The lira was the currency of Malta from 1825 until 31 December 2007. The lira was abbreviated as Lm, although the traditional ₤ sign was used locally. In English, the currency was still called the pound because of the past usage of British currency on the islands; the euro replaced the Maltese lira as the official currency of Malta on 1 January 2008 at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of €1 per 0.4293 lira. In 1825, an imperial order-in-council introduced British currency to Malta, replacing a situation where various coinages circulated, including that issued in Malta by the Knights of St John; the pound was valued at 12 scudi of the local currency. This exchange rate meant that the smallest Maltese coin, the grano, was worth one third of a farthing. 1⁄3-farthing coins were issued for use in Malta until 1913, alongside the regular British coinage. Amongst the British colonies which used the sterling coinage, Malta was unique in having the 1⁄3-farthing coin. Between 1914 and 1918, wartime emergency paper money issues were made by the government.
Until 1972, it was subdivided into each of 12 pence with 4 farthings to the penny. Pre-decimal British sterling coinage continued to circulate in Malta for nearly a year after it was withdrawn in the UK due to decimilization on 15 February 1971. In 1972, a new, decimal Maltese currency, the lira, was introduced, in both coin and banknote form; the lira was equal to the pound sterling, however this parity did not survive long after the floating of sterling on 22 June 1972. Emergency issues between 1914 and 1918 were in denominations of 5 and 10 shillings, 1, 5 and 10 pounds. In 1940, notes dated 13 September 1939 in denominations of 2 1⁄2, 5 and 10 shillings and 1 pound were issued, followed late in the year by a provisional 1 shilling note overprinted on an old 2 shilling dated 20 November 1918. Note production continued after the Second World War in denominations of 10 shillings and 1 pound, with 5 pounds notes reintroduced between 1961–1963. After the Central Bank of Malta was established by the Central Bank Act of 1967 and began operating on April 17, 1968, the issuing body named on the banknotes switched from "Government of Malta" to "Central Bank of Malta."
While the designs of the notes remained unchanged, the colors were changed. The Central Bank refers to this series as the "CBM first series"; the CBM second series began with the introduction of lira-denominated notes on January 15, 1973. Banknotes issued by the Government of Malta and by the Central Bank of Malta were written in English up to 1972, with the denomination pounds. From 1973 to 1985, they were written in Maltese on the obverse using the denomination liri, in English on the reverse using pounds. From 1986 to 2007, Maltese and liri were used on both sides. Although using British coins, Malta did not decimalize with the UK in 1971. Instead, it adopted a decimal system in 1972, based on the lira subdivided into 1000 mils or 100 cents; the name "lira" was used on banknotes beginning in 1973 jointly with "pound", on both coins and banknotes since 1986. Mils were removed from circulation in 1994. On entry into the European Union, Malta agreed to adopt the euro; the lira was replaced by the euro on 1 January 2008, as part of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union.
The Maltese lira was replaced by the euro as the official currency of Malta at the irrevocable fixed exchange rate of 0.429300 MTL per 1 EUR. However, Maltese lira banknotes and coins continued to have legal tender status and were accepted for cash payments until 31 January 2008. Maltese liri were convertible free of charge at all Maltese credit institutions until 30 March 2008. Maltese coins were convertible at the Central Bank of Malta until 1 February 2010, banknotes remained convertible until 31 January 2018; the Maltese lira was on a par with the British pound sterling until 13 December 1971, since the lira had been allowed to float, anchored to a basket of reserve currencies. The lira had subsequently been worth around £1.60 sterling. After the Kuwaiti dinar, it was the second-highest-valued currency unit in the world, being worth US$3.1596 as of 28 April 2007. After the dollar weakened against other currencies in mid-2006, the lira was worth US$3.35289 as of 16 December 2007. The currency entered the ERM II on 2 May 2005, by which its value had to be maintained within a 15% band around the central parity rate of 0.429300 LM per euro.
The Central Bank of Malta and Maltese Government unilaterally decided to keep the actual LM/euro exchange rate equal to the central parity rate throughout the ERM II period. The irrevocable fixed conversion rate was established by the ECOFIN on 10 July 2007, at 0.4293 lira to one euro. Decimal coinage was introduced in 1972 in denominations of 2, 3, 5 mils, 1, 2, 5, 10, 50 cents; the division of the lira into 100 cents meant that the cent was a large unit - the United Kingdom introduced the decimal 1⁄2 penny for this reason. Malta went further in introducing the mil, equal to 1⁄10 cent, it will be noted. However, the coins that were provided allowed goods to be priced for any number of mils. In 1975, a 25-cent coin was introduced. A new coinage was issued in 1986 in 1 lira. A third series was introduced in 1991 due to the change in Malta's coat of arms; the mils were withdrawn in 1994, al
The livre was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed; the livre was the name of both units of account and coins. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver, it was subdivided into each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from a Roman unit of weight; this system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish dinero and the Portuguese dinheiro. This first livre is known as the livre carolingienne. Only deniers were minted, but debasement led to larger denominations being issued. Different mints in different regions used different weights for the denier, leading to several distinct livres of different values. "Livre" is a homonym of the French word for "book", the distinction being that the two have a different gender. The monetary unit is la/une livre, while "book" is masculine, le/un livre.
For much of the Middle Ages, different duchies of France were semi-autonomous if not independent from the weak Capetian kings, thus each minted their own currency. Charters would need to specify which region or mint was being used: "money of Paris" or "money of Troyes"; the first steps towards standardization came under the first strong Capetian monarch, Philip II Augustus. Philip II conquered much of the continental Angevin Empire from King John of England, including Normandy and Touraine; the currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered stable, Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands replacing the livre of Paris, the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled. This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime; the result was that from 1200 onwards, following the beginning of King Philip II's campaigns against King John, the currency used within French speaking lands was in a state of flux, as the livre tournois was introduced into other areas.
Until the thirteenth century and onwards, only deniers were minted as coin money. Both livres and sous did not exist as coins but were used only for accounting purposes. Upon his return from the crusades in the 1250s, Louis IX instigated a royal monopoly on the minting of coinage in France and minted the first gold écu d'or and silver gros d'argent, whose weights were equivalent to the livre tournois and the denier. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth 1 livre tournois were minted known as francs; this name persisted in common parlance for 1 livre tournois but was not used on coins or paper money. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549. However, in 1577, the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and replaced by the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation. In 1602, the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back. Louis XIII of France stopped minting the franc in 1641, replacing it with coins based on the silver écu and gold Louis d'or.
The écu and louis d'or fluctuated in value, with the écu varying between three and six livres tournois until 1726 when it was fixed at six livres. The louis was worth ten livres, fluctuated too, until its value was fixed at twenty-four livres in 1726. In 1667, the livre parisis was abolished. However, the sole remaining livre was still referred to as the livre tournois until its demise; the first French paper money was denominated in livres tournois. However, the notes did not hold their value relative to silver due to massive over–production; the Banque Royale crashed in 1720. In 1726, under Louis XV's minister Cardinal Fleury, a system of monetary stability was put in place. Eight ounces of gold was worth 9 sols; this led to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver and established the values of the coins in circulation in France at: the Louis d'or of 24 livres the double Louis d'or of 48 livres the demi-Louis d'or or half-Louis of 12 livres the écu of 6 livres or 120 sols, along with 1⁄2, 1⁄4 and 1⁄8 écu denominations valued at 60, 30 and 15 sols the sol denominated in 1 and 2 sol units valued at 1⁄20 livre per sol the denier denominated in 3 and 6 denier units valued at 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 sol respectively.
A coin of value 1 livre was not, minted. Yet in 1720 a special coin minted in pure silver was assigned an over-value of 1 livre. Additionally, France took Navarrese 20-sol coins minted in 1719 and 1720, re-struck them as 1⁄6 écu creating a coin worth 1 livre; these re-struck coins, however were assigned the value of 18 sols. A kind of paper money was reintroduced by the Caisse d'Escompte in 1776 as actions au porteur, denominated in livres; these were issued until 1793, alongside assignats from 1789. Assignats were backed by government-held land. Like the issues of the Banque Royale, their value plummeted; the last coins and notes of the livre currency system were issued in Year II of the Republic. In 1795, the franc was intro
The Lewes Pound is a local currency in use in the town of Lewes, East Sussex. Inspired by the Totnes pound and BerkShare, the currency was introduced with the blessing of the town council in September 2008 by Transition Town Lewes - a community response to the challenges of climate change and peak oil. Lewes first introduced its own currency in 1789, but this was discontinued in 1895 along with a number of other local currencies, its reintroduction in September 2008 achieved national media coverage. On 3 July 2009, it was announced that the scheme was to be extended and that new notes of £5, £10 and £21 denominations would be issued; the £21 note emphasises the fact that five pence of each Lewes pound bought goes to the local charity the Live Lewes Fund. As of 2017, notes in circulation are: 1 Pound, undated 1 Pound, green, 2009 1 Pound, green, 2017 5 Pounds, blue, 2009 5 Pounds, blue, 2013 5 Pounds, blue, 2017 10 Pounds, yellow, 2009 10 Pounds, blue, 2014 21 Pounds, red, 2009 The value of the Lewes Pound is fixed at £1 Sterling, by January 2009 could used in any of 130 shops in Lewes.
Despite its nominal value, some businesses charge a lesser fee in Lewes Pounds, some of the earliest notes have been sold on eBay for higher values. The front features a picture of the South Downs with an image of Lewes resident Thomas Paine and a quotation of his: "We have it in our power to build the world anew". On the back is a picture of Lewes Castle; the notes are printed on traditional banknote paper and have a number of security features including unique numbering and heat marks. The Lewes Pound and the Transition Towns movement have received criticism for a failure to address the needs of the wider Lewes population lower socio-economic groups; such local currency initiatives have been more criticised in light of limited success in stimulating new spending in local economies and as an unrealistic strategy to reduce carbon emissions. Bristol Pound Stroud Pound Totnes pound BerkShares Toronto Dollar Brixton Pound Official web site details and bulletin board Community Currency Online Magazine
The Ghanaian pound was the currency of Ghana between 1958 and 1965. It was subdivided into each of 12 pence; until 1958, Ghana used the British West African pound. In 1965, Ghana introduced the first cedi at a rate of 1 pound = 2.4 cedis. In 1958, Bronze coins were issued for ½ and 1 penny, along with cupro-nickel 3 and 6 pence, 1 and 2 shillings; the 3 pence coin was scalloped in shape. In 1958, banknotes were introduced in denominations of 1 and 5 pounds, they were produced until 1962, except for the 10 shillings, produced until 1963. Economy of Ghana
The Syrian pound or Syrian lira is the currency of Syria and is issued by the Central Bank of Syria. The pound is subdivided into 100 qirsh. Before 1947, the word qirsh was spelled with the initial Arabic letter غ, after which the word began with ق; until 1958, banknotes were issued with Arabic on French on the reverse. After 1958, English has been used on the reverses, hence the three different names for this currency. Coins used both Arabic and French until independence only Arabic; the standard abbreviation for the Syrian pound is SYP. On 5 December 2005, the selling rate quoted by the Commercial Bank of Syria was 48.4 SYP to the US dollar. A rate of about 50 pounds to one dollar has been usual in the early 2000s, but the exchange rate is subject to fluctuations. Since the start of the civil war in 2011, the pound's exchange rate has deteriorated falling from 47 SYP for US$1 in March 2011 to 515 SYP for US$1 in July 2017. During the period when Syria was a part of the Ottoman Empire, which lasted about 400 years, the Ottoman lira was its main currency.
Following the fall of the Ottoman Empire and the placing of Syria under a mandate, the Egyptian pound was used in the territories under French and British mandates, including Lebanon and Palestine. Upon taking Lebanon and Syria under its separate mandate, the French government sought to replace the Egyptian currency and granted a commercial bank, the Banque de Syrie, the authority to issue a currency for states under its new mandate; the pound was pegged at a value of 20 French francs. As the political status of Lebanon evolved, the Banque de Syrie, to act as the official bank for Lebanon and Syria, was renamed the Banque de Syrie et du Grand-Liban; the BSL issued the Lebanese-Syrian currency for 15 years, starting in 1924. Two years before the expiration of the 15-year period, the BSL split the Lebanese-Syrian currency into two separate currencies that could still be used interchangeably in either state. In 1939, the bank was renamed the Banque de du Liban. In 1941, the peg to the French franc was replaced by a peg to the British pound of 8.83125 Syrian pounds = 1 British pound, as a consequence of the occupation of Syria by British and Free French forces.
This rate was based on the pre-war conversion rate between the sterling. In 1946, following devaluation of the franc, the pound was pegged once again to the franc at a rate of 1 pound = 54.35 francs. In 1947, the U. S. dollar was adopted as the peg for the Syrian currency, with 2.19148 pounds = 1 dollar, a rate, maintained until 1961. The Lebanese and Syrian currencies split in 1948. From 1961, a series of official exchange rates were in operation, alongside a parallel, black market rate which reflected the true market rate for Syrian pounds in Jordan and Lebanon where there was a healthy trade in the Syrian currency; the market was allowed to flourish because everybody, including government and public sector companies, needed it. The black market rate diverged from the official rate in the 1980s. Most the currency was pegged to the IMF SDF; as a result of the Syrian Civil War, there has been a capital flight to nearby countries including Lebanon, Jordan and Turkey. Syria has been subject to sanctions imposed by the United States, the European Union and other countries.
As a result, the official exchange rate has deteriorated falling from 47 SYP for US$1 in March 2011 to 515 SYP for US$1 in July 2017. In 1921, cupro-nickel 1⁄2 qirsh coins were introduced, followed in 1926 by aluminium bronze 2 and 5 qirsh. In 1929, nickel-brass 1 qirsh and silver 10, 25 and 50 qirsha were introduced. Nickel-brass 1⁄2 qirsh were introduced 1935, followed by zinc 1 qirsh and aluminium-bronze 2½ qirsh in 1940. During the Second World War, brass 1 qirsh and aluminium 2 1⁄2 qirsh; these pieces were crudely undated. A new coinage was introduced between 1947 and 1948 in denominations of 2 1⁄2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 qirsha and 1 pound, with the 2 1⁄2, 5 and 10 qirush struck in cupro-nickel and the others in silver. Aluminium-bronze replaced cupro-nickel in 1960, with nickel replacing silver in 1968. In 1996, following high inflation, new coins were introduced in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 25 pounds, with the 25 pounds a bimetallic coin. In 2003 5, 10, 25 pound coins were issued, with latent images.
On December 26, 2018, the Central Bank of Syria introduced a 50 Syrian pounds coin for general circulation and to replace the banknote of said denomination. In 1919, the Banque de Syrie introduced notes for 5, 25 and 50 qirsha, 1 and 5 livres; these were followed, by notes for 1 qirsh and 10, 25, 50 and 100 livres. In 1925, the Banque de Syrie et du Grand-Liban began issuing notes and production of denominations below 25 qirsha ceased. Notes below 1 livre were not issued from 1930. In 1939, the issuing body again changed its name, to the Banque de Syrie et du Liban. Between 1942 and 1944, the government introduced notes for 10, 25 and 50 qirsha. In the early 1950s, undated notes were issued by the Institut d'Emission de Syrie in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 livres, followed by notes dated 1955 for 10 and 25 livres; the Banque Centrale de Syrie took over paper money issuance in 1957, issuing the same denominations as the Institut d'Emission. In 1958, the French language was replaced by English.
Notes were issued for 1
The Jamaican pound was the official currency of Jamaica between 1840 and 1969. It circulated as a mixture of British currency and local issues and was always equal to the British pound; the Jamaican pound was used by the Cayman Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. The history of currency in Jamaica should be considered in the wider picture of the currencies of the British West Indies. Jamaica was the only British West Indies territory to use special regional issues of the sterling copper coinage; the earliest money in Jamaica was Spanish copper coins called maravedíes. For nearly four hundred years Spanish dollars, known as pieces of eight were in widespread use on the world's trading routes, including the Caribbean Sea region. However, following the revolutionary wars in Latin America, the source of these silver trade coins dried up; the last Spanish dollar was minted at the Potosi mint in 1825. The United Kingdom had adopted the gold standard in 1821, so 1825 was an opportune time to introduce the British sterling coinage into all the British colonies.
An imperial order-in-council was passed in that year for the purposes of facilitating this aim by making sterling coinage legal tender in the colonies at the specified rate of $1 = 4s 4d. As the sterling silver coins were attached to a gold standard, this exchange rate did not realistically represent the value of the silver in the Spanish dollars compared to the value of the gold in the British gold sovereign; therefore the order-in-council had, in many colonies, the effect of driving sterling coinage out rather than encouraging its circulation. Remedial legislation had to be introduced in 1838 so as to change to the more realistic rate of $1 = 4s 2d. However, in Jamaica, British Honduras, in the Bahamas the official rating was set aside in favour of what was known as the'Maccaroni' tradition in which a British shilling, referred to as a'Maccaroni', was treated as one quarter of a dollar; the common link between these four territories was the Bank of Nova Scotia which brought in the'Maccaroni' tradition, resulting in the successful introduction of both sterling coinage and sterling accounts.
In 1834 silver coins of threepence and three halfpennies were introduced, valued at 1⁄2 real and 1⁄4 real. The three halfpenny came to be called "quartile" or "quatties". These, in particular, were used in church collections due to a feeling by the black population that copper coins were inappropriate for that purpose. Hence, they came to be called "Christian quatties". In 1839 an act was passed by Parliament declaring that as of December 31, 1840, only British coinage would be legal tender in Jamaica, demonetizing all of the Spanish coins, with the exception of the gold doubloon, valued at £3 4s. Coins in use were thus the farthing, penny, three halfpenny, sixpence, florin, half-crown, crown; the emancipation of the slaves in 1838 increased the need for coinage in Jamaica low denomination coins, but the blacks were still reluctant to use copper. The solution was to use cupronickel, adopted in 1869. Penny and halfpennies were minted for use in Jamaica, becoming the first Jamaican coins. Beginning in 1880, the farthing was minted in cupronickel.
In 1904, the Currency Notes Law was passed, “constituting a Board of Commissioners to issue notes called currency notes for the value of 10 shillings each,” although no such notes were issued at that time. This law was amended by Law 17 of 1918 which authorized “the issue of currency notes for such denominations as may be approved.” The Commissioners of Currency issued the first notes under these laws on 15 March 1920, in the denominations of 2 shillings 6 pence, 5 shillings, 10 shillings, with each note carrying the inscription that they were “Issued under the authority of Law 27 of 1904 & Law 17 of 1918.” Only these three smaller denominations were issued by the Board of Commissioners. In 1940, the government bank began producing £ £ 5 notes. In October 1960, the Bank of Jamaica was given the sole right to mint coins and produce banknotes in Jamaica, their notes were issued on May 1, 1961, in denominations of 5s, 10s, £1 and £5. On January 30, 1968, the Jamaican House of Representatives voted to decimalize the currency, introducing a new dollar worth 10s, divided into 100 cents.
At the time, coins of 1 cent, 5 cents, 10 cents, 20 cents and 25 cents were produced and banknotes of 50 cents, $1, $2, $10. These coins and banknotes went into circulation on September 8, 1969; the new Jamaican dollar differed from all the other dollars in the British West Indies in that it was a half-pound sterling.
Brixton is a district of South London, within the London Borough of Lambeth. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London. Brixton is residential with a prominent street market and substantial retail sector, it is a multiethnic community, with a large percentage of its population of Afro-Caribbean descent. It lies within Inner South London and is bordered by Stockwell, Streatham, Tulse Hill and Herne Hill; the district houses the main offices of the London Borough of Lambeth. Brixton is 2.7 miles south-southwest from the geographical centre of London near Brixton Underground station. The name Brixton is thought to originate from Brixistane, meaning the stone of Brixi, a Saxon lord. Brixi is thought to have erected a boundary stone to mark the meeting place of the ancient hundred court of Surrey; the location is unknown but is thought to be at the top of Brixton Hill, at a road known at the time as Bristow or Brixton Causeway, long before any settlement in the area.
Brixton marks the rise from the marshes of North Lambeth up to the hills of Upper Norwood and Streatham. At the time the River Effra flowed from its source in Upper Norwood through Herne Hill to Brixton. At Brixton the river was crossed by low bridges for Roman roads to the south coast of Britain, now Brixton Road and Clapham Road; the main roads were connected through a network of medieval country lanes, such as Acre Lane, Coldharbour Lane, Brixton Water Lane and Lyham Road Black Lane. It was only at the end of the 18th century that villages and settlements formed around Brixton, as the original woodland was reduced until the area was covered in farmland and market gardens known for game and strawberries; the area remained undeveloped until the beginning of the 19th century, the main settlements being near Stockwell, Brixton Hill and Coldharbour Lane. With the opening of Vauxhall Bridge in 1816, improved access to Central London led to a process of suburban development; the largest single development, one of the last in suburban character, was Angell Town, laid out in the 1850s on the east side of Brixton Road, so named after a family that owned land in Lambeth from the late 17th century until well into the 20th.
One of a few surviving windmills in London, built in 1816, is just off Brixton Hill and surrounded by houses built during Brixton's Victorian expansion. When the London sewerage system was constructed during the mid-19th century, its designer Sir Joseph Bazalgette incorporated flows from the River Effra, which used to flow through Brixton, into his'high-level interceptor sewer' known as the Effra sewer. Brixton was transformed into a middle class suburb between the 1890s. Railways linked Brixton with the centre of London when the Chatham Main Line was built through the area by the London and Dover Railway in the 1860s. In 1888, Electric Avenue was so named after it became the first street in London to be lit by electricity. In this time, large expensive houses were constructed along the main roads in Brixton, which were converted into flats and boarding houses at the start of the 20th century as the middle classes were replaced by an influx of the working classes. By 1925, Brixton attracted thousands of new people.
It housed the largest shopping centre in South London at the time, as well as a thriving market, pubs and a theatre. In the 1920s, Brixton was the shopping capital of South London with three large department stores and some of the earliest branches of what are now Britain's major national retailers. Today, Brixton Road is the main shopping area, fusing into Brixton Market. A prominent building on Brixton High Street is Morleys, an independent department store established in the 1880s. On the western boundary of Brixton with Clapham stands the Sunlight Laundry, an Art Deco factory building. Designed by architect F. E. Simpkins and erected in 1937, this is one of the few art deco buildings, still owned by the firm that commissioned it and is still used for its original purpose; the Brixton area was bombed during World War II, contributing to a severe housing crisis, which in turn led to urban decay. This was followed by the building of council housing. In the 1940s and 1950s, many immigrants from the West Indies and Ireland, settled in Brixton.
More recent immigrants include other European citizens. Brixton has an ageing population, which affects housing strategies in the area; the first wave of immigrants who formed the British African-Caribbean community arrived in 1948 at Tilbury Docks on the HMT Empire Windrush from Jamaica and were temporarily housed in the Clapham South deep shelter. The nearest Labour Exchange was on Coldharbour Lane and the new arrivals spread out into local accommodation. Many immigrants only intended to stay in Britain for a few years, but although a number returned to the Caribbean, the majority remained to settle permanently; the arrival of the passengers has become an important landmark in the history of modern Britain, the image of West Indians filing off its gangplank has come to symbolise the beginning of modern British multicultural society. In 1998 the area in front of the Tate Library in Brixton was renamed "Windrush Square" to mark the 50th anniversary of the arrival of the Windrush. Brixton was the scene of riots in April 1981 at a time when Brixton underwent deep social and economic problems—high unemployment, high crime, poor housing, no amenities—in a predominantly African-Caribbean community.
The Metropolitan Police began Operation Swamp 81 at the beginning of April, aimed at reducing street crime through the repeated u