American Humanist Association
The American Humanist Association is a non-profit organization in the United States that advances secular humanism, a philosophy of life that, without theism or other supernatural beliefs, affirms the ability and responsibility of human beings to lead personal lives of ethical fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity. The American Humanist Association was founded in 1941 and provides legal assistance to defend the constitutional rights of secular and religious minorities lobbies Congress on church-state separation and other issues, maintains a grassroots network of 150 local affiliates and chapters that engage in social activism, philosophical discussion and community-building events; the AHA has several publications, including the bi-monthly magazine The Humanist, a quarterly newsletter Free Mind, a peer-reviewed semi-annual scholastic journal Essays in the Philosophy of Humanism, a daily online news site TheHumanist.com. In 1927 an organization called. In 1928 the Fellowship started publishing the New Humanist magazine.
H. G. Creel was the first editor; the New Humanist was published from 1928 to 1936. By 1935 the Humanist Fellowship had become the "Humanist Press Association", the first national association of humanism in the United States; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice. In July 1939 a group of Quakers, inspired by the 1933 Humanist Manifesto, incorporated under the state laws of California the Humanist Society of Friends as a religious, charitable nonprofit organization authorized to issue charters anywhere in the world and to train and ordain its own ministry. Upon ordination these ministers were accorded the same rights and privileges granted by law to priests and rabbis of traditional theistic religions. Curtis Reese was a leader in the 1941 reorganization and incorporation of the "Humanist Press Association" as the American Humanist Association.
Along with its reorganization, the AHA began printing The Humanist magazine. The AHA was headquartered in Yellow Springs, Ohio San Francisco, in 1978 Amherst, New York. Subsequently, the AHA moved to Washington, D. C.. In 1952 the AHA became a founding member of the International Humanist and Ethical Union in Amsterdam, Netherlands; as an international coalition of Humanist organizations, the IHEU stands today as the only international umbrella group for Humanism. The AHA was the first national membership organization. Around the same time, the AHA joined hands with the American Ethical Union to help establish the rights of nontheistic conscientious objectors to the Vietnam War; this time saw Humanists involved in the creation of the first nationwide memorial societies, giving people broader access to cheaper alternatives than the traditional burial. In the late 1960s the AHA secured a religious tax exemption in support of its celebrant program, allowing Humanist celebrants to officiate at weddings, perform chaplaincy functions, in other ways enjoy the same rights as traditional clergy.
In 1991 the AHA took control of the Humanist Society, a religious Humanist organization that now runs the celebrant program. Since 1991 the organization has worked as an adjunct to the American Humanist Association to certify qualified members to serve in this special capacity as ministers; the Humanist Society's ministry prepares Humanist Celebrants to lead ceremonial observances across the nation and worldwide. Celebrants provide millions of Americans an alternative to traditional religious weddings, memorial services, other life cycle events. After this transfer, the AHA commenced the process of jettisoning its religious tax exemption and resumed its educational status. Today the AHA is recognized by the U. S. Internal Revenue Service as a nonprofit, tax exempt, 501, publicly supported educational organization. Membership numbers are disputed, but Djupe and Olson place it as "definitely fewer than 50,000." The AHA has over 42,000 followers on Twitter. The AHA is the supervising organization for various Humanist affiliates and adjunct organizations.
The Black Humanist Alliance of the American Humanist Association was founded in 2016 as a pillar of its new "Initiatives for Social Justice." Like the Feminist Humanist Alliance and the LGBT Humanist Alliance, the Black Humanist Alliance uses an intersectional approach to addressing issues facing the Black community. As its mission states, the BHA "concern ourselves with confronting expressions of religious hegemony in public policy," but is "also devoted to confronting social and political deprivations that disproportionately impact Black America due to centuries of culturally ingrained prejudices." The Feminist Humanist Alliance of the American Humanist Association was established in 1977 as a coalition of both women and men within the AHA to work toward the advancement of women's rights and equality between the sexes in all aspects of society. Called the Women's Caucus, the new name was adopted in 1985 as more representative of all the members of the caucus and of the caucus' goals. Over the years, members of the Caucus have advocated for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment and participated in various public demonstrations, including marches for women's and civil rights.
In 1982, the Caucus established its annual Humanist Heroine Award, with the initial award being presented to
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Free Inquiry is a bi-monthly journal of secular humanist opinion and commentary published by the Council for Secular Humanism, a program of the Center for Inquiry. Philosopher Paul Kurtz was the editor-in-chief until he stepped down in 2010, Tom Flynn is the current editor. Feature articles cover a wide range of topics from a freethinking perspective. Common themes are separation of church and state and religion, dissemination of freethought, applied philosophy. Regular contributors include well-known scholars in the fields of philosophy. In Free Inquiry's April–May 2006 issue, the magazine published four of the cartoons that had appeared in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten and that had sparked violent worldwide Muslim protests. Kurtz, editor-in-chief of Free Inquiry said, "What is at stake is the precious right of freedom of expression"; the Borders Group refused to carry this issue in their Borders and Waldenbooks stores because of the cartoons. The reason given by Borders for their decision fear of violence.
The story made national and international news and the implications of this self-censorship were discussed, including by CBS News, the Washington Post, the New York Times. The "blogosphere" condemned the decision of Borders to ban the magazine and columnist Christopher Hitchens lamented the action in an article. Regular columnists include: Ophelia Benson – Author and blogger Russell Blackford – Author and Professor of Philosophy Greta Christina - Author and blogger Shadia Drury – Professor of Philosophy and Political Science Tibor Machan – Professor of Philosophy Mark Rubinstein – Economist Faisal Saeed Al Mutar – Commentator and social critic Editor in Chief: Paul Kurtz Editor: Thomas W. Flynn Assistant Editors: Julia Lavarnway, Nicole Scott Senior Editors: Bill Cooke, Richard Dawkins, Ed Doerr, James Haught, Jim Herrick, Ronald A. Lindsay, Taslima Nasrin Managing Editor: Andrea Szalanski Free Inquiry website Dogma Free America podcast interview with Tom Flynn, editor of Free Inquiry
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According
Simon David Hoggart was an English journalist and broadcaster. He wrote on politics for The Guardian, on wine for The Spectator; until 2006 he presented The News Quiz on Radio 4. His journalism sketches have been published in a series of books. Simon Hoggart was born on 26 May 1946 in Ashton-under-Lyne and educated at Hymers College in Kingston upon Hull, Wyggeston Boys' School in Leicester, King's College, where he excelled at history and English, he was the son of the literary scholar and sociologist Richard Hoggart, Mary Holt Hoggart. His brother is the Times television critic Paul Hoggart, he lived in South London with his wife, Alyson, a clinical psychologist, their two children and Richard. He was diagnosed with terminal pancreatic cancer in mid-2010 and died of the disease on 5 January 2014. Hoggart joined The Guardian in 1968 becoming the American correspondent for The Observer, occasional guest commentator on National Public Radio's Weekend Edition Saturday. Having written on politics for some years in Punch magazine, Hoggart became the Parliamentary sketch writer for The Guardian in 1993.
He wrote a wine column for The Spectator. Hoggart's sketchwriting prowess was still admired into the 2010s – Total Politics note that in 2011 Hoggart had "been a regular tormenter of the prime minister on the sensitive issue of the PM's bald patch, which Hoggart compared to "a goujon of plaice" from Marks and Spencer."In the early 1980s he chaired the radio comedy show The News Quiz, returning to the show in 1996 for another ten years. In March 2006, Hoggart presented his last edition of The News Quiz commenting: "I'm getting a bit clapped out and jaded, I think that's beginning to show."In 1998 he was part of BBC Radio 4's 5-part political satire programme Cartoons and Buffoons. He was a contributor to the Grumpy Old Men and wrote for Punch magazine and an occasional column for New Humanist magazine. Hoggart was an occasional celebrity panellist on BBC2's antiques quiz show Going, Gone, his published books form an eclectic list, including debunking the supernatural, anecdotes about Parliament, a biography, his thoughts about the United States, a serious political review and collected Christmas round-robin letters.
He coined the phrase "the law of the ridiculous reverse", "which states that if the opposite of a statement is plainly absurd, it was not worth making in the first place". When speculation appeared in the News of the World in December 2004 suggesting he was the "third man" in the Kimberly Quinn affair, Hoggart denied any involvement before issuing a statement admitting that he had an extra-marital affair with Quinn before her own marriage; the political sex scandal involving Quinn contributed to the resignation of David Blunkett from the Cabinet. BooksSimon Hoggart, Send Up the Clowns, Guardian Books ISBN 978-0-85265-243-5 Simon Hoggart, A Long Lunch: My Stories and I'm Sticking to Them John Murray ISBN 978-1-84854-397-3 Simon Hoggart, Life's Too Short to Drink Bad Wine Quadrille Publishing Ltd ISBN 978-1-84400-742-4 Simon Hoggart, The Hands of History: Parliamentary Sketches 1997–2007 ISBN 1-84354-679-5 Simon Hoggart and Emily Monk, Don't Tell Mum: Hair-raising Messages Home from Gap-year Travellers by Atlantic Books ISBN 978-1-84354-539-2 Simon Hoggart, The Hamster That Loved Puccini: The Seven Modern Sins of Christmas Round-Robin Letters ISBN 1-84354-474-1 Simon Hoggart, The Cat That Could Open the Fridge: A Curmudgeon's Guide to Christmas Round-Robin Letters ISBN 1-84354-357-5 Simon Hoggart, Punchlines: A Crash Course in English with John Prescott ISBN 0-7434-8397-9, on Prescottese language Simon Hoggart, Playing to the Gallery: Parliamentary Sketches from Blair Year Zero ISBN 1-903809-66-5, parliamentary sketches Simon Hoggart and Steve Bell, Live Briefs: A Political Sketch Book ISBN 0-413-70970-1, parliamentary sketches, with the Guardian political cartoonist Simon Hoggart, House of Correction ISBN 0-86051-998-8, parliamentary sketches Simon Hoggart and Mike Hutchinson, Bizarre Beliefs ISBN 1-86066-021-5, on "the human desire to believe the unbelievable" Simon Hoggart, America: A User's Guide ISBN 0-00-637602-9, on his experiences living in the United States Simon Hoggart, House of Cards: A Selection of Modern Political Humour ISBN 0-241-12451-4 Simon Hoggart, House of Ill Fame ISBN 0-86051-350-5, parliamentary sketches Simon Hoggart, Back On the House ISBN 0-330-28148-8, parliamentary sketches Simon Hoggart, On the House: The Personalities and the Politics From the Irreverent "Punch" Column ISBN 0-330-26883-X, parliamentary sketches Simon Hoggart and David Leigh, Michael Foot: A Portrait ISBN 0-340-27600-2, biography of politician Michael Foot Simon Hoggart and Alistair Michie,The Pact: The Inside Story of the Lib-Lab Government, 1977-8 ISBN 0-7043-3236-1 Bryan McAllister and Simon Hoggart, Little Boxes: A Selection of Bryan McAllister Cartoons From "The Guardian" ISBN 0-85265-024-8AudiobooksThe News Quiz: The First 25 Years ISBN 0-563-49402-6 Simon Hoggart's Pick of "The News Quiz": Vol 2 ISBN 0-563-52923-7 Simon Hoggart's Pick of "The News Quiz": Vol 1 ISBN 0-563-47762-8 Column archive at The Guardian Simon Hoggart's week parliamentary sketch series at The Guardian Column archive at the New Humanist The News Quiz at BBC Radio 4 Appearances on C-SPAN Simon Hoggart on IMDb Works by or about Simon Hoggart in libraries 5 minutes with Simon Hoggart on Hot Dinners Simon Hoggart at Curlie
American Atheist Magazine
American Atheist: A Journal of Atheist News and Thought known as American Atheist Magazine, is a quarterly magazine edited by Pamela Whissel and published by American Atheists. American Atheist is available in print for a yearly subscription fee, electronically with an annual membership in American Atheists, or on newsstands at select Barnes & Noble bookstores; the name of the magazine has changed several times over the course of its history. An early issue is numbered Volume 1, Number 1 and is titled: The American Atheist - Poor Richard’s Reports. Frank Zindler documented the beginning of the magazine as follows: It is impossible to determine when the magazine began, it appears to have grown out of a mimeographed newsletter that Madalyn Murray O'Hair circulated in Baltimore before her 1963 victory in SCOTUS. Certain reconstructions would place this in 1958. In any case, there may have been a publication in the early 1960s styling itself a magazine, but no copies survive at the American Atheist Center in NJ.
Over the course of American Atheists history, there have been a number of newsletters, both general and private. It is possible that the Volume 17 numbering for 1975 represents a continuation of the numbering of a newsletter going back to the late 1950s; the issue bearing the earliest publication data was printed in in American Atheist, Vol. 46, No. 6. It is numbered Vol. 1, No. 1, is dated January, 1971. The title includes the definite article —The American Atheist—and carries the subtitle Poor Richard’s Reports; the earliest issue of the magazine in the archives of Zindler is numbered Vol. 17, No. 7 and dated July 1975. As Zindler wrote: "Thus, the circumstances surrounding the date at which the publication of the present journal American Atheist began are a complete mystery."By late 1991, publication became sporadic, lapsing in early 1992. The magazine resumed publication in late 1996. January 1971 to autumn of 1992 Winter 1996 to present Richard F. O'Hair: Editor-in-chief V1N1 January 1971 until V18N1 January 1976.
Madalyn O’Hair: Associate Editor V1N1 January 1971. Contributing Editor V17N8 Aug. 1975. Editor V18N2 Feb 1976). Editor-in-chief V19N2 Feb. 1977. Editor Emeritus V25N7 July 1983. Robin Eileen Murray-O’Hair: Poetess V23N5 May 81. Poetry V23N7 July 1981 until Editor-in-chief V25N7, July 1983. Frank Duffy: General Editor V20N8 through V21N4 Ellen Johnson: Editor V44N2 through V46N5 Frank R. Zindler: Editor & Managing Editor V35N1 through V44N2. Editor, American Atheist Press V44N2 through V46N5. Editor. Managing Editor, V47N2 up to the present. Resumes being Editor, American Atheist, for V49N2 Bill Hampl: General Editor, American Atheist V47N2 throughV47N7 Pamela Whissel: Editor-in-chief V49N3 up to present Vice President George H. W. Bush was questioned by American Atheist Press news reporter Rob Sherman at Chicago's O'Hare Airport on 27 August 1987, just after announcing his candidacy for president. Sherman asked Bush about separation of church and state and about his opinion of the citizenship and patriotism of Atheists.
Sherman quoted him as saying: No, I don't know that atheists should be regarded as citizens, nor should they be regarded as patriotic. This is one nation under God... I support the separation of state. I'm just not high on atheists. An exchange of letters that took place in 1989 between the late Jon Garth Murray president of American Atheists, White House Counsel C. Boyden Gray, prove that the conversation with Vice President Bush took place as reported; those two letters are on file at the Bush Presidential Library in Texas. The letter from Mr. Murray to Mr. Gray is expected to be available in late 2013 as a part of a file called Item # CF 01193-002, but a related letter by Mr. Murray to the Members of Congress, which referenced Mr. Murray's letter to Mr. Gray, is available for public view; the reply letter from Mr. Gray to Mr. Murray is available for public view; the letter from Mr. Murray to the Members of Congress is from a file identified as White House Office of Records Management, Subject Code RM, Document Number 157715 CU.
This document is a letter that Jon Murray sent to every Member of Congress on February 21, 1990. In this letter, Mr. Murray describes the news conference that Zindler attended and quotes the conversation between Mr. Bush and Zindler, states:...the President is a religious man who neither supports atheism nor believes that atheism should be unnecessarily encouraged or supported by the government. Needless to say, the President supports the Constitution and laws of the United States, you may rest assured that this Administration will proceed at all times with due regard for the legal rights of atheists, as will as others with whom the President disagrees. Mr. Murray's letter to the Members of Congress went on to say that Mr. Bush must issue "an apology and retraction of the remarks or alternately the Congress of the United States must pass a resolution censuring President Bush for the remarks." The letter from Mr. Gray to Mr. Murray is located in a file identified as White House Office of Records Management, Subject Code RM, Document Number 041388 CU.