The Biafran pound was the currency of the breakaway Republic of Biafra between 1968 and 1970. The first notes denominated in 5 shillings and £1 were introduced on January 29, 1968. A series of coins was issued in 1969. In February 1969, a second family of notes was issued consisting of 5 shilling, 10 shilling, £1, £5 and £10 denominations. Despite not being recognised as currency by the rest of the world when they were issued, the banknotes were afterwards sold as curios and are now traded among banknote collectors at well above their original nominal value; the most common note is the 1968 and 1969 1 pound notes, with the 10 pound note and all coins being rare. Nigerian pound Nigerian naira Postage stamps and postal history of Biafra Banknotes of Biafra."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-06-29. Retrieved 2006-01-13. CS1 maint: Archived copy as title CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown Coins with Nigerian naira Information from Biafraland. A detailed article on the banknotes of the Biafran pound pjsymes.com.au Coins from Biafra - Online Coin Club
Queen Anne's War
Queen Anne's War was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought in England's Thirteen American Colonies. It was fought between France and England for control of the American continent, while the War of the Spanish Succession was fought in Europe; the war involved numerous American Indian tribes allied with each nation, Spain was allied with France. It is known as the Third Indian War or in France as the Second Intercolonial War, it was fought on three fronts: Spanish Florida and the English Province of Carolina attacked one another, the English forces engaged the French based at Mobile, Alabama in a proxy war involving allied Indians on both sides. The southern war did not result in significant territorial changes, but it had the effect of nearly wiping out the Indian population of Spanish Florida, including parts of southern Georgia, destroying the network of Spanish missions in Florida; the English colonies of New England fought against French and Indian forces based in Acadia and Canada.
Quebec City was targeted by British expeditions, the Acadian capital Port Royal was taken in 1710. The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in the Province of Massachusetts Bay, most famously the raid on Deerfield in 1704. English colonists based at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador disputed control of the island with the French based at Plaisance. Most of the conflict consisted of economically destructive raids on settlements; the French captured St. John's in 1709, but the British reoccupied it after the French abandoned it; the Treaty of Utrecht ended the war in 1713, following a preliminary peace in 1712. France ceded the territories of Hudson Bay and Newfoundland to Britain while retaining Cape Breton Island and other islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence; some terms were ambiguous in the treaty, concerns of various Indian tribes were not included, thereby setting the stage for future conflicts.
War broke out in 1701 following the death of King Charles II over who should succeed him to the Spanish throne. The war at first was restricted to a few powers in Europe, but it widened in May 1702 when England declared war on Spain and France; the hostilities in North America were further encouraged by existing frictions along the frontier areas separating the colonies of these powers. This dis-harmony was most pronounced along the northern and southwestern frontiers of the English colonies, which stretched from the Province of Carolina in the south to the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the north, with additional colonial settlements or trading outposts on Newfoundland and at Hudson Bay; the total population of the English colonies at the time has been estimated at 250,000, with Virginia and New England dominating. The population centers of these colonies were concentrated along the coast, with small settlements inland, sometimes reaching as far as the Appalachian Mountains. Most European colonists knew little of the interior of the continent, to the west of the Appalachians and south of the Great Lakes.
This area was dominated by Indian tribes, although French and English traders had penetrated the area. Spanish missionaries in La Florida had established a network of missions to convert the indigenous inhabitants to Roman Catholicism; the Spanish population was small, the Indian population to whom they ministered has been estimated to number 20,000. French explorers had located the mouth of the Mississippi River, near which they established a small colonial presence in 1699 at Fort Maurepas. From there they began to establish trade routes into the interior, establishing friendly relations with the Choctaw, a large tribe whose enemies included the British-allied Chickasaw. All of these populations had suffered to some degree from the introduction of Eurasian infectious diseases such as smallpox by early explorers and traders; the arrival of the French in the south threatened existing trade links that Carolina colonists had established into the interior, creating tension among all three powers.
France and Spain, allies in this conflict, had been on opposite sides of the ended Nine Years' War. Conflicting territorial claims between Carolina and Florida south of the Savannah River were overlaid by animosity over religious divisions between the Roman Catholic Spanish and the Protestant English along the coast. To the north, the conflict held a strong economic component in addition to territorial disputes. Newfoundland was the site of a British colony based at St. John's, the French colonial base was at Plaisance, with both sides holding a number of smaller permanent settlements; the island had many seasonal settlements used by fishermen from Europe. These colonists numbered fewer than 2,000 English and 1,000 French permanent settlers who competed with one another for the fisheries of the Grand Banks, which were used by fishermen from Acadia and Massachusetts; the border area between Acadia and New England remained uncertain despite battles along the border throughout King William's War.
New France defined the border of Acadia as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. There were Catholic missions at Norridgewock and Penobscot and a French settlement in Penobscot Bay near the site of modern Castine, which had all been bases for attacks on New England settlers migrating toward Acadia dur
United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
The livre was the currency of Kingdom of France and its predecessor state of West Francia from 781 to 1794. Several different livres existed; the livre was the name of both units of account and coins. The livre was established by Charlemagne as a unit of account equal to one pound of silver, it was subdivided into each of 12 deniers. The word livre came from a Roman unit of weight; this system and the denier itself served as the model for many of Europe's currencies, including the British pound, Italian lira, Spanish dinero and the Portuguese dinheiro. This first livre is known as the livre carolingienne. Only deniers were minted, but debasement led to larger denominations being issued. Different mints in different regions used different weights for the denier, leading to several distinct livres of different values. "Livre" is a homonym of the French word for "book", the distinction being that the two have a different gender. The monetary unit is la/une livre, while "book" is masculine, le/un livre.
For much of the Middle Ages, different duchies of France were semi-autonomous if not independent from the weak Capetian kings, thus each minted their own currency. Charters would need to specify which region or mint was being used: "money of Paris" or "money of Troyes"; the first steps towards standardization came under the first strong Capetian monarch, Philip II Augustus. Philip II conquered much of the continental Angevin Empire from King John of England, including Normandy and Touraine; the currency minted at the city of Tours in Touraine was considered stable, Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois as the standard currency of his lands replacing the livre of Paris, the currencies of all French-speaking areas he controlled. This was a slow process lasting many decades and not completed within Philip II's lifetime; the result was that from 1200 onwards, following the beginning of King Philip II's campaigns against King John, the currency used within French speaking lands was in a state of flux, as the livre tournois was introduced into other areas.
Until the thirteenth century and onwards, only deniers were minted as coin money. Both livres and sous did not exist as coins but were used only for accounting purposes. Upon his return from the crusades in the 1250s, Louis IX instigated a royal monopoly on the minting of coinage in France and minted the first gold écu d'or and silver gros d'argent, whose weights were equivalent to the livre tournois and the denier. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth 1 livre tournois were minted known as francs; this name persisted in common parlance for 1 livre tournois but was not used on coins or paper money. The official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549. However, in 1577, the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and replaced by the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation. In 1602, the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back. Louis XIII of France stopped minting the franc in 1641, replacing it with coins based on the silver écu and gold Louis d'or.
The écu and louis d'or fluctuated in value, with the écu varying between three and six livres tournois until 1726 when it was fixed at six livres. The louis was worth ten livres, fluctuated too, until its value was fixed at twenty-four livres in 1726. In 1667, the livre parisis was abolished. However, the sole remaining livre was still referred to as the livre tournois until its demise; the first French paper money was denominated in livres tournois. However, the notes did not hold their value relative to silver due to massive over–production; the Banque Royale crashed in 1720. In 1726, under Louis XV's minister Cardinal Fleury, a system of monetary stability was put in place. Eight ounces of gold was worth 9 sols; this led to a strict conversion rate between gold and silver and established the values of the coins in circulation in France at: the Louis d'or of 24 livres the double Louis d'or of 48 livres the demi-Louis d'or or half-Louis of 12 livres the écu of 6 livres or 120 sols, along with 1⁄2, 1⁄4 and 1⁄8 écu denominations valued at 60, 30 and 15 sols the sol denominated in 1 and 2 sol units valued at 1⁄20 livre per sol the denier denominated in 3 and 6 denier units valued at 1⁄4 and 1⁄2 sol respectively.
A coin of value 1 livre was not, minted. Yet in 1720 a special coin minted in pure silver was assigned an over-value of 1 livre. Additionally, France took Navarrese 20-sol coins minted in 1719 and 1720, re-struck them as 1⁄6 écu creating a coin worth 1 livre; these re-struck coins, however were assigned the value of 18 sols. A kind of paper money was reintroduced by the Caisse d'Escompte in 1776 as actions au porteur, denominated in livres; these were issued until 1793, alongside assignats from 1789. Assignats were backed by government-held land. Like the issues of the Banque Royale, their value plummeted; the last coins and notes of the livre currency system were issued in Year II of the Republic. In 1795, the franc was intro
The livre tournois, French for the "Tours pound", was: one of numerous currencies used in France in the Middle Ages. The denier tournois coin was minted by the abbey of Saint Martin in the Touraine region of France. Soon after Philip II of France seized the counties of Anjou and Touraine in 1203 and standardized the use of the livre tournois there, the livre tournois began to supersede the livre parisis, up to that point the official currency of the Capetian dynasty; the livre tournois was, in common with the original livre of Charlemagne, divided into 20 sols, each of, divided into 12 deniers. Between 1360 and 1641, coins worth one livre tournois were minted, known as francs. Other francs were minted under Henri III of France and Henri IV of France; the use of the name "franc" became a synonym for livre tournois in accounting. The first French paper money, issued between 1701 and 1720, was denominated in livres tournois; this was the last time the name was used as notes and coins were denominated in livres, the livre parisis having been abolished in 1667.
With many forms of domestic and international money circulating throughout Europe in the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, the use of an accounting currency became a financial necessity. In the world of international banking of the 13th century, it was the florin and ducat that were used. In France, the livre tournois and the currency system based on it became a standard monetary unit of accounting and continued to be used when the "livre tournois" ceased to exist as an actual coin. For example, the Louisiana Purchase treaty of 1803 specified the relative ratios of the franc and livre tournois; the official use of the livre tournois accounting unit in all contracts in France was legislated in 1549, but it had been one of the standard units of accounting in France since the 13th century. In 1577 the livre tournois accounting unit was abolished and accountants switched to the écu, at that time the major French gold coin in actual circulation, but in 1602 the livre tournois accounting unit was brought back..
Since coins in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Early modern period did not have any indication of their value, their official value was determined by royal edicts. In cases of financial need, French kings could use the official value for currency devaluation; this could be done in two ways: the amount of precious metal in a newly minted French coin could be reduced while maintaining the old value in livres tournois or the official value of a domestic or foreign coin in circulation could be increased. By reversing these techniques, currencies could be reinforced. For example: the worth of an écu d'or, a French gold coin, was changed from 60 sols to 57 sols in 1573. to curb increasing use of the Spanish real, its official worth was decreased to 4 sols 2 deniers in the 1570s. Royal finance officers faced many difficulties. In addition to currency speculation and the intentional shaving of precious metal from coins, they had the difficult problem of setting values for gold, silver and billon coins, responding to the large influx of foreign coin and the appearance of inferior foreign coins of intentionally similar design.
For more on these issues, see Monetary policy and Gresham's Law. A glyph for the livre tournois was added to Unicode 5.2, in the Currency Symbols block at code point U+20B6: ₶. French livre Livre parisis French franc Louis Luxembourgish livre Écu Roman currency
The Sudanese pound (Arabic: جنيه سوداني is the basic unit of the Sudanese currency. The pound consists of 100 piasters; the pound is issued by the Central Bank of Sudan. Its value is linked to gold and convertible into foreign currencies. There are no restrictions on money transfers to and from Sudan; the Sudanese pound is equivalent to $0.021. It has been pegged to the United States dollar since around 1984; the pound fell for the first time since 1997 after the United States imposed economic sanctions on Sudan. The Sudanese pound continued its decline to an unprecedented number, falling to 53 pounds against the dollar; this situation, which drained all economic measures, led to heavy losses in the external repercussions of the Sudan as a whole, in the light of the government cut, interrupted by some of the failed actions announced by the Central Bank of Sudan, a severe shortage of liquidity. The Sudanese pound fell against the US dollar after the Central Bank of Sudan announced the lifting of the cash reserve to counter inflation.
Since the Secession of South Sudan in 2011, Sudan has suffered from a scarcity of foreign exchange for the loss of three quarters of its oil resources and 80% of foreign exchange resources. The Sudanese government quoted the official price of the dollar from 6.09 pounds to 18.07 pounds in the budget of 2018. The first pound to circulate in Sudan was the Egyptian pound; the late 19th century rebels Muhammad ibn Abdalla and Abdallahi ibn Muhammad both issued coins which circulated alongside the Egyptian currency. When Anglo-Egyptian rule in Sudan ceased on January 1, 1956 and Sudan became an independent country, a distinct Sudanese currency was created, replacing the Egyptian pound at par; the Egyptian pound was subdivided into 100 qirush. The qirsh used to be subdivided into 40 para, but decimalisation following the 1886 Egyptian currency reform established a 1/10 qirsh, which came to be known as a millim. Due to this legacy, the post 1956 Sudanese pound was divided into 100 qirush, subdivided into 10 millims.
During 1958-1978 the pound was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of $2.87156 per Sudanese pound. Thereafter, the pound underwent successive devaluations; the pound was replaced in 1992 by the dinar at a rate of 1 dinar. While the dinar circulated in northern Sudan, in Southern Sudan, prices were still negotiated in pounds, whilst in Rumbek and Yei, the Kenyan shilling was used and accepted more within the transport sectors as well as for hotels/accommodation. According to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement between the government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement, the Central Bank of Sudan shall adopt a program to issue a new currency as soon as is practical during the Interim Period; the design of the new currency shall reflect the cultural diversity of Sudan. Until a new currency has been issued with the approval of the Parties on the recommendations of the CBOS, the circulating currencies in Southern Sudan shall be recognised; the second pound began introduction on 9 or 10 January 2007, became the only legal tender as of July 1, 2007.
It replaced the dinar at a rate of 1 pound = 1000 pounds. The third edition of the Sudanese pound was established on 24 July 2011 following the secession of South Sudan from the Republic of Sudan. For a wider history surrounding currency in the region, see The History of British Currency in the Middle East. In 1885, the Mahdi issued 20 qirush and gold 100 qirush; these were followed by issues of the Khalifa in denominations of 10 para, 1, 2, 2½, 4, 5, 10 and 20 qirush. These coins were minted in silver in 1885. Over the following eleven years, severe debasement occurred, leading to billon silver-washed copper and copper coins being issued; the coinage ceased in 1897. During 1908-1914, a local coinage was issued in Darfur in western Sudan; these were issued under the authority of resembled contemporary Egyptian coins. In 1956, coins were introduced in denominations of 2, 5 and 10 millim, 2, 5 and 10 qirush; the millim denominations were struck in bronze, whilst the qirush denominations were in cupro-nickel.
The 2, 5 and 10 millim were scallop shaped, although a round 5 millim was introduced in 1971. The 1 and 2 millim were last struck in 1969, the last 5 millim in 1978. In 1983, brass 1, 2 and 5 qirush, a reduced size 10 qirush and a cupro-nickel 20 qirush were introduced. In 1987, aluminium-bronze 1, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were introduced, with the 25 and 50 qirush square and octagonal in shape, respectively. In 1989, stainless-steel 25 and 50 qirush and 1 pound were issued; this is the general pattern, in addition to these coins there are collector-oriented issues and various oddities. See popular coin catalogues for details. See Sudanese dinar. Coins in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 qirush were introduced alongside the circulating dinar coins; the Central Bank of Sudan states that the 5 qirush coins are yellow coloured and the 10 qirush is silver coloured. The 20 and 50 qirush coins are bi-metallic, with the 20 qirush yellow ringed with a silver coloured centre and the 50 qirush the opposite.
This is thought to be in development. In April 1957, the Sudan Currency Board introduced notes for 1, 5 and 10 pounds. Note production was taken over by the Bank of Sudan in 1961. 20-pound notes were introduced in 1981, followed by 50 pounds in 1984 and 100 pounds in 1988.. When introduced on 8 June 1992, the Sudanese dinar replaced the first Sudanese pound at a rate of 1:10. In 2005, the National Public Rad
The shilling is a unit of currency used in Austria, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States and other British Commonwealth countries. The shilling is used as a currency in four east African countries: Kenya, Tanzania and Somalia, it is the proposed currency that the east African community plans to introduce. The word shilling comes from old English "Scilling", a monetary term meaning twentieth of a pound, from the Proto-Germanic root skiljaną meaning'to separate, divide.' The word "Scilling" is mentioned in the earliest recorded Germanic law codes, those of Æthelberht of Kent. Slang terms for the old shilling coins include "bob" and "hog". While the derivation of "bob" is uncertain, John Camden Hotten in his 1864 Slang Dictionary says the original version was "bobstick" and speculates that it may be connected with Sir Robert Walpole. One abbreviation for shilling is s, it was represented by a solidus symbol, which may have stood for a long s or ſ, thus 1/9 would be one shilling and ninepence.
A price with no pence was sometimes written with a solidus and a dash: 11/–. The solidus symbol is still used for the Kenyan shilling, rather than sh. During the Great Recoinage of 1816, the mint was instructed to coin one troy pound of standard silver into 66 shillings, or its equivalent in other denominations; this set the weight of the shilling, its subsequent decimal replacement 5 new pence coin, at 87.2727 grains or 5.655 grams from 1816 until 1990, when a new smaller 5p coin was introduced. In the past, the English world has had various myths about the shilling. One myth was that it was deemed to be the value of a cow in a sheep elsewhere. A shilling was a coin used in England from the reign of Henry VII; the shilling continued in use after the Acts of Union of 1707 created a new United Kingdom from the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, under Article 16 of the Articles of Union, a common currency for the new United Kingdom was created. The term shilling was in use in Scotland from early medieval times.
The common currency created in 1707 by Article 16 of the Articles of Union continued in use until decimalisation in 1971. In the traditional pounds and pence system, there were 20 shillings per pound and 12 pence per shilling, thus there were 240 pence in a pound. Three coins denominated in multiple shillings were in circulation at this time, they were: two shillings, which adopted the value of 10 new pence at decimalisation. At decimalisation in 1971, the shilling coin was superseded by the new five-pence piece, of identical size and weight and had the same value, inherited the shilling's slang name of a bob. Shillings remained in circulation until the five pence coin was reduced in size in 1991. Between 1701 and the unification of the currencies in 1825, the Irish shilling was valued at 13 pence and known as the "black hog", as opposed to the 12-pence English shillings which were known as "white hogs". In the Irish Free State and Republic of Ireland the shilling coin was issued as scilling in Irish.
It was worth 1/20th of an Irish pound, was interchangeable at the same value to the British coin, which continued to be used in Northern Ireland. The coin featured a bull on the reverse side; the first minting, from 1928 until 1941, contained 75% silver, more than the equivalent British coin. The original Irish shilling coin ) was withdrawn from circulation on 1 January 1993, when a smaller five pence coin was introduced. Australian shillings, twenty of which made up one Australian pound, were first issued in 1910, with the Australian coat of arms on the reverse and King Edward VII on the face; the coat of arms design was retained through the reign of King George V until a new ram's head design was introduced for the coins of King George VI. This design continued until the last year of issue in 1963. In 1966, Australia's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin, where 10 shillings made up one Australian dollar; the slang term for a shilling coin in Australia was "deener".
The slang term for a shilling as currency unit was "bob", the same as in the United Kingdom. After 1966, shillings continued to circulate, as they were replaced by 10-cent coins of the same size and weight. New Zealand shillings, twenty of which made up one New Zealand pound, were first issued in 1933 and featured the image of a Maori warrior carrying a taiaha "in a warlike attitude" on the reverse. In 1967, New Zealand's currency was decimalised and the shilling was replaced by a ten cent coin of the same size and weight. Ten cent coins minted through the remainder of the 1960s included the legend "ONE SHILLING" on the reverse. Smaller 10-cent coins were introduced in 2006. Shillings were used in Malta, prior to decimalisation in 1972, had a face value of five Maltese cents. In British Ceylon, an shilling was equivalent to eight fanams. With the replacement of the rixdollar by the rupee in 1852, a shilling was deemed to be equivalent to half a rupee. On the decimalisation of the currency