MS. Found in a Bottle
Found in a Bottle is an 1833 short story by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. The plot follows an unnamed narrator at sea who finds himself in a series of harrowing circumstances, as he nears his own disastrous death while his ship drives ever southward, he writes an MS. or manuscript, telling of his adventures which he casts into the sea. Some critics believe the story was meant as a satire of typical sea tales, Found in a Bottle as one of many entries to a writing contest offered by the weekly Baltimore Saturday Visiter. Each of the stories was well liked by the judges but they unanimously chose MS, Found in a Bottle as the contests winner, earning Poe a $50 prize. The story was published in the October 19,1833. An unnamed narrator, estranged from his family and country, sets sail as a passenger aboard a ship from Batavia. Some days into the voyage, the ship is first becalmed hit by a simoom that capsizes the ship and sends everyone except the narrator and an old Swede overboard. Driven southward by the magical simoom towards the South Pole, the ship eventually collides with a gigantic black galleon.
Once the new ship arrives, the narrator finds outdated maps, also, he finds it to be manned by elderly crewmen who are unable to see him, he steals writing materials from the captains cabin to keep a journal which he resolves to cast into the sea. This ship too continues to be driven southward, and he notices the crew appears to show signs of hope at the prospect of their destruction as it reaches Antarctica. The ship enters a clearing in the ice where it is caught in a vast whirlpool, Found in a Bottle is one of Poes sea tales. The storys horror comes from its scientific imaginings and its description of a world beyond the limits of human exploration. Biographer Kenneth Silverman wrote that the story is a crescendo of ever building dread in the face of ever stranger and ever more imminent catastrophe. This prospect of unknown catastrophe both horrifies and stimulates the narrator, like Poes narrator in another early work, the narrator in MS. Found in a Bottle lives predominantly through his books, or more accurately his manuscripts, the otherworldly ship on which the narrator finds himself may evoke the legendary ghost ship, the Flying Dutchman.
A number of critics have argued that the storys ending references the Hollow Earth theories propounded by John Cleves Symmes, Jr. Symmes and Reynold proposed that the planets interior was hollow and habitable, and was accessible via openings at the two poles. The idea was considered scientifically plausible during the early 19th century, Poe incorporated Symmes theories into his work The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket, his only novel. Pym bears a number of similarities to MS, Found in a Bottle, including an abrupt ending set in the Antarctic
Captain James Cook FRS RN was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755 and he saw action in the Seven Years War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society, in three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail, as he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, Cook was attacked and killed while attempting to kidnap the native chief of Hawaii during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century, and numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him.
James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the church of St Cuthbert. He was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, in 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his fathers employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years schooling, he work for his father. For leisure, he would climb a hill, Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks Cottage, his parents last home, which he is likely to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the village of Staithes. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suitable for work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sandersons, John.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade and their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their fleet of vessels. His first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, and he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea
Herman Melville was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period. His best known works include Typee, an account of his experiences in Polynesian life. His work was almost forgotten during his last thirty years and his writing draws on his experience at sea as a common sailor, exploration of literature and philosophy, and engagement in the contradictions of American society in a period of rapid change. Born in New York City as the child of a merchant in French dry goods, Melvilles formal education ended abruptly after his father died in 1832. Melville briefly became a schoolteacher before he took to sea in 1839 as a sailor on a merchant ship. In 1840 he signed aboard the whaler Acushnet for his first whaling voyage, after further adventures, he returned to Boston in 1844. His first book, Typee, a romanticized account of his life among Polynesians, became such a best-seller that he worked up a sequel. These successes encouraged him to marry Elizabeth Shaw, of a prominent Boston family and his first novel not based on his own experiences, Mardi, is a sea narrative that develops into a philosophical allegory, but was not well received.
Redburn, a story of life on a merchant ship, and his 1850 expose of harsh life aboard a Man-of-War, White-Jacket yielded warmer reviews, Moby-Dick was another commercial failure, published to mixed reviews. Melvilles career as a popular author effectively ended with the reception of Pierre. His Revolutionary War novel Israel Potter appeared in 1855, from 1853 to 1856, Melville published short fiction in magazines, most notably Bartleby, the Scrivener, The Encantadas, and Benito Cereno. These and three stories were collected in 1856 as The Piazza Tales. In 1857, he voyaged to England, where he reunited with Hawthorne for the first time since 1852, the Confidence-Man, was the last prose work he published during his lifetime. He moved to New York to take a position as Customs Inspector, battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War was his poetic reflection on the moral questions of the Civil War. In 1867 his oldest child, died at home from a self-inflicted gunshot, Clarel, A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, a metaphysical epic, appeared in 1876.
In 1886, his son, Stanwix and Melville retired. Melvilles death from disease in 1891 subdued a reviving interest in his work. The 1919 centennial of his became the starting point of the Melville Revival
History of Western Australia
The human history of Western Australia commenced between 40,000 and 60,000 years ago with the arrival of Indigenous Australians on the northwest coast. The first inhabitants expanded the range of their settlement to the east, the first recorded European contact was in 1616, when Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog landed on the west coast. On 21 January 1827 Lockyer formally took possession of the third of the continent of Australia for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, the harsh conditions faced by the settlers resulted in population growth being minimal until the discovery of gold in the 1880s. Since the gold rush, the population of the state has risen steadily, Western Australia gained the right of self-government in 1890, and joined with the five other states to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. The desire of Western Australians to revert to complete self-governance, separate from the Commonwealth, in 1935 the British parliament declined to act since secession would require the assent of the Australian parliament, and the movement lapsed with an improving economy and generous federal grants.
When Australias first inhabitants arrived on the northwest coast 40,000 to 60,000 years ago the sea levels were much lower. The Kimberley coast at one time was only about 90 km from Timor, this was a possible location for which Australias first immigrants could arrive via some primitive boat. Other possible immigration routes were via islands further north and through New Guinea, over the next tens of thousands of years these Indigenous Australians slowly moved southward and eastward across the landmass. The Aborigines were well established throughout Western Australia by the time European ships started accidentally arriving en route to Batavia in the early 17th century. The first European to sight Western Australia was the Dutch explorer, Dirk Hartog, before departing, Hartog left behind a pewter plate affixed to a post. The plate was discovered and repatriated to the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. The crew remained on the Monte Bello Islands for 7 days, during that time sighting Barrow Island, the Tryall is Australias oldest known shipwreck.
A English visitor was William Dampier, who in 1699 sailed down the western coast of Australia, however some names, such as t Landt van de Leeuwin, materialised at a date as Cape Leeuwin. Coastal region in the vicinity is shown on Hartogs maps as Eendrachtsland, believed to be first landfall on Western Australian soil by Europeans. 1618 – Dutch East India Company supercargo Willem Janszoon on Mauritius landed on North West Cape – although sighting footprints,1618 – The Zeewulf made landfall north of Eendrachtsland. 1619 – Frederick de Houtman in two bound for Batavia encountered dangerous shoals which were subsequently named Houtman Abrolhos. Following successful navigation of the Abrolhos, Houtman made landfall in the region Hartog had encountered,1622 – Leeuwin landed south of Abrolhos
Tasmania is an island state of the Commonwealth of Australia. It is located 240 km to the south of the Australian mainland, the state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 519,100, just over forty percent of which resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, Tasmanias area is 68,401 km2, of which the main island covers 64,519 km2. Though an island state, due to an error the state shares a land border with Victoria at its northernmost terrestrial point, Boundary Islet. The Bishop and Clerk Islets, about 37 km south of Macquarie Island, are the southernmost terrestrial point of the state of Tasmania, the island is believed to have been occupied by Aboriginals for 40,000 years before British colonisation. It is thought Tasmanian Aboriginals were separated from the mainland Aboriginal groups about 10,000 years ago when the sea rose to form Bass Strait. The conflict, which peaked between 1825 and 1831 and led to more than three years of law, cost the lives of almost 1100 Aboriginals and settlers.
The near-destruction of Tasmanias Aboriginal population has been described by historians as an act of genocide by the British. The island was part of the Colony of New South Wales. In 1854 the present Constitution of Tasmania was passed and the year the state received permission to change its name to Tasmania. In 1901 it became a state through the process of the Federation of Australia, the state is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman, who made the first reported European sighting of the island on 24 November 1642. Tasman named the island Anthony van Diemens Land after his sponsor Anthony van Diemen, the name was shortened to Van Diemens Land by the British. It was officially renamed Tasmania in honour of its first European discoverer on 1 January 1856, Tasmania was sometimes referred to as Dervon, as mentioned in the Jerilderie Letter written by the notorious Australian bushranger Ned Kelly in 1879. The colloquial expression for the state is Tassie, Tasmania is colloquially shortened to Tas, especially when used in business names and website addresses.
TAS is the Australia Post abbreviation for the state, the reconstructed Palawa kani language name for Tasmania is Lutriwita. The island was adjoined to the mainland of Australia until the end of the last glacial period about 10,000 years ago, much of the island is composed of Jurassic dolerite intrusions through other rock types, sometimes forming large columnar joints. Tasmania has the worlds largest areas of dolerite, with many distinctive mountains, the central plateau and the southeast portions of the island are mostly dolerite. Mount Wellington above Hobart is an example, showing distinct columns known as the Organ Pipes
General Sir Ralph Darling, GCH was Governor of New South Wales from 1825 to 1831. He is popularly described as a tyrant, accused of torturing prisoners and banning theatrical entertainment, local geographical features named after him include the Darling River and Darling Harbour in Sydney. The controversy of his Australian tenure somewhat obscures his remarkable early career, Darling seems to have been unique in the British Army of this period, as he progressed from an enlisted man to become a general officer with a knighthood. Born in Ireland, he was the son of a sergeant in the 45th Regiment of Foot who subsequently gained the unusual reward of promotion to rank as a lieutenant. Ralph Darling enlisted at the age of fourteen as a private in his fathers regiment, eventually, as an act of charity to the family, young Ralph was granted an officers commission as an ensign on 15 May 1793, without having to make the usual payment. By the time he returned to Britain in 1802, still aged only twenty-nine, in this role, Darling was subsequently promoted to brevet-colonel on 25 July 1810, major-general on 4 June 1813, and deputy adjutant general in 1814.
On 13 October 1817, the 46-year-old general married the 19-year-old Eliza Dumaresq, a religious young woman whose father had been a colonel in the army. In spite of the difference in age and background, the marriage appears to have been a happy one, producing seven children. Between February 1819 and February 1824, General Darling commanded the British troops on Mauritius, notwithstanding the criticism from some quarters, it was largely on account of his service in Mauritius that Darling was appointed the seventh Governor of New South Wales in 1824. Darling initiated the construction, from 1826, of the convict-built Great North Road, settlers were only permitted to take up land within these counties. From 1831 the granting of free land ceased and the land that was to be made available for sale was within the Nineteen Counties. When Darling was commissioned as governor, the Colony’s western boundary – set in 1788 at 135 degrees east longitude – was extended by 6 degrees west to the 129 degrees east longitude and this line of longitude subsequently became the border dividing Western Australia and South Australia.
He proclaimed Van Diemens Land as a colony on 3 December in 1825. As a result, he came into conflict with the liberal emancipists who wished to introduce political and social freedom in New South Wales. Their accusations of tyrannical misrule were publicized by newspapers in England. In keeping with official policy and the governors own disciplinarian instincts, as an example to others, the Governor had them placed in irons and assigned to a chain gang, leading to the death of Sudds. This was due to an illness which the governor had not been properly informed about. Governor Darling is said to have ruthlessly and implacably countered all attempts to establish a theatre in Sydney and he even introduced a law effectively banning the performance of drama
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Captain Matthew Flinders RN was an English navigator and cartographer, who was the leader of the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent. Flinders made three voyages to the ocean between 1791 and 1810. In the second voyage, George Bass and Flinders confirmed that Van Diemens Land was an island, in the third voyage, Flinders circumnavigated the mainland of what was to be called Australia, accompanied by Aboriginal man Bungaree. Heading back to England in 1803, Flinders vessel needed urgent repairs at Isle de France, although Britain and France were at war, Flinders thought the scientific nature of his work would ensure safe passage, but a suspicious governor kept him under arrest for more than six years. Flinders health had suffered and although he reached home in 1810, he did not live to see the publication of his widely praised book and atlas, A Voyage to Terra Australis. Flinders was born in Donington, England, the son of Matthew Flinders, a surgeon, and his wife Susannah, née Ward.
In his own words, he was induced to go to sea against the wishes of my friends from reading Robinson Crusoe, initially serving on HMS Alert, he transferred to HMS Scipio, and in July 1790 was made midshipman on HMS Bellerophon under Captain Pasley. By Pasleys recommendation, he joined Captain Blighs expedition on HMS Providence and this was Blighs second Breadfruit Voyage following on from the ill-fated voyage of the Bounty. The passage between the Australian mainland and Tasmania enabled savings of several days on the journey from England, in honour of this discovery, the largest island in Bass Strait would be named Flinders Island. The town of Flinders near the mouth of Western Port commemorates Bass discovery of that bay, Flinders never entered Western Port, and passed Cape Schanck only on 3 May 1802. Flinders once more sailed the Norfolk, this time north on 17 July 1799 and he touched down at Pumicestone Passage and Coochiemudlo Island and rowed ashore at Clontarf. During this visit he named Redcliffe after the Red Cliffs, in March 1800, Flinders rejoined the Reliance and set sail for England.
Banks used his influence with Earl Spencer to convince the Admiralty of the importance of an expedition to chart the coastline of New Holland. As a result, in January 1801, Flinders was given command of the Investigator, a 334-ton sloop, the Investigator set sail for New Holland on 18 July 1801. Attached to the expedition was the botanist Robert Brown, botanical artist Ferdinand Bauer, due to the scientific nature of the expedition, Flinders was issued with a French passport, despite England and France being at war. On 17 April 1801, Flinders married his longtime friend Ann Chappelle and had hoped to bring her with him to Port Jackson, however the Admiralty had strict rules against wives accompanying captains. This is well documented in correspondence between Flinders and his benefactor, Sir Joseph Banks in May 1801. I have but time to tell you that the news of your marriage, the Lords of the Admiralty have heard that Mrs. Flinders is on board the Investigator, and that you have some thought of carrying her to sea with you
East Indiaman was a general name for any sailing ship operating under charter or licence to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. The term is used to refer to vessels belonging to the Danish, English, Portuguese. Some of the East Indiamen chartered by the British East India Company were known as tea clippers, English East Indiamen usually ran between England, the Cape of Good Hope and India, where their primary destinations were the ports of Bombay and Calcutta. The Indiamen often continued on to China before returning to England via the Cape of Good Hope, when the company lost its monopoly, the ships of this design were sold off. A smaller, faster ship known as a Blackwall Frigate was built for the trade as the need to carry heavy armaments declined and these include the Danish, English, French and Swedish East India companies. East Indiamen carried both passengers and goods, and were armed to defend themselves against pirates, the East Indiamen were built to carry as much cargo as possible, rather than for speed of sailing.
The East India company had a monopoly on trade with India and China, East Indiamen were the largest merchant ships regularly built during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, generally measuring between 1100 and 1400 tons burthen. Two of the largest were the Earl of Mansfield and Lascelles being built at Deptford in 1795, the Royal Navy purchased both, converted them to 56-gun fourth rates, and renamed them Weymouth and Madras respectively. They measured 1426 tons on dimensions of approximately 175 feet overall length of hull,144 feet keel,43 feet beam,17 feet draft, in England, Queen Elizabeth I granted an exclusive right to the trade to one company in 1600. The company grew to more than the trade between England and India, but the ships described in this article are the type used in the 17th to the early 19th centuries to carry the trade. The Royal Navy acquired several East Indiamen, turning them into fourth rates, in some cases the East Indiamen successfully fought off attacks by the French.
The ships normally had two decks for accommodation within the hull and a raised poop deck. The poop deck and the deck below it were lit with square-windowed galleries at the stern, to support the weight of the galleries, the hull lines towards the stern were full. Later ships built without this feature tended to sail faster, which put the East Indiamen at a disadvantage once the need for heavy armament passed. These ships were used for the China run, until the coming of steamships, these Indian-built ships were relied upon almost exclusively by the British in the eastern seas. None sailed to Europe and they were banned from English ports, many hundreds of Indian-built Indiamen were built for the British, along with other ships, including warships. Notable among them were Surat Castle, a 1, 000-ton ship with a crew of 150, Lowjee Family, of 800 tons and a crew of 125, and Shampinder, of 1,300 tons. Another significant East Indiaman in this period was the 1176-ton Warley that John Perry built at his Blackwall Yard in 1788, and which the Royal Navy bought in 1795 and renamed HMS Calcutta
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established as a sovereign state on 1 January 1801 by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland. The growing desire for an Irish Republic led to the Irish War of Independence, Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom, and the state was consequently renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Britain financed the European coalition that defeated France in 1815 in the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire thereby became the foremost world power for the next century. The Crimean War with Russia and the Boer wars were relatively small operations in a largely peaceful century, rapid industrialisation that began in the decades prior to the states formation continued up until the mid-19th century. A devastating famine, exacerbated by government inaction in the century, led to demographic collapse in much of Ireland. It was an era of economic modernization and growth of industry and finance.
Outward migration was heavy to the colonies and to the United States. Britain built up a large British Empire in Africa and Asia, India, by far the most important possession, saw a short-lived revolt in 1857. In foreign policy Britain favoured free trade, which enabled its financiers and merchants to operate successfully in many otherwise independent countries, as in South America. Britain formed no permanent military alliances until the early 20th century, when it began to cooperate with Japan and Russia, and moved closer to the United States. A brief period of limited independence for Ireland came to an end following the Irish Rebellion of 1798, the British governments fear of an independent Ireland siding against them with the French resulted in the decision to unite the two countries. This was brought about by legislation in the parliaments of both kingdoms and came into effect on 1 January 1801, King George III was bitterly opposed to any such Emancipation and succeeded in defeating his governments attempts to introduce it.
When the Treaty of Amiens ended the war, Britain agreed to return most of the territories it had seized, in May 1803, war was declared again. In 1806, Napoleon issued the series of Berlin Decrees, which brought into effect the Continental System and this policy aimed to eliminate the threat from the British by closing French-controlled territory to foreign trade. Frances population and agricultural capacity far outstripped that of the British Isles, Napoleon expected that cutting Britain off from the European mainland would end its economic hegemony. The Spanish uprising in 1808 at last permitted Britain to gain a foothold on the Continent, after Napoleons surrender and exile to the island of Elba, peace appeared to have returned. The Allies united and the armies of Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon once, simultaneous with the Napoleonic Wars, trade disputes, arming hostile Indians and British impressment of American sailors led to the War of 1812 with the United States. The war was little noticed in Britain, which could devote few resources to the conflict until the fall of Napoleon in 1814, American frigates inflicted a series of defeats on the Royal Navy, which was short on manpower due to the conflict in Europe
Albany, Western Australia
Albany /ˈælbəni/ is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia,418 km SE of Perth, the state capital. Albany is the oldest permanently settled town in Western Australia, predating Perth, at June 2015, Albanys estimated urban population was 33,970, making it the states sixth-largest population centre. The city centre is at the edge of Princess Royal Harbour. The central business district is bounded by Mount Clarence to the east, the city is in the local government area of the City of Albany. Albany was founded on 26 December 1826 as a military outpost of New South Wales as part of a plan to forestall French ambitions in the region. To that end, on 21 January 1827 the commander of the outpost, Major Edmund Lockyer, the area was initially named Frederick Town in honour of Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. In 1831, the settlement was transferred to the control of the Swan River Colony, during the last decade of the 19th century the town served as a gateway to the Eastern Goldfields.
For many years, it was the colonys only deep-water port, the opening of the Fremantle Inner Harbour in 1897, saw its importance as a port decline, after which the towns industries turned primarily to agriculture and later, whaling. Today the town is a significant tourist destination and base from which to explore the south-west of the state, the town has an important role in the ANZAC legend, being the last port of call for troopships departing Australia in the First World War. Also an auxiliary submarine base for the US Navys 7th Fleet was developed during the Second World War in the event the submarine base at Fremantle was lost, in the harbour was an RAN Naval Installation which provided for alongside refuelling from four 5000 ton fuel tanks. See History of Albany, Western Australia The Albany region was home to the Menang Noongar indigenous people and they called the area Kinjarling which means the place of rain. Many town names in South-Western Australia end in up or ing and they would sometimes camp near Boondie Yokine – roughly translated as Dog Rock.
Early European explorers discovered evidence of fish traps located on Emu Point and on the French, now the Kalgan, the following Information is derived from the State Heritage Register where these places are registered. The assessment criteria contain more details and it became the home of the Government Resident in 1883. After a chequered history the property was vested in the National Trust WA in 1964 and is now a house museum, st Johns Church is a stone building with shingled roofs in the Old Colonial Gothick Picturesque style. Set among trees, it was designed to be part of an overall contrived picturesque scene in the manner of an English garden landscape, scots Uniting Church was designed in the Victorian Academic Gothic style by Melbourne architect Evander McIver and built with local granite stonework. The complex now known as The Residency Museum was established in 1850 as a depot for the Convict Establishment in Albany and it is an L shaped, single storied, masonry building with a timber framed, timber shingled roof.
In 1873 it was converted into the Resident Magistrates home and it now serves as a museum
William Dampier was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times. He has described as Australias first natural historian, as well as one of the most important British explorers of the period between Sir Walter Raleigh and James Cook. On a voyage he rescued Alexander Selkirk, a former crewmate who may have inspired Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe, others influenced by Dampier include James Cook, Horatio Nelson, Charles Darwin, and Alfred Russel Wallace. William Dampier was born at Hymerford House in East Coker, Somerset and he was baptised on 5 September, but his precise date of birth is not recorded. He was educated at Kings School, Dampier sailed on two merchant voyages to Newfoundland and Java before joining the Royal Navy in 1673. He took part in the two Battles of Schooneveld in June of that year, Dampiers service was cut short by a catastrophic illness, and he returned to England for several months of recuperation.
For the next years he tried his hand at various careers, including plantation management in Jamaica and logging in Mexico. Returning to England, he married Judith around 1679, only to leave for the sea a few months later. This led to his first circumnavigation, during which he accompanied a raid across the Isthmus of Darién in Panama, the pirates raided Spanish settlements in Peru before returning to the Caribbean. Dampier made his way to Virginia, where in 1683 he was engaged by the privateer John Cooke, Cooke entered the Pacific via Cape Horn and spent a year raiding Spanish possessions in Peru, the Galápagos Islands, and Mexico. This expedition collected buccaneers and ships as it went along, at one time having a fleet of ten vessels, Cooke died in Mexico, and a new leader, Edward Davis, was elected captain by the crew. Dampier transferred to the privateer Charles Swans ship, and on 31 March 1686 they set out across the Pacific to raid the East Indies, calling at Guam, Spanish witnesses saw the predominantly English crew as not only pirates and heretics but cannibals.
Leaving Swan and 36 others behind on Mindanao, the rest of the privateers sailed on to Manila, Poulo Condor, the Spice Islands, and New Holland. On 5 January 1688, Cygnet anchored two miles from shore in 29 fathoms on the northwest coast of Australia, near King Sound. Dampier and his ship remained there until March 12, and while the ship was being careened Dampier made notes on the fauna and flora, among his fellows were a significant number of Spanish sailors, most notably Alonso Ramírez, a native of San Juan, Puerto Rico. Later that year, by agreement and two shipmates were marooned on one of the Nicobar Islands and they obtained a small canoe which they modified after first capsizing and then, after surviving a great storm at sea, called at Acheen in Sumatra. Dampier returned to England in 1691 via the Cape of Good Hope, penniless and he had as a source of income a slave known as Prince Jeoly, from Miangas, who became famous for his tattoos. Dampier exhibited Jeoly in London, thereby generating publicity for a book based on his diaries, the publication of the book, A New Voyage Round the World, in 1697 was a popular sensation, creating interest at the Admiralty