Pacific Science Center
Pacific Science Center is an independent, non-profit science center in Seattle, Washington with a mission to ignite curiosity and fuel a passion for discovery and critical thinking. Pacific Science Center serves more than 1 million people each year at its campus adjacent to Seattle Center, at the Mercer Slough Environmental Education Center in Bellevue, in communities and classrooms across the state of Washington. Pacific Science Center sits on 7.1 acres of land at the southwest corner of Seattle Center. A satellite campus, the Mercer Slough Environmental Education Center, is a collaboration between Pacific Science Center and the City of Bellevue, Washington with educational programming for all ages about environmental stewardship, wetland ecology and nature awareness. Pacific Science Center offers year-round youth, teen and adult programs, including summer camps in various Puget Sound locations, science-themed 21+ events and research weekends. Pacific Science Center's outreach program, Science On Wheels, has a fleet of vans that bring hands-on science education to schools throughout the Pacific Northwest.
The center has a division of staff whose purpose is to assist teachers in teaching science to their students. The center's original buildings were the United States Science Pavilion designed by Minoru Yamasaki for the 1962 World’s Fair in Seattle. Becoming Pacific Science Center, the World of Science, along with the Worlds of Art, Entertainment and Industry, Tomorrow were the five main theme areas that were intended for the masses at the World's Fair. Located at the southernmost end of the fairgrounds and west of the Space Needle, the World of Science was located under the arches, an identifiable landmark. In recent years, Pacific Science Center has become a nonprofit, instead of being leased from the city of Seattle; the fountains located at the entrance of the center appeared in the movie It Happened at the World's Fair with Elvis Presley. After the World's Fair closed, the U. S. Science Pavilion was re-opened as Pacific Science Center; the land and buildings were leased for $1.00 a year until 2004 when the title deed was signed over and the Pacific Science Center Foundation took ownership.
During the 1960s, many of the center's exhibits were carried over from the original World's Fair exhibition, though only a few of these original exhibits remain. Exhibits remaining from the World's Fair are the Lens and Mirror Machine and a suspended model of the Earth's moon. One of the more notable science exhibits during the World's Fair was a ramp where the buildings were built at a tilt; the domed Spacerium, now known as the Seattle Laser Dome and used for laser light show, was designed for a wide-angle movie journey through space. Before IMAX, a previous movie theater there showed films such as NASA's Apollo 8 and The 21st Century with Walter Cronkite. Before being elected governor of the state of Washington, Dixy Lee Ray, Ph. D. served as Science Center director for many years. Ray helped promote the Science Center among school children by hosting a school-age geared science program televised on Seattle PBS station KCTS-9. In the mid-1970s, the lower-level math area was dominated by the IBM Mathematica exhibit where demonstrators in orange jackets made soap bubbles and showed audiences how the stylish new Chevrolet Chevette was paving the way for the quick adoption of the Metric system.
Upstairs, a giant apparatus known as the probability machine would ring an alarm before emptying out a bin of balls. This machine was designed as an exhibit for the IBM Pavilion at the 1964-65 New York World's Fair. An aerospace building contained a full-sized lunar module mockup from which suited astronauts would climb out; the Life Building contained the Sea monster house, a replica of a First Nations longhouse, as well as a working hydraulic model of Puget Sound and the Mount Baker volcanic exhibit. With the physical sciences, the physics witch on Halloween would ask "Would you like to boil blood in a paper cup?" or Groucho Marx would dump liquid nitrogen on the ponds after a demo. The presenters in question here were Janie Mann, who did dynamic combustion shows dressed as a witch circa 1977-78, Dan Cox, who did physics demos as Groucho Marx in the same era. Cox would go on to become a professor of physics; these staff were part of the "OJ" program. The program consisted of 24 work study students, whose leader in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Carl Linde, set a format for the program that would last into the late 1990s.
The Eames theater was created for a special multi-screen IBM movie for the World Fair. It was converted into an IMAX screen in 1979, the first of two IMAX theaters at the center. Pacific Science Center grew in the 1980s. A key step in its evolution was the hiring of George Moynihan as Executive Director in 1980. Moynihan, from the Lawrence Hall of Science in Berkeley, would run the center for the next two decades, his leadership team in the 1980s included Diane Carlson in public programs, Dennis Schatz in education and exhibits, Dave Taylor in exhibits. In 1984 the science center took a gamble on hosting the exhibit "China: 7000 Years of Discovery." The success of the exhibit helped put PSC on the map as a leading science center. Other notable successes in the decade were several iterations of a traveling robotic dinosaur exhibit, which led to the center installing a permanent dinosaur display in the 1990s. Pacific Science Center hosted the annual Associatio
McGregor Memorial Conference Center
The McGregor Memorial Conference Center is an office building located at 495 Ferry Mall, on the campus of Wayne State University in Midtown Detroit, Michigan. Completed in 1958, the building was the first commission of the noted Japanese-American architect Minoru Yamasaki marking his shift from traditional International Style to a style known as the New Formalism; the building was designated a National Historic Landmark for its architecture in 2015. The McGregor Memorial Conference Center was funded by the McGregor Fund, as a memorial to Tracy W. and Katherine McGregor who initiated the fund in 1925. The McGregor Fund specified that the building be used as "a community conference center for groups of citizens interested in exploring ways and means of being helpful to others." To that end, Wayne State University hired architect Minoru Yamasaki in August 1955 to design the building. The commission came after Yamasaki's long convalescence and subsequent trip to Japan, was his first opportunity to put into practice his re-envisionment of architecture.
The Center was completed in 1958, opened to immediate accolades from architectural magazines who called it "delightful" and "refreshing," and from the American Institute of Architects who awarded Yamasaki a First Honor Award for the design. Over the next seven years, Yamasaki designed three more buildings for Wayne's campus: the Education Building, Prentis Hall, DeRoy Auditorium; the McGregor Memorial Conference Center is a two-story symmetrical pavilion covered with travertine marble. It sits on a podium faced with Mankato stone, with integral reflecting pool and sunken garden wrapping around the building on two sides; the building exhibits a triangular design motif on the inside. Inside, a skylit entry hall, dividing the interior space in two, is flanked by two levels of conference rooms; the McGregor Center contains 11 meeting rooms, a 600-seat auditorium, a 2,500 sq ft reception area, a 3,500 sq ft exhibit space. The conference rooms can be combined to accommodate groups of various sizes.
Interior design features white marble floors, red carpeting, black leather chairs by Mies van der Rohe. List of National Historic Landmarks in Michigan National Register of Historic Places listings in Detroit, Michigan
Minoru Yamasaki was an American architect, best known for designing the original World Trade Center in New York City and several other large-scale projects. Yamasaki was one of the most prominent architects of the 20th century, he and fellow architect Edward Durell Stone are considered to be the two master practitioners of "New Formalism". Yamasaki was born in Seattle, the son of John Tsunejiro Yamasaki and Hana Yamasaki, Japanese descendants; the family moved to Auburn, Washington and he graduated from Garfield Senior High School in Seattle. He enrolled in the University of Washington program in architecture in 1929, graduated with a Bachelor of Architecture in 1934. During his college years, he was encouraged by faculty member Lionel Pries, he earned money to pay for his tuition by working at an Alaskan salmon cannery. After moving to New York City in the 1930s, he enrolled at New York University for a master's degree in architecture and got a job with the architecture firm Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, designers of the Empire State Building.
In 1945, Yamasaki moved to Detroit, where he was hired by Hinchman & Grylls. The firm helped Yamasaki avoid internment as a Japanese-American during World War II, he himself sheltered his parents in New York City. Yamasaki left the firm in 1949, started his own partnership. One of the first projects he designed at his own firm was Ruhl's Bakery at 7 Mile Road and Monica Street in Detroit. In 1964, Yamasaki received a D. F. A. from Bates College. His firm, Yamasaki & Associates, closed on December 31, 2009, his first internationally recognized design, the Pacific Science Center with its iconic arches, was constructed by the City of Seattle for the 1962 Seattle World's Fair. His first significant project was the Pruitt–Igoe housing project in St. Louis, Missouri, 1955. Despite his love of Japanese traditional design, this was a modernist concrete structure; the housing project experienced so many problems that it was demolished in 1972, less than twenty years after its completion. Its destruction is considered by some to be the beginning of postmodern architecture.
In 1955, he designed the "sleek" terminal at Lambert–St. Louis International Airport which led to his 1959 commission to design the Dhahran International Airport in Saudi Arabia. In the 1950s, Yamasaki was commissioned by the Reynolds Company to design an aluminum-wrapped building in Southfield, which would "symbolize the auto industry's past and future progress with aluminum." The three-story glass building wrapped in aluminum, known as the Reynolds Metals Company's Great Lakes Sales Headquarters Building, was supposed to reinforce the company's main product and showcase its admirable characteristics of strength and beauty. During this period, he created a number of office buildings which led to his innovative design of the 1,360 ft towers of the World Trade Center in 1964, which began construction March 21, 1966; the first of the towers was finished in 1970. Many of his buildings feature superficial details inspired by the pointed arches of Gothic architecture, make use of narrow vertical windows.
This narrow-windowed style arose from his own personal fear of heights. One particular design challenge of the World Trade Center's design related to the efficacy of the elevator system, unique in the world. Yamasaki integrated the fastest elevators at the time, running at 1,700 feet per minute. Instead of placing a large traditional elevator shaft in the core of each tower, Yamasaki created the Twin Towers' "Skylobby" system; the Skylobby design created three separate, connected elevator systems which would serve different segments of the building, depending on which floor was chosen, saving 70% of the space used for a traditional shaft. The space saved was used for office space. In 1978, Yamasaki designed the Federal Reserve Bank tower in Virginia; the work was designed with a similar appearance as the World Trade Center complex, with its narrow fenestration, now stands at 394 ft. Yamasaki was a member of the Pennsylvania Avenue Commission, created in 1961 to restore the grand avenue in Washington, D.
C. but disillusionment with the design by committee approach. After partnering with Emery Roth and Sons on the design of the World Trade Center, they collaborated on other projects including new buildings at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington, D. C; the campus for the University of Regina was designed in tandem with Yamasaki's plan for Wascana Centre, a park built around Wascana Lake in Regina, Saskatchewan. The original campus design was approved in 1962. Yamasaki was awarded contracts to design the first three buildings: the Classroom Building. Yamasaki designed two notable synagogues during this period, North Shore Congregation Israel in Glencoe, Illinois in 1964 and Temple Beth El, in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan in 1973, he designed a number of buildings on the campus of Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota between 1958 and 1968. Yamasaki was first married in 1941 and had two other marriages before remarrying his first wife in 1969, he died of stomach cancer in 1986. His son, Taro Yamasaki, is a Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer.
Yamasaki was elected as a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects in 1960. Yamasaki won the American Institute of Architects' First Honor Award three times. Featured as the cover story of TIME on 18 January 1963. Researchers can access archival evidence of Yamasaki's work in The papers of Minoru Yamasaki at the Walter P. Reuther Library. Available materials include correspondence on projects, communications with associates
Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is one of the halls in the Los Angeles Music Center. The Music Center's other halls include the Mark Taper Forum, Ahmanson Theatre, Walt Disney Concert Hall; the Pavilion has 3,156 seats spread over four tiers, with chandeliers, wide curving stairways and rich décor. The auditorium's sections are the Orchestra, Loge, as well as Balcony. Construction started on March 9, 1962, it was dedicated September 27, 1964; the Pavilion was named for Dorothy Buffum Chandler who “led effort to build a suitable home for the Los Angeles Philharmonic and rejuvenate the performing arts in Los Angeles. The result was the Music Center of Los Angeles County, her tenacious nine-year campaign on behalf of the Music Center produced more than $19 million in private donations” noted Albert Greenstein in 1999. The building was designed by architect Welton Becket; the project was an example of his firm's approach of total design, in which he managed all aspects including design, construction and interior finishes to achieve a coherent whole.
In order to receive approval for construction from the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, Mrs. Chandler promised Kenneth Hahn that the building would be open free for the public for one day a year; the result was the Los Angeles County Holiday Celebration, a Christmas Eve tradition sponsored by the Board of Supervisors. The program is broadcast on KCET-TV and an edited version of the prior year's show is syndicated to public television stations via PBS; the opening concert was held on December 6, 1964 with Zubin Mehta conducting the Los Angeles Philharmonic with soloist Jascha Heifetz. The program included Fanfare by Richard Strauss, American Festival Overture by William Schuman, Roman Festivals by Ottorino Respighi, Beethoven's Violin Concerto; the Los Angeles Master Chorale, under Music Director Roger Wagner, was the other founding resident company at the Pavilion. Before creation of the Los Angeles Opera company, the New York City Opera came on tour and performed in the Pavilion. One such tour, in 1967, consisted of two performances of Madama Butterfly, one of La Traviata, two of Ginastera's Don Rodrigo, each with Plácido Domingo singing the main tenor role.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences held its annual Academy Awards in the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion from 1969 to 1987, 1990, 1992 to 1994, 1996, 1999. Since the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra and Los Angeles Master Chorale have moved to the newly constructed and adjacent Disney Hall which opened in October 2003, the Pavilion is home of the Los Angeles Opera and Glorya Kaufman Presents Dance at the Music Center; the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is featured in the 2008 video game Midnight Club: Los Angeles. The site was used as the location for an avant-garde perfume ad directed by Spike Jonze. Since 1964, a Christmas Eve tradition for the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is the annual free Holiday Celebration funded by Los Angeles County, it is six hours of dance by groups from all around Los Angeles county. The performances are broadcast on the KCET public television station with a one-hour version broadcast on PBS since 2002. Los Angeles Opera List of opera houses Toland, James W; the Music Center Story: a Decade of Achievement 1964–1974, The Music Center Foundation, Los Angeles, 1974.
Los Angeles Music Center's page on the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion Homepage of the Los Angeles Opera company
University at Albany, SUNY
The State University of New York at Albany referred to as University at Albany, SUNY Albany or UAlbany, is a public research university with campuses in the New York cities of Albany and Rensselaer and the Town of Guilderland, United States. Founded in 1844, it carries out undergraduate and graduate education and service, it is a part of the State University of New York system. The university has three campuses: the Uptown Campus in Albany and Guilderland, the Downtown Campus in Albany, the Health Sciences Campus in the City of Rensselaer, just across the Hudson River; the university enrolls 17,944 students in nine schools and colleges, which offer 50 undergraduate majors and 125 graduate degree programs. The university's academic choices include new and emerging fields in public policy, homeland security, documentary studies, bio-instrumentation, informatics. Through the UAlbany and SUNY-wide exchange programs, students have more than 600 study-abroad programs to choose from, as well as government and business internship opportunities in New York's capital and surrounding region.
The Honors College, which opened in fall 2006, offers opportunities for well-prepared students to work with faculty. The UAlbany faculty had $103.0 million in research expenditures in 2016-17. For work advancing discovery in a wide range of fields; the research enterprise is in four areas: social science, public policy, life sciences and atmospheric sciences. SUNY Albany offers many cultural benefits, such as a contemporary art museum and the New York State Writers Institute. UAlbany plays a major role in the economic development of the Capital New York State. An economic impact study in 2004 estimated UAlbany's economic impact to be $1.1 billion annually in New York State — $1 billion of that in the Capital Region The University at Albany was an independent state-supported teachers' college for most of its history until SUNY was formed in 1948. The institution began as the New York State Normal School on May 7, 1844, by a vote of the State Legislature. Beginning with 29 students and four faculty in an abandoned railroad depot on State Street in the heart of the city, the Normal School was the first New York State-chartered institution of higher education.
Dedicated to training New York students as schoolteachers and administrators, by the early 1890s the “School” had become the New York State Normal College at Albany and, with a revised four-year curriculum in 1905, became the first public institution of higher education in New York to be granted the power to confer the bachelor's degree. A new campus — today, UAlbany's Downtown Campus — was built in 1909 on a site of 4.5 acres between Washington and Western avenues. By 1913, the institution was home to 590 students and 44 faculty members, offered a master's degree for the first time, bore a new name — the New York State College for Teachers at Albany. Enrollment grew to a peak of 1,424 in 1932. By this time, the College for Teachers, or "Albany State" as it was called for short, had developed a curriculum similar to those found at four-year liberal arts colleges, but it did not abandon its primary focus on training teachers. In 1948 the State University of New York system was created, with the College for Teachers and the state's other teacher-training schools as the nuclei.
SUNY, including the Albany campus, became a manifestation of the vision of Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller, who wanted a public university system to accommodate the college students of the post–World War II baby boom. To do so, he launched a massive construction program. Reflecting a broadening mission, the College for Teachers changed its name to SUNY College of Education at Albany in 1959. In 1961, it became a full-fledged four-year liberal arts college as the State University College at Albany. In 1962, the State University College was designated a doctoral-degree granting university center of SUNY as the State University of New York at Albany; the same year, Rockefeller broke ground for the current Uptown Campus on the former site of the Albany Country Club. The new campus's first dormitory opened in 1964, the first classes on the academic podium in the fall of 1966. By 1970, a year beyond the university's 125th anniversary, enrollment had grown to 13,200 and the faculty to 746; that same year the growing protest movement against the Vietnam war engulfed the university when a student strike was called for in response to the killing of protesters at Kent State.
The Uptown Campus, designed by architect Edward Durell Stone, accommodated this growth and gave visible evidence of the school's transition from a teachers college to a broad-based liberal arts university. The Downtown Campus became dedicated to the fields of public policy: criminal justice, public affairs, information science and social welfare. In 1985, the university added the School of Public Health, a joint endeavor with the state's Department of Health. In 1983, the New York State Writers Institute was founded by Pulitzer Prize-winning author William Kennedy; as of 2013, the Institute had hosted, over time, more than 1,200 writers, journalists, historians and filmmakers. The list includes eight Nobel Prize winners, nearly 200 Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award winners, several Motion Picture Academy Award winners and nominees, numerous other literary prize recipients. In addition, the institute has hosted up-and-coming writers to provide them with exposure at the beginning of their writing careers.
During the 1990s, the university built a $3 billion, 450,000-square-foot Albany NanoTech complex, extending the Uptown Campus westward. By 2006, it became home to the College of Nanoscale Science an
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, regional character. Most architecture can be classified within a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society, they are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, when a style changes it does so as architects learn and adapt to new ideas; the new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as post-modernism, which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles which have acquired other names. Styles spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist.
For instance, Renaissance ideas emerged in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, German and Spanish Renaissances showing recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur. For instance, classicism found new life as neoclassicism; each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture is listed separately; as vernacular architecture is better understood as suggestive of culture, writ broadly, it technically can encompass every architectural style--or none at all.
In and of itself, vernacular architecture is not a style. Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history. Important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continued the debate into the 20th century. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space; this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting.
Terms originated to describe architectural periods were subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, more still to music and the general culture. In architecture stylistic change follows, is made possible by, the discovery of new techniques or materials, from the Gothic rib vault to modern metal and reinforced concrete construction. A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop, or changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history. Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, a reaction against the emphasis on style developing.
According to James Elkins "In the 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more controlled". While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole and exaggeration. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional instability rather than balance and clarity; the definition of Mannerism, the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome; the proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England and northern and eastern Europe in general.
Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applie
Mark Taper Forum
The Mark Taper Forum is a 739-seat thrust stage at the Los Angeles Music Center designed by Welton Becket and Associates on the Bunker Hill section of Downtown Los Angeles. Named for real estate developer Mark Taper, the Forum, the neighboring Ahmanson Theatre and the Kirk Douglas Theatre are all operated by the Center Theatre Group; the Mark Taper Forum opened in 1967 as part of the Los Angeles Music Center, the West Coast equivalent of Lincoln Center, designed by Los Angeles architect Welton Becket. The smallest of the three venues, the Taper is flanked by the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion and the Ahmanson Theatre on the Music Center Plaza. Becket designed the center in the style of New Formalism; the circular Taper is considered one of his best works, featuring a distinctive decorated drum of a design with its exterior wrapped in a lacy precast relief by Jacques Overhoff. The lobby has a curving, abalone wall by Tony Duquette. Charles Moore described Becket's design for the Music Center as "Late Imperial Depression-Style cake".
Becket designed the building not knowing. Various proposals included chamber music concerts, or grand jury meetings. Dorothy Chandler, the Los Angeles cultural leader, convinced Center Theater Group artistic director Gordon Davidson to use the Taper. For 38 years, Davidson was the artistic director of Center Theater Group, which ran the Ahmanson and the Kirk Douglas Theater in Culver City; the Taper became known for its thrust stage, jutting into a classical, semicircular amphitheater, which creates an intimate relationship between audience and performer. The building bears an architectural resemblance to Carousel Theatre at Disneyland designed by Welton Becket and Associates in 1967, it is similar in design concept and size to the Dallas Theatre Center, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and the original Tyrone Guthrie Theatre, in Minneapolis. On October 8, 1993, a memorial was held in the actor Richard Jordan's honor, it was the same day. A $30-million renovation of the Taper led by the Los Angeles firm Rios Clementi Hale Studios began in July 2007 after the 2006/2007 season.
The theater reopened on August 30, 2008 for the first preview of John Guare's The House of Blue Leaves. The Taper, as designed, was a case study in what happens when a theater is built without a tenant in mind. Fitting the auditorium into the circular building left a tiny backstage and only a narrow, curved hallway for a lobby; the renovation updated nearly everything, not concrete and did not disrupt the building's circular shape. To create a larger main lobby, the designers reduced the ticket booth and removed about 30 parking spaces from the lower-level garage to move the restrooms below ground as part of a stylized lounge with gold, curved couches and mosaics of mirrored tiles that fit the era in which the building was designed; the theater seats are wider and total capacity was reduced from 745 to 739. The entrance was moved to the plaza level and an elevator added to increase the accessibility of the theater; the original theater had few women's restrooms opening with four women's stalls for a 750-seat hall.
The renovation increased the number of stalls to 16. Backstage, changes included removing an outdated stage "treadmill" and old air-conditioning equipment, installing a modern lighting grid, enlarging the load-in door to 6 feet by 9 feet. A wardrobe room was constructed in the space occupied by the air-conditioning equipment; the auditorium was renamed the Amelia Taper Auditorium after a $2 million gift from the S. Mark Taper Foundation; the Taper has presented innovative plays since its 1967-opening of The Devils from playwright John Whiting about the sexual fantasies of a 17th-century priest and a sexually repressed nun. The play received a great deal of protest from local religious leaders and the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, although the production continued; the production of such plays as Murderous Angels, The Dream on Monkey Mountain, Children of a Lesser God, The Shadow Box, The Kentucky Cycle and Angels in America has established definition of a "Taper play". The Taper has been host to world premiere productions of many notable plays including The Shadow Box, Zoot Suit, Children of a Lesser God, Neil Simon's I Ought To Be In Pictures, Lanford Wilson's Burn This, Jelly's Last Jam, Angels in America, Twilight: Los Angeles, 1992, David Henry Hwang's revised version of Flower Drum Song, August Wilson's Radio Golf and the musical 13.
In all, the theater has 5 Tony Awards to its credit. Hunt, Total Design: Architecture of Welton Becket, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1972