Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
New Jersey's 7th congressional district
New Jersey's Seventh Congressional District includes all of Hunterdon County, parts of Essex, Somerset and Warren counties. The district is represented by Democrat Tom Malinowski, elected in 2018. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the congressional district contains portions of six counties and 74 municipalities. Essex County: Millburn Hunterdon County: Alexandria Township, Bethlehem Township, Califon, Clinton Town, Clinton Township, Delaware Township, East Amwell Township, Franklin Township, Glen Gardner, High Bridge, Holland Township, Kingwood Township, Lebanon Borough, Lebanon Township, Raritan Township, Readington Township, Tewksbury Township, Union Township and West Amwell TownshipMorris County: Chester Borough, Chester Township, Long Hill Township, Mine Hill Township, Mount Arlington, Mount Olive Township, Roxbury Township, Washington Township and WhartonSomerset County: Bedminster Township, Bernards Township, Branchburg Township, Bridgewater Township, Far Hills, Green Brook Township, Hillsborough Township, Montgomery Township, North Plainfield, Peapack-Gladstone, Rocky Hill, Warren Township and WatchungUnion County: Berkeley Heights, Cranford, Kenilworth, New Providence, Scotch Plains, Summit, Union Township and Winfield TownshipWarren County: Alpha, Franklin Township, Greenwich Township, Harmony Township, Lopatcong Township and Pohatcong Township In the 2012 general election, Republican incumbent Leonard Lance held his seat against Democratic challenger Upendra J. Chivukula.
In the 2010 general election, Democratic challenger Ed Potosnak challenged Lance, but Lance defeated Potosnak by a margin of 59% to 41%. For the 2012 election, both Potosnak and former Edison Mayor Jun Choi announced their candidacies for the Democratic nomination. Choi dropped out of the race in December 2011 after redistricting left his Edison home outside the 7th District. Potosnak dropped out of the race in January 2012 to take a position as executive director of the New Jersey League of Conservation Voters, leaving a momentarily empty field for the Democratic nomination. In 2008, Mike Ferguson did not seek another term. Linda Stender won the Democratic nomination unopposed, while Republican primary voters chose State Senator Leonard Lance in a field of eight candidates. In the general election, Lance defeated Assemblywoman Linda Stender by a margin of 25,833 votes. New Jersey's 7th district and the 12th district were redistricted after the 2000 census by a bipartisan panel. By consensus of the panel, the Democratic and Republican parties agreed to trade areas in the two districts to make them safer for their respective incumbents.
It is that this tradeoff, which made New Jersey's 7th less competitive for Democrats, had an effect on the outcome of 2006 election, decided by 3,000 votes. Areas of the former 7th district such as Somerset in Franklin Township that had voted reliably Democratic were moved into the adjacent 12th district to shore up the Democratic incumbent's hold on there, while reliably Republican Millburn was moved into the 7th. Despite the redistricting, NJ-07 is still the most competitive House district in New Jersey, was the only one considered to be in play in 2006 by political pundits. In the 2018 election, Tom Malinowski, former Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, Labor, was considered the front runner among the Democrats challenging Republican incumbent Leonard Lance. Malinowski was endorsed by Westfield teacher/attorney Lisa Mandelblatt and attorney Scott Salmon when they withdrew from the race in February 2018. Other candidates in the Democratic primary included lawyer Goutam Jois.
Green Party of New Jersey member Diane Moxley announced her intent to run for the seat. Lindsay Brown, a product manager at the New York Post and a self-described progressive, ran in the Republican primary against Lance. Berkeley Heights banking executive Linda Weber and environmental advocate David Pringle withdrew in March 2018. During the fourth quarter of 2017, the Malinowski campaign raised $528,000 while the incumbent Lance raised $237,000. Jois raised $189,000 and Jacob raised $29,000. Malinowski won the Democratic nomination in the June primary. In the Democratic primary Malinowski prevailed with 66.8 % of the vote. Jacob finished second with 19.1 % of the vote. Lance won the Republican primary with 74.9%, 24,856 votes. The district has turned from a once reliable Republican district into a competitive district as it has become more ethnically mixed with Caucasians comprising, as of 2009, 79% of the district, African Americans 5.7%, Asians 11% and Latinos 10%. In addition, the district is home to a large group of foreign-born residents, totaling 131,000 or 20% of the population.
The district has the 5th highest median income in the nation. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
New Jersey's 9th congressional district
New Jersey's Ninth Congressional District is a district that consists of Bergen County and Passaic County municipalities. Due to redistricting following the 2010 Census, parts of the old 9th District were shifted to the Fifth District and the new Eighth District, as part of a reduction in congressional districts from 13 to 12 in New Jersey; the Ninth District is represented by Democrat Bill Pascrell. Congressman Pascrell was first elected to Congress in 1996 from the old Eighth District, defeating incumbent William J. Martini; the redistricting resulted in Pascrell's hometown of Paterson was added to the Ninth District, represented by Steve Rothman, a fellow Democrat who like Pascrell entered Congress by winning a seat in the 1996 federal election. Both incumbents declared their intentions to run for their party's nomination for the seat, which Pascrell won. Pascrell defeated the Republican nominee, in the general election. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the district contains all or portions of three counties and 35 municipalities:Bergen County: Carlstadt, Cliffside Park, East Rutherford, Elmwood Park, Englewood Cliffs, Fort Lee, Hasbrouck Heights, Little Ferry, Moonachie, North Arlington, Palisades Park, Ridgefield Park, Saddle Brook, South Hackensack, Tenafly, Teterboro and Wood-RidgeHudson County: Kearny, SecaucusPassaic County: Clifton, Hawthorne, Passaic and Prospect Park Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present New Jersey's 9th Congressional District at GovTrack.us
United States congressional apportionment
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent decennial census mandated by the United States Constitution. Each state is apportioned a number of seats which corresponds to its share of the aggregate population of the 50 states. However, every state is constitutionally guaranteed at least one seat; the number of voting seats in the House of Representatives has since 1913 been 435, capped at that number by the Reapportionment Act of 1929—except for a temporary increase to 437 when Alaska and Hawaii were admitted into the Union. The size of a state's total congressional delegation determines the size of its representation in the U. S. Electoral College, which affects the U. S. presidential election process. Article One, Section 2, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution provided: Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.
The Number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State. Reapportionments occur following each decennial census, though the law that governs the total number of representatives and the method of apportionment to be carried into force at that time are enacted prior to the census; the decennial apportionment determines the size of each state's representation in the U.
S. Electoral College. Under Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the U. S. Constitution, the number of electors of any state equals the size of its total congressional delegation. Federal law requires the Clerk of the House of Representatives to notify each state government no than January 25 of the year following the census of the number of seats to which it is entitled. If the number of seats has changed, the state determines the boundaries of congressional districts—geographical areas within the state of equal population—in a process called redistricting. Any citizen of the State can challenge the constitutionality of the redistricting in their US district court; because the deadline for the House Clerk to report the results does not occur until the following January, the states need sufficient time to perform the redistricting, the decennial census does not affect the elections that are held during that same year. For example, the electoral college apportionment during 2000 presidential election was still based on the 1990 census results.
The congressional districts and the electoral college during the 2020 general elections will still be based on the 2010 census. The size of the U. S. House of Representatives refers to total number of congressional districts into which the land area of the United States proper has been divided; the number of voting representatives is set at 435. There are an additional five delegates to the House of Representatives, they represent the District of Columbia and the territories of American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, which first elected a representative in 2008, the U. S. Virgin Islands. Puerto Rico elects a resident commissioner every four years. Since 1789, when the Federal Government began operating under the Constitution, the number of citizens per congressional district has risen from an average of 33,000 in 1790 to 700,000 as of 2008. Prior to the 20th century, the number of representatives increased every decade as more states joined the union, the population increased; the ideal number of members has been a contentious issue since the country's founding.
George Washington agreed that the original representation proposed during the Constitutional Convention was inadequate and supported an alteration to reduce that number to 30,000. This was the only time that Washington pronounced an opinion on any of the actual issues debated during the entire convention. In Federalist No. 55, James Madison argued that the size of the House of Representatives has to balance the ability of the body to legislate with the need for legislators to have a relationship close enough to the people to understand their local circumstances, that such representatives' social class be low enough to sympathize with the feelings of the mass of the people, that their power be diluted enough to limit their abuse of the public trust and interests.... First, that so small a number of representatives will be an unsafe depositary of the public interests.
United States congressional delegations from New Jersey
These are tables of congressional delegations from New Jersey to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. As of January 2019, there are twenty-two former members of the U. S. House of Representatives from the U. S. State of New Jersey who are living; as of April 2015, there are four former U. S. Senators from the U. S. State of New Jersey who are living, one from Class 1 and three from Class 2. SourcesMartis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Information from the Clerk of the U. S. House of Representatives
New Jersey's 6th congressional district
New Jersey's Sixth Congressional District is represented by Democrat Frank Pallone. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the congressional district contains all or portions of two counties and 32 municipalities. Middlesex County: Carteret, Edison Township, Highland Park, New Brunswick, Old Bridge Township, Perth Amboy, Piscataway Township, South Amboy, South Plainfield and Woodbridge TownshipMonmouth County: Aberdeen Township, Asbury Park, Atlantic Highlands, Hazlet Township, Interlaken, Keyport, Loch Arbour, Long Branch, Marlboro Township, Middletown Township, Monmouth Beach, Sea Bright, Union Beach and West Long Branch Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
New Jersey's 4th congressional district
New Jersey's 4th Congressional District elects one member of the United States House of Representatives by the first-past-the-post voting method. It is represented by Republican Chris Smith, who has represented the district since 1981. For the 113th and successive Congresses, the Fourth Congressional District of New Jersey includes 43 municipalities in parts of Mercer and Ocean counties. Municipalities in the district are:Mercer County Hamilton Township and Robbinsville TownshipMonmouth County Allentown Borough, Avon-By-The-Sea Borough, Belmar Borough, Bradley Beach Borough, Brielle Borough, Colts Neck Township, Eatontown Borough, Englishtown Borough, Fair Haven Borough, Farmingdale Borough, Freehold Borough, Freehold Township, Holmdel Township, Howell Township, Lake Como Borough, Little Silver Borough, Manalapan Township, Manasquan Borough, Middletown Township, Millstone Township, Neptune City, Neptune Township, Ocean Township, Red Bank Borough, Roosevelt Borough, Rumson Borough, Sea Girt Borough, Shrewsbury Borough, Shrewsbury Township, Spring Lake Borough, Spring Lake Heights Borough, Tinton Falls Borough, Upper Freehold Township and Wall TownshipOcean County Bay Head Borough, Jackson Township, Lakehurst Borough, Lakewood Township, Manchester Township, Point Pleasant Beach Borough, Point Pleasant Borough and Plumsted Township Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present