibility thus tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch. In general, mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian or between Danish and Swedish; the South African poet writer Breyten Breytenbach, attempting to visualize the language distance for anglophones once remarked that the differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are comparable to those between the Received Pronunciation and Southern American English. The Afrikaans language arose in the Dutch Cape Colony, through a gradual divergence from European Dutch dialects, during the course of the 18th century; as early as the mid-18th century and as as the mid-20th century, Afrikaans was known in standard Dutch as a "kitchen language", lacking the prestige accorded, for example by the educational system in Africa, to languages spoken outside Africa. Other early epithets setting apart Kaaps Hollands as putatively beneath official Dutch standards included geradbraakt and onbeschaafd Hollands, as well as verkeerd Nederlands.
Den Besten theorizes that modern Standard Afrikaans derives from two sources: Cape Dutch, a direct transplantation of European Dutch to southern Africa, and'Hottentot Dutch', a pidgin that descended from'Foreigner Talk' and from the Dutch pidgin spoken by slaves, via a hypothetical Dutch creole. Thus in his view Afrikaans is neither a creole nor a direct descendant of Dutch, but a fusion of two transmission pathways. A relative majority of the first settlers whose descendants today are the Afrikaners were from the United Provinces, though up to one-sixth of the community was of French Huguenot origin, a seventh from Germany. African and Asian workers and slaves contributed to the development of Afrikaans; the slave population was made up of people from East Africa, West Africa, India and the Dutch East Indies. A number were indigenous Khoisan people, who were valued as i
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro