World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Cincinnati Mighty Ducks
The Cincinnati Mighty Ducks were an ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. They played in Cincinnati, United States, at the Cincinnati Gardens. For their existence they were the affiliate of the National Hockey League teams, the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and the Detroit Red Wings; the Baltimore Bandits moved to Cincinnati from minimal fiscal success. The Mighty Ducks of Anaheim signed Cincinnati a five-year affiliate agreement; the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim were their only affiliate until 1999, when the Adirondack Red Wings folded and the Detroit Red Wings were trying to find an affiliate and couldn't find one. The Mighty Ducks signed the Detroit Red Wings a three-year agreement until the 2002-03 season. In 2002 the Grand Rapids Griffins tried to find an affiliate since the Ottawa Senators signed with Binghamton; the Detroit Red Wings left the Mighty Ducks and became the Griffins affiliate since Grand Rapids is only three hours away from Detroit. But the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim signed Cincinnati another three year affiliate agreement so it wouldn't fold.
The Mighty Ducks of Anaheim stayed with the Mighty Ducks until the 2005-06 season. The Cincinnati Mighty Ducks were granted a voluntary suspension for the 2005–06 season after the Mighty Ducks left Cincinnati and signed a new agreement with the Portland Pirates, respectively. In October 2005 the team was renamed the Cincinnati RailRaiders, they were seeking an affiliation agreement for a return in 2006-07 season, but failed to reach a goal of 2,000 season tickets sold to become re-active. On October 3, 2006, it was reported that a Windsor, based company had been granted conditional approval to purchase and relocate the team, however that deal fell through. On March 19, 2007, the AHL announced that the team had been purchased, moved to Rockford, Illinois, to become the Rockford IceHogs. Numerous former Cincinnati Mighty Ducks were all together with Anaheim when they won the Stanley Cup in 2007. In addition, former coach Mike Babcock led Anaheim to a Stanley Cup Final appearance in 2003 before moving to Detroit.
The market was served by: Cincinnati Mohawks Cincinnati Wings Cincinnati Swords Cincinnati Stingers Cincinnati Tigers Cincinnati Cyclones The team was replaced in this market by: Cincinnati Cyclones of the ECHL Affiliates Mighty Ducks Of Anaheim Detroit Red Wings Sean Avery Mike Babcock Tim Brent Sheldon Brookbank Ilya Bryzgalov Dan Bylsma Marc Chouinard Mike Commodore Matt Cullen Kurtis Foster Ryan Getzlaf Jean-Sebastien Giguere Curtis Glencross Zenon Konopka Tomas Kopecky Chris Kunitz Maxim Kuznetsov Joffrey Lupul Tony Martensson Andy McDonald Shane O'Brien Samuel Pahlsson Pierre-Alexandr Parenteau Richard Park Dustin Penner Corey Perry Ruslan Salei Bob Wren Goals: 42 Bob Wren Assists: 59 Craig Reichert Points: 100 Bob Wren Penalty minutes: 319 Shane O'Brien GAA: 2.07 Frederic Cassivi SV%:.924 Frederic Cassivi Career goals: 113 Bob Wren Career assists: 186 Bob Wren Career points: 299 Bob Wren Career penalty minutes: 482 Shane O'Brien Career goaltending wins: 76 Ilya Bryzgalov Career shutouts: 19 Ilya Bryzgalov Career games: 277 Bob Wren The Internet Hockey Database - Cincinnati Mighty Ducks SCSR / Cincinnati Mighty Ducks
The Binghamton Senators were a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. Nicknamed the B-Sens, they played in Binghamton, New York, at the Floyd L. Maines Veterans Memorial Arena; the B-Sens were minor league affiliates of the Ottawa Senators of the National Hockey League. In 2017, the B-Sens' franchise was relocated by the Ottawa Senators to become the Belleville Senators. Binghamton replaced the franchise with the Binghamton Devils, the AHL franchise of the New Jersey Devils, they were the AHL's 2010–11 Calder Cup champions. The Senators' main rivals were the nearby teams, the Syracuse Crunch, the Rochester Americans, the Albany Devils, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, the Hershey Bears; the arrival of the B-Sens marked the return of the AHL to the area after a five-year absence. The Rhode Island Reds, a charter member of the AHL, moved to Binghamton in 1977 and played there until 1997, known variously as the Binghamton Dusters, the Binghamton Whalers, the Binghamton Rangers.
While no AHL team played in Binghamton between 1997 and 2002, the market was served by the B. C. Icemen of the United Hockey League; the Binghamton Senators enjoyed a successful 2002–03 inaugural season, going 43–26–9 with 100 points. They breezed by their first two playoff rounds, but were defeated by the Hamilton Bulldogs in five games. By contrast, the 2003–04 season was not as successful as the loss of both Antoine Vermette and Jason Spezza weakened the team, they exited the playoffs in a two-game sweep at the hands of the Norfolk Admirals. The 2004–05 NHL lockout meant Binghamton got a return visit from their recent graduates and several other NHL players, including Jason Spezza, Antoine Vermette, Anton Volchenkov, Chris Neil, Josh Langfeld, Brian Pothier, making the Senators a legitimate Calder Cup contender. Jason Spezza lead the way with a league high 117 points; the Senators ended the regular season with only 21 regulation losses, tied for second fewest in the league, taking the division title with a league high 276 goals scored.
The Senators entered the playoffs on a roll, winnering 11 of their last 13 games, continued their dominance by cruising through the first two games of their first round best-of-seven series against the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, scoring nine goals. But the offense stalled and the Sens scored only five goals in the remaining four games as the Penguins eliminated Binghamton. On July 17, 2009, Don Nachbaur was named head coach of the Binghamton Senators. During the 2009–10 AHL season, Nachbaur coached the Senators to a 36–35–6–3 record and 81 points to finish fifth in the AHL's East Division. On June 22, 2010, after only one season behind the bench, Nachbaur announced that he was resigning as head coach citing personal reasons. Kurt Kleinendorst was appointed the head coach of the B-Sens with a two-year contract. Kleinendorst had spent the previous year leading the USA Hockey National Team Development Program's under-18 team to a gold medal at the 2010 IIHF World U18 Championships in Belarus.
In hist first season as head coach, Kleinedorst lead the Senators to a fifth-place finish in the East Division. The B-Sens qualified for the 2011 playoffs against the Manchester Monarchs in the first round, they won games five and six in overtime to force a game seven. The Senators fell behind 5–4 in game seven, but Erik Condra tied the game with 1:45 to go in the game. Ryan Potulny scored 3:07 into overtime to send the Senators to the second round. Next, the Senators faced the Portland Pirates andwon the first two games in Portland to go up 2–0 in the series, they lost two of the next three games at home to the Pirates and had their series lead cut to 3–2. The Senators shut out the Pirates in 3 -- 0 to go to the Eastern Conference final. In the Eastern Conference final, the Senators faced the Charlotte Checkers; the Senators dominated the series, outscoring the Checkers 21–8, 11–4 at home and 10–4 on the road. In game four, Ryan Keller got the game-winning goal in overtime to send the Senators to the Calder Cup finals.
In the finals, the Senators played the Houston Aeros. The Senators fell behind 2–1 in the series, but a two-game home-ice winning streak gave them the 3–2 lead; the Senators won game six in Houston on June 7, 2011, to capture their first Calder Cup, with Ryan Keller scoring the game-winning goal 9:09 into the third period of the deciding game. In the 2011–12 season, the Senators faced a revised lineup as free agents left to join other NHL organizations and several players became full-time Ottawa Senators; the team finished out of the playoffs. Head coach Kleinendorst resigned after the season to pursue other opportunities, he was replaced by former NHL player and Ottawa assistant coach Luke Richardson as the team's seventh head coach. In the 2012–13 offseason, the Senators made several moves in free agency, including bringing back former player Andre Benoit to be the Senators' captain; the NHL lockout allowed several Ottawa top prospects, such as Jakob Silfverberg and Mika Zibanejad, to start the season in Binghamton.
The Senators stormed out to a 27–10–4 start by the all-star break, holding the best record in the AHL at one point. The Senators lost many players, including Benoit, Silfverburg and Patrick Wiercioch, to Ottawa as the NHL regular season started; the Senators went 17–14–4 the rest of the way to finish second in the East Division, claim the fourth seed for the playoffs, finish with a 44–24–8 record overall. However, the Senators offense struggled against the physical play of the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins and swept the Senators out of the playoffs, three-games-to-none; the Senators returned the entire team from
New Haven, Connecticut
New Haven is a coastal city in the U. S. state of Connecticut. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of Long Island Sound in New Haven County, is part of the New York metropolitan area. With a population of 129,779 as determined by the 2010 United States Census, it is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport. New Haven is the principal municipality of Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. New Haven was the first planned city in America. A year after its founding by English Puritans in 1638, eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is known as the "Nine Square Plan"; the central common block is the New Haven Green, a 16-acre square at the center of Downtown New Haven. The Green is now a National Historic Landmark, the "Nine Square Plan" is recognized by the American Planning Association as a National Planning Landmark. New Haven is the home of Yale University; as New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Yale serves as an integral part of the city's economy.
Health care, professional services, financial services, retail trade contribute to the city's economic activity. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters and music venues. New Haven had the first public tree planting program in America, producing a canopy of mature trees that gave the city the nickname "The Elm City". Before Europeans arrived, the New Haven area was the home of the Quinnipiac tribe of Native Americans, who lived in villages around the harbor and subsisted off local fisheries and the farming of maize; the area was visited by Dutch explorer Adriaen Block in 1614. Dutch traders set up a small trading system of beaver pelts with the local inhabitants, but trade was sporadic and the Dutch did not settle permanently in the area. In 1637 a small party of Puritans wintered over.
In April 1638, the main party of five hundred Puritans who had left the Massachusetts Bay Colony under the leadership of the Reverend John Davenport and London merchant Theophilus Eaton sailed into the harbor. It was their hope to set up a theological community with the government more linked to the church than that in Massachusetts, to exploit the area's excellent potential as a port; the Quinnipiacs, who were under attack by neighboring Pequots, sold their land to the settlers in return for protection. By 1640, "Qunnipiac's" theocratic government and nine-square grid plan were in place, the town was renamed Newhaven, with'haven' meaning harbor or port; the settlement became the headquarters of the New Haven Colony, distinct from the Connecticut Colony established to the north centering on Hartford. Reflecting its theocratic roots, the New Haven Colony forbid the establishment of other churches, whereas the Connecticut Colony permitted them. Economic disaster struck Newhaven in 1646, when the town sent its first loaded ship of local goods back to England.
It never reached its destination, its disappearance stymied New Haven's development versus the rising trade powers of Boston and New Amsterdam. In 1660, Colony founder John Davenport's wishes were fulfilled, Hopkins School was founded in New Haven with money from the estate of Edward Hopkins. In 1661, the Regicides who had signed the death warrant of Charles I of England were pursued by Charles II. Two of them, Colonel Edward Whalley and Colonel William Goffe, fled to New Haven for refuge. Davenport arranged. A third judge, John Dixwell, joined the others. In 1664 New Haven became part of the Connecticut Colony when the two colonies were merged under political pressure from England, according to folklore as punishment for harboring the three judges; some members of the New Haven Colony seeking to establish a new theocracy elsewhere went on to establish Newark, New Jersey. It was made co-capital of Connecticut in 1701, a status it retained until 1873. In 1716, the Collegiate School relocated from Old Saybrook to New Haven, establishing New Haven as a center of learning.
In 1718, in response to a large donation from British East India Company merchant Elihu Yale, former Governor of Madras, the name of the Collegiate School was changed to Yale College. For over a century, New Haven citizens had fought in the colonial militia alongside regular British forces, as in the French and Indian War; as the American Revolution approached, General David Wooster and other influential residents hoped that the conflict with the government in Britain could be resolved short of rebellion. On 23 April 1775, still celebrated in New Haven as Powder House Day, the Second Company, Governor's Foot Guard, of New Haven entered the struggle against the governing British parliament. Under Captain Benedict Arnold, they broke into the powder house to arm themselves and began a three-day march to Cambridge, Massachusetts. Other New Haven militia members were on hand to escort George Washington from his overnight stay in New Haven on his way to Cambridge. Contemporary reports, from both sides, remark on the New Haven volunteers' professional military bearing, including uniforms.
On July 5, 1779, 2,600 loyalists and British regulars under General Wil
American Hockey League
The American Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League. Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team; when NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-seven AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining four are in Canada; the league offices are located in Springfield and its current president is David Andrews. In general, a player must be at least 18 years of age to play in the AHL or not be beholden to a junior ice hockey team; the league limits the number of experienced professional players on a team's active roster during any given game. The AHL allows for practice squad contracts; the annual playoff champion is awarded the Calder Cup, named for Frank Calder, the first President of the NHL. The reigning champions are the Toronto Marlies.
The AHL traces its origins directly to two predecessor professional leagues: the Canadian-American Hockey League, founded in 1926, the first International Hockey League, established in 1929. Although the Can-Am League never operated with more than six teams, the departure of the Boston Bruin Cubs after the 1935–36 season reduced it down to just four member clubs – the Springfield Indians, Philadelphia Ramblers, Providence Reds, New Haven Eagles – for the first time in its history. At the same time, the then-rival IHL lost half of its eight members after the 1935–36 season leaving it with just four member teams: the Buffalo Bisons, Syracuse Stars, Pittsburgh Hornets, Cleveland Falcons. With both leagues down to the bare minimum in membership, the governors of each recognized the need for action to assure their member clubs' long-term survival, their solution was to play an interlocking schedule. While the Can-Am League was based in the Northeast and the IHL in the Great Lakes, their footprints were close enough for this to be a viable option.
The two older leagues' eight surviving clubs began joint play in November 1936 as a new two-division "circuit of mutual convenience" known as the International-American Hockey League. The four Can-Am teams became the I-AHL East Division, with the IHL quartet playing as the West Division; the IHL contributed its former championship trophy, the F. G. "Teddy" Oke Trophy, which would go to the regular-season winners of the merged league's West Division until 1952. The Oke Trophy is now awarded to the regular-season winners of the AHL's Northeast Division. A little more than a month into that first season, the balance and symmetry of the new combined circuit suffered a setback when its membership unexpectedly fell to seven teams; the West's Buffalo Bisons were forced to cease operations on December 6, 1936, after playing just 11 games, because of what proved to be insurmountable financial problems and lack of access to a suitable arena. The makeshift new I-AHL played out the rest of its first season with just seven teams.
At the end of the 1936–37 season, a modified three-round playoff format was devised and a new championship trophy, the Calder Cup, was established. The Syracuse Stars defeated the Philadelphia Ramblers in the final, three-games-to-one, to win the first-ever Calder Cup championship; the Calder Cup continues on today as the AHL's playoff championship trophy. After two seasons of interlocking play, the governors of the two leagues' seven active teams met in New York City on June 28, 1938, agreed that it was time to formally consolidate. Maurice Podoloff of New Haven, the former head of the Can-Am League, was elected the I-AHL's first president; the former IHL president, John Chick of Windsor, became vice-president in charge of officials. The new I-AHL added an eighth franchise at the 1938 meeting to fill the void in its membership left by the loss of Buffalo two years earlier with the admission of the two-time defending Eastern Amateur Hockey League champion Hershey Bears; the Bears remain the only one of these eight original I-AHL/AHL franchises to have been represented in the league without interruption since the 1938–39 season.
The newly merged circuit increased its regular-season schedule for each team by six games from 48 to 54. After the 1939–40 season the I-AHL renamed itself the American Hockey League, it enjoyed both consistent success on the ice and relative financial stability over its first three decades of operation. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the cost of doing business in professional ice hockey began to rise with NHL expansion and relocation and the 1972 formation of the World Hockey Association, which forced the relocation and subsequent folding of the Cleveland Barons, Baltimore Clippers, Quebec Aces; the number of major-league teams competing for players rose from six to thirty in just seven years. Player salaries at all levels shot up with the increased demand and competition for their services; this did not seem to affect the AHL at first, as it expanded to 12 teams by 1970. However, to help compensate for the rise in player salaries, many NHL clubs cut back on the number of p
Professional ice hockey in Connecticut
Professional ice hockey in Connecticut has a rich tradition dating from the mid-1920s. Most of these teams were NHL minor league affiliates located in New Haven, though with the closure of the New Haven Coliseum, minor league affiliates now exist only exist in Hartford and Bridgeport. Hartford had its own Major league team, the Whalers team that existed in Hartford from 1974-97. Independent hockey leagues teams have been gaining a foothold in Danbury starting in 2004; this article concludes with a summary of all past and present hockey teams from Connecticut, listed by city and league for reference, to provide links to main articles about each team. Minor League teams include player-development franchises affiliated with NHL teams, as well as independent teams While New Haven has no active teams, New Haven has long been considered the birthplace of hockey in Connecticut. Teams have been hosted since the mid-1920s, first at the New Haven Arena until 1972, followed by the New Haven Coliseum until 2002.
The New Haven Haven Blades and the New Haven Nighthawks were the most popular franchises. Since the Coliseum's closure in 2002, professional hockey has not returned to New Haven; the American Hockey League Sound Tigers have played in nearby Bridgeport since 2001. In 1992, the Nighthawks signed a last-minute player-development affiliation with the Ottawa Senators, which required the team to be re-branded as the New Haven Senators for the 1992–93 season. Fans were ambivalent to the name change and attendance plummeted, making this the franchise last season in New Haven. Hockey had a brief reboot with the arrival of former Hartford Whalers' affiliate, the Beast of New Haven, which were displaced from North Carolina by their parent team's relocation in 1997, they were followed by a two seasons of the independent New Haven Knights from 2000–02. Following the Knights' departure, chronic maintenance issues in the New Haven Coliseum, as well as competition from other southern Connecticut arenas, prompted state and city officials to permanently close the arena in 2002.
Demolition of the Coliseum was completed in throughout 2006, concluded by the implosion of the signature elevated parking garage on January 20, 2007. The Bridgeport Sound Tigers begin play in the AHL in 2001, in the newly constructed Arena at Harbor Yard. During the first season of play, the Sound Tigers won their division championship and played in the Calder Cup Finals, though losing to the Chicago Wolves four games to one; as of the 2009 season, the team had seven winning seasons. Located 20 miles west of the New Haven Coliseum, competition from the Arena at Harbor Yard was one of the factors in the coliseum's demise. Major league teams are franchises that played in the National Hockey League or the World Hockey AssociationHartford, the capital of Connecticut, was bereft of a professional ice hockey team until 1974, when the Whalers franchise from the World Hockey Association came to town, occupying the newly built Hartford Civic Center. After the Whalers relocated to North Carolina in 1997, the minor league team the Hartford Wolf Pack relocated to the Civic Center.
In the years since, various proposals for a new arena have been submitted with the hope of attracting a new major league hockey team. The former Hartford Whalers were the first and only major league hockey team located in Connecticut, nestled halfway between the Boston Bruins and New York Rangers/Islanders hockey markets; the team was founded in Boston as the New England Whalers, one of the original World Hockey Association teams. The WHA planned for a rival team to play in New York on Long Island, however the NHL created the Islanders franchise to fill the desired arena, shutting them out of the market; the Whaler's moved to Hartford in 1974, entered the NHL in 1979, where it became the Hartford Whalers. Although it had losing seasons its first two years in Hartford, the team had won the 1972–73 WHA championship while in Boston and, never missed the playoffs while in the WHA; the team had mixed success in the NHL before relocating to Raleigh, North Carolina in 1997 due to attendance and revenue issues.
Note: this section describes actions taken by third parties that are not affiliated with the Whalers/Hurricanes franchiseYears after the departure of the Whalers, the team remains a focus of civic pride among Connecticut residents. The retired jersey numbers still hang on green and white banner from the rafters of the former Hartford Civic Center where the team played in Hartford. Aside from the jersey numbers retired by the team, the banners include former team members Ulf Samuelsson, Ron Francis, Kevin Dineen, which were symbolically added by Hartford Wolf Pack management in honor of the players in 2006, nine years after the team departure. Many fans have continued to follow the team after its move to North Carolina, however some have boycotted the team as former players from Hartford were traded to other teams or retired. Loyalty remains focused on the team's Hartford years, with new Whalers merchandise sales alone among the highest selling brands in the NHL as of August 2010; this continued popularity throughout the intervening years has led to many efforts to bring NHL Hockey back to Hartford by individuals such as Hartford real estate magnate and former XL Center operator Larry Gottesdiener and former Whalers franchise owner Howard Baldwin.
Several efforts have been made over the years to revive NHL hockey by promoting the Hartford market for a new or relocated NHL franchise. Larry Gottesdiener, head of Northland Investment Group, has scouted for years for an NHL franchise to bring to Hartford
The Springfield Indians were a minor professional ice hockey franchise based in West Springfield and Springfield, Massachusetts. The Indians were founding members of the American Hockey League, they were in existence for a total of 60 seasons with three interruptions. The Indians had two brief hiatuses from 1933 to 1935, from 1942 to 1946; the team was known as the Syracuse Warriors from 1951 to 1954. The Indians won seven Calder Cup championships, one while known as the Kings in 1971; the Indians had their start in the Canadian-American Hockey League in 1926. The "Can-Am", as it was called, was founded in Springfield and the Indians were one of the five initial franchises, it was run at the time by Lester Patrick and the National Hockey League's New York Rangers, future NHL stars such as Charlie Rayner, Earl Seibert, Cecil Dillon and Ott Heller saw their start in Springfield uniforms. The Indians played in the Can-Am League until the 1932–33 season, having to fold thirteen games into the season.
In 1935–36, Lucien Garneau transferred his Quebec Beavers franchise to Springfield, resurrecting the Indians name. The Great Depression caused cutbacks all around, the Can-Am merged with the International Hockey League to form the International-American Hockey League, which changed its name to the American Hockey League, having lost its last Canadian franchises, in 1941, but before that time, the man who cast his shadow over the team for four decades, Boston Bruins superstar defenseman Eddie Shore, purchased the team in 1939. Industriously, he split games between the Bruins and the Indians going so far as to provoke a trade to the Amerks to make the train commute easier, he played for Springfield for two more seasons. Shore's often-controversial but ever-colorful management style would permeate the team for the next 36 years and provide generations of hockey players and fans with anecdotes. Despite early stars like Shore, Fred Thurier, Frank Beisler and Pete Kelly, success eluded the Indians on the ice.
However, in the 1941–42 season, the Indians finished in first place. Disaster struck in the following season. With World War II, the United States army requisitioned the Eastern States Coliseum, Springfield's home arena, for the war effort, leaving the Indians homeless. Shore loaned Indians players to the Buffalo Bisons for the duration, returning the players to Springfield for the 1946–47 season. However, on ice success continued to elude the team, despite the presence of stars such as Harry Pidhirny and Jim Anderson the franchise failed to have a winning record for over a decade more, including a temporary franchise relocation as the Syracuse Warriors from 1951–54. During those three seasons, Shore fielded a Springfield team in the low-minor Eastern Amateur Hockey League and the Quebec Hockey League using the Indians name. Led by future Boston Bruins goaltender Don Simmons, scoring leader Vern Pachal, player–coach Doug McMurdy, the EAHL Indians finished 3rd and 1st their two seasons in the loop, but finished in last place in 1954 in the QHL, the only team in the loop located outside of the province of Quebec.
Meanwhile, disappointed with attendance in Syracuse, Shore moved the AHL franchise back to Springfield – disbanding the QHL team – for good for the 1955 season. The team's few superlatives for the rest of the decade included the 1955 season – during which Ross Lowe won the only league MVP award in franchise history and Anderson was named rookie of the year – and All-Star Team citations to Eldie Kobussen at center in 1948, Billy Gooden in 1951, Gordon Tottle and Don Simmons in 1955, Gerry Ehman and Cal Gardner in 1958, Pidhirny in 1959. Matters turned around in dramatic fashion for the 1959–60 season. Behind an affiliation with the Rangers bringing stars Bill Sweeney and goaltender Marcel Paille over from Providence, an immensely deep team with star forwards Pidhirny, Ken Schinkel, Bruce Cline, Brian Kilrea, defensemen Ted Harris, Kent Douglas, Noel Price and Bob McCord, the Indians led the league in the regular season three straight years and won three straight Calder Cups, losing only five playoff games in that span.
Sweeney won the league scoring title three years in a row, Paille the best goaltending record two years running, Springfield defensemen won the best defenseman award two years running. The 1959–1962 Indians were the most dominant team the AHL has seen; the stands in the old Coliseum were filled night after night. The Indians of that time were so dominant that it was said they could have made a good account of themselves in the NHL. 1959–60: Sweeney finished second in league scoring behind Fred Glover of Cleveland with 96 points, Floyd Smith finished third and Bruce Cline ninth. The Indians led the league with a 43–23–6 record, defeated Rochester four games to one in the finals for the franchise's first Calder Cup. Sweeney was named to the First All-Star Team at center, Paille to the Second Team at goal, McCord to the Second Team at defense, Smith to the Second Team at left wing, Parker MacDonald to the Second Team at right wing. 1960–61: Indians led the league with a 49–22–1 record, a mark unsurpassed until the 1973 season.
The magnificent offense scored 344 goals, nearly a hundred more than any other team. Sweeney led the league in scoring, while Cline placed third, Kilrea fourth, Bill McCreary Sr. fifth and Anderson seventh in a show of offensive dominan