Farm River (Connecticut)
Farm River is a south-flowing river located within the U. S. state of Connecticut. Because it begins as freshwater in its northern reaches and flows into tidal salt water at Long Island Sound, Farm River is by definition an estuary; the river is 16.5 miles long. The USGS identifies the river's headwaters as an area below the southeast flank of Pistapaug Mountain in the town of North Branford; the Friends of the Farm River Estuary name the river's source as Pistapaug Pond, a reservoir straddling the town lines of Wallingford and North Branford, below the west flank of Pistapaug Mountain. From its northern reaches, the river flows southward into the town of East Haven where it becomes the dividing line between East Haven and Branford. Along its route, the river supplies water via tunnel to Lake Saltonstall, a public water source owned by the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority. Near the river's mouth it flows past Farm River State Park; the USGS lists among the river's many alternate names Beaver River, Deborah River, Deborah's Stream, East Haven River, Foxon River, Great River, Ironworks River, Moe River, Muddy River, Scotch Cap River, Stony River, Tapamshasick.
The name Farm River was decided upon in 1968. Friends of the Farm River Estuary The Farm River Estuary River Guide Friends of the Farm River Estuary
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth is in the Quaternary glaciation, known in popular terminology as the Ice Age. Individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods", intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials", with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history. In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next ice age, which otherwise would begin in around 50,000 years, more glacial cycles. In 1742, Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy. Two years he published an account of his journey.
He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. Similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834. Comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethe's scientific work; such explanations could be found in other parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers. Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport.
The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, explained erratic boulders in the Alps by the action of glaciers. Two decades in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula, he regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon. Only a few years the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations, he attempted to show. During the following years, Esmark's ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish and German scientists. At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be open to Esmark's ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most prompted by Esmark.
In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmark's theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the temperate zones of the globe. In 1829, independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz explained the dispersal of erratic boulders in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains, the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers; when he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical. Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps, his thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentier's case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earth's history. In 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held. Schimper assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration with a cold climate and frozen water. Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, de Charpentier and Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation. During the winter of 1836/37, Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations, they drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, de Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. Agassiz appears to have been familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.
At the beginning of 1837, Schimper coined the term "ice age" for the period of the glaciers. In July 1837 Ag
Long Island Sound
Long Island Sound is a tidal estuary of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between the eastern shores of The Bronx, New York City, southern Westchester County, Connecticut to the north, the North Shore of Long Island, to the south. From west to east, the sound stretches 110 miles from the East River in New York City, along the North Shore of Long Island, to Block Island Sound. A mix of freshwater from tributaries and saltwater from the ocean, Long Island Sound is 21 miles at its widest point and varies in depth from 65 to 230 feet. Several major cities are situated along Long Island Sound and more than 8 million people live within its watershed. Major Connecticut cities on the Sound include Bridgeport, New London, Stamford and New Haven. Cities on the New York side of the Sound include Rye, Glen Cove, New Rochelle, portions of Queens and the Bronx in New York City. Mansions and wealthy neighborhoods characterize a good portion of the coast of the sound from Port Jefferson and east on Long Island. Property values in Westchester County, Long Island, southwestern Connecticut are among the highest in the nation, due to the proximity to New York City and their location on "The Sound".
About 18,000 years ago, Long Island Sound, much of Long Island were covered by a thick sheet of ice, part of the Late Wisconsin Glacier. About 3,300 feet thick in its interior and about 1,300 to 1,600 feet thick along its southern edge, it was the most recent of a series of glaciations that covered the area during the past 10 million years. Sea level at that time was about 330 feet lower than today; the continental ice sheet scraped off an average of 65 feet of surface material from the New England landscape deposited the material from the Connecticut coast into the Sound, creating what is now Long Island. When the ice sheet stopped advancing 18,000 years ago, a large amount of drift was deposited, known as the Ronkonkoma Moraine, which stretches along much of southern Long Island. Another period of equilibrium resulted in the Harbor Hill Moraine along most of northern Long Island; the next moraines to the north were created just off the Connecticut coast. These moraines, created by much smaller deposits are discontinuous and much smaller than those to the south.
The Connecticut coast moraines are in two groups: the Norwalk area and the Madison-Old Saybrook area. Sandy plains and beaches resulted from the erosion of moraines and redeposition in these areas, to the east of each, where the drift cover is thinnest, exposed bedrock creates rocky headlands with marshlands behind them; the Captain Islands off Greenwich, along with the Norwalk Islands and Falkner Island off Guilford, Connecticut are parts of a recessional moraine. Other islands, including the Thimble Islands, are for the most part exposed bedrock with a thin amount of drift not continuous. Other shoals and islands off the Connecticut coast are a mixture of these two extremes; the glacier created several sandy outwash deltas off the coast, including one off Bridgeport and another off New Haven, Connecticut. Fishers Island, New York appears to be related to the Harbor Hill Moraine. To the east of the Thimble Islands, inland moraines along the Connecticut coast include the broken Madison Moraine and the Old Saybrook Moraine.
The Long Island Sound basin existed. It had been formed by stream flows. A thick cover of sand and gravel was left in the basin from glacial meltwater streams. On the west, a ridge rising to about 65 feet below the present sea level is called the Mattatuck Sill, its lowest point is about 80 feet below sea level. Glacial meltwater formed "Lake Connecticut", a freshwater lake in the basin, until about 8,000 years ago, when the sea level rose to about 80 feet below today's level. Seawater overflowed into the basin, transforming it from a nontidal, freshwater lake to a tidal, saline arm of the sea. Numerous rivers empty into the Sound, including: Connecticut Connecticut River - Old Saybrook Housatonic River - Stratford & Milford Mianus River - Greenwich Mill River - New Haven Mill River - Fairfield Norwalk River - Norwalk Pequonnock River - Bridgeport Quinnipiac River - New Haven Rooster River/Ash Creek - Bridgeport & Fairfield Rippowam River - Stamford Saugatuck River - Westport Thames River - Groton & New London West River - West HavenNew York Byram River - Port Chester Hutchinson River-The Bronx Mamaroneck River - Mamaroneck Nissequogue River - Nissequogue & Ft SalongaRhode Island Pawcatuck River The whole watershed population is about 8.93 million as of the 2010 Census.
Due to the large chunk of New England being under the watershed, due to the Connecticut River, many riverside cities/towns are covered in the watershed, here is a list of some of the large towns and cities in the watershed from south to north, west to east: Huntington Oyster Bay Smithtown Parts of these New York City boroughs: The Bronx Queens Brooklyn Port Chester Stamford Bridgeport New Haven New London Danbury Waterbury Norwich Willimantic Torrington Hartford Westerly Springfield Worcester Pittsfield Brattleboro White River Jct. Keene West Lebanon Seaweeds in the Sound occur in greatest abundance in rocky areas between high tide and low tide as well as on rocks on the sea floor. Green seaweed populations fluctuate with the seasons. Monostroma
Mystic River (Connecticut)
The Mystic River is a 3.4-mile-long estuary in the southeast corner of the U. S. state of Connecticut. Its main tributary is Whitford Brook, it empties into Fishers Island Sound, dividing the village of Mystic, Connecticut between the towns of Groton and Stonington. Much of the river is tidal; the Mystic River was the location of three large shipbuilding firms during the 19th-century, it is now the home of the Mystic Seaport maritime museum. The name Mystic is derived from the Pequot term "missi-tuk", describing a large river whose waters are driven into waves by tides or wind, according to the Mystic River Historical Society; the Pequot Indians built a village called Siccanemos overlooking the western bank of the Mystic River, but it was destroyed during the Pequot War on May 26, 1637, the day of the Mystic massacre. List of rivers of Connecticut Mystic Seaport Mystic River Bascule Bridge
The Byram River is a river 13.9 miles in length, in southeast New York and southwestern Connecticut in the United States. The river has an elevation of 750 feet at its headwaters at Byram Lake in Westchester County, New York, flows in a southward direction, crossing the New York-Connecticut border and reaching sea level at Port Chester Harbor, where it empties into the Long Island Sound; the lower portion of the river is paralleled by the Merritt Parkway in Connecticut and forms the southernmost portion of the New York-Connecticut border. The river has a 29-square-mile drainage basin. There are several dams on the river. Several bridges cross the river; as of the summer of 2007, three of the bridges in northwest Greenwich had been identified by state inspectors as in critical need of repair, all were scheduled for work: Bailiwick Road — in poor shape, the bridge was further damaged by the nor'easter of April 15, 2007. In May emergency repairs were made. A redesign of the bridge may be needed to better protect against future flooding, town officials said.
Riversville Road — Greenwich officials imposed weight restrictions on the bridge which were in effect in the summer of 2007. Dump trucks are prohibited from using it. Sherwood Avenue — Greenwich officials imposed weight restrictions on the bridge which were in effect in the summer of 2007. Only 15-ton box trucks and 26-ton semis are allowed; the Byram River was once a center of economic activity where shipbuilding and fishing were major industries. The Byram section of Greenwich is on the Connecticut side. On April 15, 2007, a nor'easter flooded areas near the river on both the Connecticut and New York sides. In July 2007, Greenwich town officials gave initial approval for spending $250,000 to study drainage improvement in flood-prone areas near the river, including the idea of dredging the river. List of rivers of New York List of rivers of Connecticut PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS OF DIRECT EXPOSURE TO BYRAM RIVER SEDIMENT GREENWICH, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CONNECTICUT The Columbia Gazetteer of North America:2000-Byram River
West River (Connecticut)
The West River is a 13.5-mile-long freshwater stream in southern Connecticut. It flows through the towns of Bethany and New Haven before discharging into New Haven Harbor. Within the city of New Haven, the river is surrounded by Edgewood Park and the West River Memorial Park along much of its length. While the river's natural channel winds along the western edge of the West River Memorial Park, a straight channel cuts through its middle and terminates at the park's northern edge. There is a public canoe launch, maintained by the City of New Haven Department of Parks and Trees, in the constructed channel at Derby Avenue; the river is dammed in several places and some of the reservoirs are used by the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority to provide a percentage of the public water supply. The reservoirs are named Konolds Pond, Lake Dawson, Lake Watrous, Lake Bethany, in order from south to north. A rowing course was constructed along the river in New Haven in what is now West River Memorial Park in 1920.
At the time, the Yale athletic program studied the idea of building a larger course for use in collegiate rowing competitions, but evidently decided against it. During the mid-1970s, there were further plans for the expansion of the rowing course into an "Olympic rowing course", but these plans never came to fruition; the development by the International Rowing Course Foundation would have included a grandstand with seating for 5,000 people and a variety of other athletic facilities. Around 1920, the City of New Haven installed flapper style tide gates downstream of Orange Avenue; the gates were installed to control mosquitos, to provide flood control, to allow areas of the salt water marsh to be filled to provide for additional land for development. However, the flapper gates degraded the environment in several ways: they blocked fish passage upstream to historic spawning areas; this change to a fresh water regime allowed invasive species to overrun the river's banks. Most notably aggressive root systems and dense growth patterns allowed the common read to crowd out a variety of native species.
The degraded nature of the river was recognized for several decades through studies by Yale University and by private consultants hired by the City of New Haven. In 2009, a grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and distributed by NOAA funded the West River Habitat Restoration Project, managed by Connecticut Fund for the Environment, a local environmental nonprofit. After several revisions to the plans, based on neighborhood input, the project was completed in 2012; this project removed 3 of the 12 existing flapper tide gates and installed 3 self-regulating tide gates. These SRTs allowed water to exit the river when the river was higher than the harbor tide and allowed salt water to enter the river system when the tide rose above the river; the SRTs are designed to close when the incoming tide is high and would cause damage to the existing infrastructure upstream. It will take years for the habitat of the river to return to pre-1920 conditions but some immediate improvements have been noted.
The Phragmite population is showing signs of being stressed, acres of tidal wetland have been restored, anecdotal evidence of increased fish passage has been reported. List of rivers of Connecticut
A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet. Coves have narrow, restricted entrances, are circular or oval, are situated within a larger bay. Small, sheltered bays, creeks, or recesses in a coast are considered coves. Colloquially, the term can be used to describe a sheltered bay. Geomorphology describes coves as precipitously-walled and rounded cirque-like openings as in a valley extending into or down a mountainside, or in a hollow or nook of a cliff or steep mountainside. A cove can refer to a corner, nook, or cranny, either in a river, road, or wall where the wall meets the floor. A notable example is Lulworth Cove on the Jurassic Coast in England. To its west, a second cove, Stair Hole, is forming. Coves are formed by differential erosion, which occurs when softer rocks are worn away faster than the harder rocks surrounding them; these rocks further erode to form a circular bay with a narrow entrance, called a cove. Jackson, Julia A. Glossary of Geology. Alexandria, VA: American Geological Institute.
Pp. 146–147. ISBN 0-922152-34-9. Clark, John O. E.. The Facts on File: Dictionary of Earth Science. New York: Market House Books Ltd