New Latin

New Latin was a revival in the use of Latin in original and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900. Modern scholarly and technical nomenclature, such as in zoological and botanical taxonomy and international scientific vocabulary, draws extensively from New Latin vocabulary. In such use, New Latin is subject to new word formation; as a language for full expression in prose or poetry, however, it is distinguished from its successor, Contemporary Latin. Classicists use the term "Neo-Latin" to describe the Latin that developed in Renaissance Italy as a result of renewed interest in classical civilization in the 14th and 15th centuries. Neo-Latin describes the use of the Latin language for any purpose, scientific or literary and after the Renaissance; the beginning of the period cannot be identified. The end of the New Latin period is indeterminate, but Latin as a regular vehicle of communicating ideas became rare after the first few decades of the 19th century, by 1900 it survived in international scientific vocabulary and taxonomy.

The term "New Latin" came into widespread use towards the end of the 1890s among linguists and scientists. New Latin was, at least in its early days, an international language used throughout Catholic and Protestant Europe, as well as in the colonies of the major European powers; this area consisted including Central Europe and Scandinavia. Russia's acquisition of Kiev in the 17th century introduced the study of Latin to Russia; the use of Latin in Orthodox eastern Europe did not reach high levels due to their strong cultural links to the cultural heritage of Ancient Greece and Byzantium, as well as Greek and Old Church Slavonic languages. Though Latin and New Latin are considered dead, large parts of their vocabulary have seeped into English and several Germanic languages. In the case of English, about 60% of the lexicon can trace its origin to Latin, thus many English speakers can recognize New Latin terms with relative ease as cognates are quite common. New Latin was inaugurated by the triumph of the humanist reform of Latin education, led by such writers as Erasmus and Colet.

Medieval Latin had been the practical working language of the Roman Catholic Church, taught throughout Europe to aspiring clerics and refined in the medieval universities. It was a flexible language, full of neologisms and composed without reference to the grammar or style of classical authors; the humanist reformers sought both to purify Latin grammar and style, to make Latin applicable to concerns beyond the ecclesiastical, creating a body of Latin literature outside the bounds of the Church. Attempts at reforming Latin use occurred sporadically throughout the period, becoming most successful in the mid-to-late 19th century; the Protestant Reformation, though it removed Latin from the liturgies of the churches of Northern Europe, may have advanced the cause of the new secular Latin. The period during and after the Reformation, coinciding with the growth of printed literature, saw the growth of an immense body of New Latin literature, on all kinds of secular as well as religious subjects; the heyday of New Latin was its first two centuries, when in the continuation of the Medieval Latin tradition, it served as the lingua franca of science, to some degree diplomacy in Europe.

Classic works such as Newton's Principia Mathematica were written in the language. Throughout this period, Latin was a universal school subject, indeed, the pre-eminent subject for elementary education in most of Europe and other places of the world that shared its culture. All universities required Latin proficiency to obtain admittance as a student. Latin was an official language of Poland—recognised and used between the 9th and 18th centuries used in foreign relations and popular as a second language among some of the nobility. Through most of the 17th century, Latin was supreme as an international language of diplomatic correspondence, used in negotiations between nations and the writing of treaties, e.g. the peace treaties of Osnabrück and Münster. As an auxiliary language to the local vernaculars, New Latin appeared in a wide variety of documents, legal, diplomatic and scientific. While a text written in English, French, or Spanish at this time might be understood by a significant cross section of the learned, only a Latin text could be certain of finding someone to interpret it anywhere between Lisbon and Helsinki.

As late as the 1720s, Latin was still used conversationally, was serviceable as an international auxiliary language between people of different countries who had no other language in common. For instance, the Hanoverian king George I of Great Britain, who had no command of spoken English, communicated in Latin with his Prime Minister Robert Walpole, who knew neither German nor French. By about 1700, the growing movement for the use of national languages had reached academia, an example of the transition is Newton's writing career, which began in New Latin and ended in English. A much earl

Soul of Shaolin

Soul of Shaolin was a theatrical event presented on Broadway by Nederlander Worldwide Entertainment to coincide with the celebration of the Lunar New Year in January 2009. The first production from the People’s Republic of China to appear on Broadway, its story is told through a display of Chinese martial arts Shaolin Kung Fu, handed down through generations in the Shaolin Monastery, a Chán Buddhist temple at Song Shan near Dengfeng in China; the primary focus is on Hui Guang, who as an infant was separated from his mother when she hid him, together with a broken piece of jade identifying his origin, during a period of civil conflict. Discovered by Na Luo, the baby is raised by the monks who live there, his education includes instruction in the ways of Shaolin Kung Fu and the daily practice of Kung Fu skills. In years, Hui Guang encounters his mother, now begging on the streets to support herself, being molested by a gang of men. In the ensuing struggle to rescue her, he drops the piece of jade, which she pockets.

Hoping to find her son, she sneaks into the forest on the temple grounds, where she is captured by Hui Guang. Following an interrogation, it becomes clear, her request to take her son with her is denied by the abbot, who declares if Hui Gang wants to leave the temple, he must fight his way out, according to the rules require. He does so, mother and son are reunited. Soul of Shaolin was presented at the 2008 Summer Olympics as part of the Beijing arts festival. Following three previews, the Broadway production opened at the Marquis Theatre on January 15, 2009 and ran for 21 performances. Featuring the Shaolin Temple Wushu Martial Artists, it was directed and choreographed by Liu Tongbiao and starred Yu Fei as Hui Guang as a young man, Zhang Zhigang as Na Luo, Wang Yazhi as Hui Guang's mother, Bai Guojun as the abbot; the Broadway production has been nominated for the Tony Award for Best Special Theatrical Event and the Drama Desk Award for Unique Theatrical Experience. A North American tour of the production is scheduled to commence in Fall 2010.

Charles Isherwood of the New York Times observed, "The three performers who play the main character, Hui Guang, impress with their contortionist feats and physical prowess... The splashy all-monks-on-deck numbers combine the pop of a Broadway dance routine with the testosteroney thrill of Hong Kong action movies, but Soul of Shaolin seems a pretty cheap enterprise. The sets are painted flats, the music... is recorded. Much of it is schlocky; the passages of more relaxed indigenous music come as a big relief. For the makers of Soul of Shaolin... the innumerable Cirque du Soleil shows have set a far higher standard in terms of stagecraft... I doubt Soul of Shaolin represents the best of Chinese culture." Sam Thielman of Variety called the production "a rushed, expertly trained assault that leaves you confused afterward" and "a little weak on storytelling and variety." He added, "In the rare instances when the show communicates with utter clarity, it succeeds by speaking a universal language of one-upmanship and pratfalls...

At the end of the day, you can get more precision from The Rockettes and you can get smarter Chinese action-comedy from a Stephen Chow movie. Soul of Shaolin isn't a failure but it doesn't hit its target enough to be a success, either." Joe Dziemianowicz of the New York Daily News rated it two out of five stars and commented, "To borrow from A Chorus Line, Shaolin rates as follows - Martial arts: 10. Magic: 3... Some kung-fu moves will make your head spin; when these performers launch into the air and whirl nearly horizontal to the ground, it's no Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon special effect. Cheesy sets and choppy staging choices undermine the highs. Lights and piped-in music don't seamlessly bridge scenes, they slam off, like someone hitting the brakes to avoid a car crash. If you love martial arts and think Kill Bill is high art, you might not mind." Frank Scheck of the New York Post gave the production three out of four stars and commented, "The impressive performers... provide a dazzling display of their skills, many involving staffs and sabers, but their masterful control of their own bodies.

The athleticism on display is amazing... Director Liu Tongbiao has choreographed the proceedings with a precision that would put the Rockettes to shame, it all culminates in a final raucous battle, the most athletic curtain calls ever seen on a Broadway stage." Michael Kuchwara of the Associated Press called it "a striking mixture of sentiment and strength" and commented, "It is the demanding physicality in the show that counts. That movement celebrates an intense kind of discipline that borders on the spiritual and proves to be sturdy Broadway entertainment." Official website Soul of Shaolin at the Internet Broadway Database

Jim & Ingrid Croce

Jim & Ingrid Croce is an album by American singer-songwriter Jim Croce and his wife Ingrid, released in 1969. The album has been rereleased with alternate titles such as "Bombs over Puerto Rico", "Another Day, Another Town", "Approaching Day"; the album was re-released on Capitol Records as Jim & Ingrid Croce: Another Day Another Town, with two songs omitted and the tracks rearranged in the following order: Jim Croce - guitar, vocals, 12 string guitar Ingrid Croce - vocals Gary Chester - drums Harry Katzman - violin Ann Minogue - triangle Gene Pistilli - guitar, keyboards John Stockfish - bass Eric Weissberg - mandolin Dick Weissman - banjo Tommy West - guitar, background vocals Producers: Terry Cashman, Gene Pistilli, Tommy West