Sections of the New Left rejected involvement with the labor movement and Marxisms historical theory of class struggle, although others gravitated to variants of Marxism like Maoism. In the United States, the movement was associated with the hippie movement, the origins of the New Left have been traced to several factors. It was from this French new left that the First New Left of Britain borrowed the term, the German-Jewish critical theorist Herbert Marcuse is referred to as the Father of the New Left. He rejected the theory of class struggle and the Marxist concern with labor, according to Leszek Kołakowski, Marcuse argued that since all questions of material existence have been solved, moral commands and prohibitions are no longer relevant. He regarded the realization of mans nature as the true liberation of humanity. Another prominent New Left thinker, Ernst Bloch, believed that socialism would prove the means for all beings to become immortal. The writings of sociologist C. Wright Mills, who popularized the term New Left in a 1960 open letter, Mills biographer, Daniel Geary, writes that his writings had a particularly significant impact on New Left social movements of the 1960s.
As a result of Nikita Khrushchevs Secret Speech denouncing Joseph Stalin many abandoned the Communist Party of Great Britain, some joined various Trotskyist groupings or the Labour Party. The Marxist historians E. P. Thompson and John Saville of the Communist Party Historians Group published a dissenting journal within the CPGB called Reasoner. Refusing to discontinue the publication at the behest of the CPGB, Thompson was especially important in bringing the concept of a New Left to the United Kingdom in the Summer of 1959 with a New Reasoner lead essay, in which he described. A generation nourished on 1984 and Animal Farm, which enters politics at the point of disillusion where the middle-aged begin to get out. But their enthusiasm is not for the Party, or the Movement and they do not mean to give their enthusiasm cheaply away to any routine machine. They expect the politicians to do their best to trick or betray them and they prefer the amateur organisation and amateurish platforms of the Nuclear Disarmament Campaign to the method and manner of the left wing professional.
They judge with the eyes of the first generation of the Nuclear Age. We have made no sustained critique of the economics of capitalism in the 1950s, but we still have a long way to go, and there are far too many timeless militants for whom the mixture is the same as before. In 1960, The New Reasoner merged with the Universities and Left Review to form the New Left Review and these journals attempted to synthesise a theoretical position of a Marxist revisionism, socialist Marxism, departing from orthodox Marxist theory. This publishing effort made the ideas of culturally oriented theorists available to a reading audience. In this early period, many on the New Left were involved in the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, under the long-standing editorial leadership of Perry Anderson, the New Left Review popularised the Frankfurt School, Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser and other forms of Marxism
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and they are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, the term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields, this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Upon receipt of an article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by scholars of the editors choosing who typically remain anonymous. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, even accepted articles are often subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print.
The peer review can take several weeks to several months. Review articles, called reviews of progress, are checks on the published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms, some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a subject, others are selective. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field, some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions and they are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field. Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the books published by scholars, unlike articles.
Journals typically have a book review editor determining which new books to review. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editors request for a book review, publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook, an academic journals prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality
Stuart Hall (cultural theorist)
Stuart McPhail Hall, FBA was a Jamaican-born cultural theorist, political activist and sociologist who lived and worked in the United Kingdom from 1951. In the 1950s Hall was a founder of the influential New Left Review, at the invitation of Hoggart, Hall joined the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies at Birmingham University in 1964. Hall took over from Hoggart as acting director of the Centre in 1968, became its director in 1972, Hall left the centre in 1979 to become a professor of sociology at the Open University. He was President of the British Sociological Association 1995–97, Hall retired from the Open University in 1997 and was a Professor Emeritus. British newspaper The Observer called him one of the leading cultural theorists. Hall was involved in the Black Arts Movement, movie directors such as John Akomfrah and Isaac Julien see him as one of their heroes. Hall was married to Catherine Hall, a feminist professor of modern British history at University College London, Stuart Hall was born in Kingston, into a middle-class Jamaican family of African and likely Indian descent.
In Jamaica he attended Jamaica College, receiving an education modelled after the British school system, in an interview Hall describes himself as a bright, promising scholar in these years and his formal education as a very classical education, very good but in very formal academic terms. Halls works reveal that growing up in the pigmentocracy of the colonial West Indies, in 1957, he joined the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament and it was on a CND march that he met his future wife. In 1958, the group, with Raphael Samuel, launched the Partisan Coffee House in Soho as a meeting-place for left-wingers. Hall left the board of the New Left Review in 1961 or 1962, in 1968 Hall became director of the Centre. He wrote a number of articles in the years that followed, including Situating Marx and Departures. He contributed to the book Policing the Crisis and coedited the influential Resistance Through Rituals, through the 1970s and 1980s, Hall was closely associated with the journal Marxism Today, in 1995, he was a founding editor of Soundings, A Journal of Politics and Culture.
Hall retired from the Open University in 1997 and he was elected Fellow of the British Academy in 2005 and received the European Cultural Foundations Princess Margriet Award in 2008. He died on 10 February 2014, from complications following kidney failure a week after his 82nd birthday, by the time of his death, he was widely known as the godfather of multiculturalism. Halls work covers issues of hegemony and cultural studies, taking a post-Gramscian stance and he regards language-use as operating within a framework of power and politics/economics. This view presents people as producers and consumers of culture at the same time, for Hall, culture was not something to simply appreciate or study, but a critical site of social action and intervention, where power relations are both established and potentially unsettled. Hall became one of the proponents of reception theory
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper, known from 1821 until 1959 as the Manchester Guardian. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, The Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, the Scott Trust became a limited company in 2008, with a constitution to maintain the same protections for The Guardian. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than to the benefit of an owner or shareholders, the Guardian is edited by Katharine Viner, who succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. In 2016, The Guardians print edition had a daily circulation of roughly 162,000 copies in the country, behind The Daily Telegraph. The newspaper has an online UK edition as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US, the newspapers online edition was the fifth most widely read in the world in October 2014, with over 42.6 million readers. Its combined print and online editions reach nearly 9 million British readers, notable scoops include the 2011 News International phone hacking scandal, in particular the hacking of murdered English teenager Milly Dowlers phone.
The investigation led to the closure of the UKs biggest selling Sunday newspaper, and one of the highest circulation newspapers in the world, in 2016, it led the investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing the British Prime Minister David Camerons links to offshore bank accounts. The Guardian has been named Newspaper of the Year four times at the annual British Press Awards, the paper is still occasionally referred to by its nickname of The Grauniad, given originally for the purported frequency of its typographical errors. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle and they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. They do not toil, neither do they spin, but they better than those that do. When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, the prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty.
Warmly advocate the cause of Reform, endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and. Support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, in 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828. The working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian the foul prostitute, the Manchester Guardian was generally hostile to labours claims. The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators –, if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone. CP Scott made the newspaper nationally recognised and he was editor for 57 years from 1872, and became its owner when he bought the paper from the estate of Taylors son in 1907. Under Scott, the moderate editorial line became more radical, supporting William Gladstone when the Liberals split in 1886
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament
It opposes military action that may result in the use of nuclear, chemical or biological weapons and the building of nuclear power stations in the UK. CND was formed in 1957 and since that time has periodically been at the forefront of the movement in the UK. It claims to be Europes largest single-issue peace campaign, between 1959 and 1965 it organised the Aldermaston March, which was held over the Easter weekend from the Atomic Weapons Establishment near Aldermaston to Trafalgar Square, London. CNDs current strategic objectives are, The elimination of British nuclear weapons and it campaigns for the cancellation of Trident by the British government and against the deployment of nuclear weapons in Britain. The abolition of weapons of destruction, in particular chemical and biological weapons. CND wants a ban on the manufacture and use of depleted uranium weapons A nuclear-free, less militarised and it supports the Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe. It opposes US military bases and nuclear weapons in Europe and British membership of NATO, the closure of the nuclear power industry.
It organised a vigil for the victims of the 2005 London bombings, CND campaigns against the Trident missile. In March 2007 it organised a rally in Parliament Square to coincide with the Commons motion to renew the weapons system, the rally was attended by over 1,000 people. In the House of Commons,161 MPs voted against the renewal of Trident, in 2006 CND launched a campaign against nuclear power. Its membership, which had fallen to 32,000 from a peak of 110,000 in 1983, there are five specialist sections, Trade Union CND, Christian CND, Labour CND, Green CND and Ex-Services CND, which have rights of representation on the governing council. There are parliamentary and student groups, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament was founded in 1957 in the wake of widespread fear of nuclear conflict and the effects of nuclear tests. In the early 1950s Britain had become the third power, after the USA and the USSR. Priestley wrote an article for the New Statesman magazine, Collins was chosen as its Chairman, Bertrand Russell as its President and Peggy Duff as its organising secretary.
The other members of its executive committee were Martin, Ritchie Calder, journalist James Cameron, Howard Davies, Michael Foot, Arthur Goss, and Joseph Rotblat. The Campaign was launched at a meeting at Central Hall, Westminster. After the meeting a few hundred left to demonstrate at Downing Street, the new organisation attracted considerable public interest and drew support from a range of interests, including scientists, religious leaders, journalists, writers and musicians. Other prominent founding members of CND were Fenner Brockway, E. P. Thompson, A. J. P. Taylor, Anthony Greenwood, Lord Simon, D. H. Pennington, Eric Baker and Dora Russell
The Financial Times is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news. The paper and owned by Nikkei Inc. in Tokyo, was founded in 1888 by James Sheridan and Horatio Bottomley, and merged in 1945 with its closest rival, the Financial Times has an average daily readership of 2.2 million people worldwide. FT. com has 4.5 million registered users and over 285,000 digital subscribers, FT Chinese has more than 1.7 million registered users. The world editions of the Financial Times newspaper had an average daily circulation of 234,193 copies in January 2014. In February 2014 the combined sale of the editions of the Financial Times was 224,000 copies. In October 2013 the combined print and digital circulation of the Financial Times reached nearly 629,000 copies. In December 2016 print sales for the paper stood at 193,211, on 23 July 2015 Nikkei Inc. agreed to buy the Financial Times from Pearson for £844m. On 30 November 2015 Nikkei completed the acquisition, the FT was launched as the London Financial Guide on 10 January 1888, renaming itself the Financial Times on 13 February the same year.
Describing itself as the friend of The Honest Financier, the Bona Fide Investor, the Respectable Broker, the Genuine Director, the readership was the financial community of the City of London, its only rival being the slightly older and more daring Financial News. After 57 years of rivalry the Financial Times and the Financial News were merged in 1945 by Brendan Bracken to form a single six-page newspaper, the Financial Times brought a higher circulation while the Financial News provided much of the editorial talent. The Lex column was introduced from Financial News. Pearson bought the paper in 1957, over the years the paper grew in size and breadth of coverage. It established correspondents in cities around the world, reflecting early moves in the economy towards globalisation. On 1 January 1979 the first FT was printed outside the UK, since then, with increased international coverage, the FT has become a global newspaper, printed in 22 locations with five international editions to serve the UK, continental Europe, the U. S.
The European edition is distributed in continental Europe and Africa and it is printed Monday to Saturday at five centres across Europe reporting on matters concerning the European Union, the Euro and European corporate affairs. In 1994 FT launched a lifestyle magazine, How To Spend It. In 2009 it launched a website for the magazine. On 13 May 1995 the Financial Times group made its first foray into the world with the launch of FT. com
Communist Party of Great Britain
The Communist Party of Great Britain was the largest communist party in Great Britain, although it never became a mass party like those in France and Italy. It existed from 1920 to 1991, the Communist Party of Great Britain was founded in 1920 after the Third International decided that greater attempts should be made to establish communist parties across the world. Several branches and many members of the Independent Labour Party affiliated. As a member of the British Socialist Party, the Member of Parliament Cecil LEstrange Malone joined the CPGB, in January 1921, the CPGB was refounded after the majorities of Sylvia Pankhursts group the Communist Party, and the Scottish Communist Labour Party agreed to unity. During the negotiations leading to the initiation of the party a number of issues were hotly contested, among the most contentious were the questions of parliamentarism and the attitude of the Communist Party to the Labour Party. Parliamentarism referred to a strategy of contesting elections and working through existing parliaments and it was a strategy associated with the parties of the Second International and it was partly for this reason that it was opposed by those who wanted to break with Social Democracy.
Similarly, affiliation to the Labour Party was opposed on the grounds that communists should not work with reformist Social Democratic parties and these Left Communist positions enjoyed considerable support, being supported by Sylvia Pankhurst and Willie Gallacher among others. However, the Russian Communist Party took the opposing view, therefore, the CPGB attempted to work within the Labour Party, which at this time operated mainly as a federation of left-wing bodies, only having allowed individual membership since 1918. However, despite the support of James Maxton, the Independent Labour Party leader, even while pursuing affiliation and seeking to influence Labour Party members, the CPGB promoted candidates of its own at parliamentary elections. Following the refusal of their affiliation, the CPGB encouraged its members to join the Labour Party individually, several Communists thus became Labour Party candidates, and in the 1922 general election, Shapurji Saklatvala and Walton Newbold were both elected.
The affair of the forged Zinoviev Letter occurred in late October 1924 and it was probably the work of SIS or White Russian counter revolutionaries. Throughout the 1920s and most of the 1930s the CPGB decided to maintain the doctrine that a communist party should consist of revolutionary cadres, the CPGB as the British section of the Communist International was committed to implementing the decisions of the higher body to which it was subordinate. This proved to be a blessing in the General Strike of 1926 immediately prior to which much of the central leadership of the CPGB was imprisoned. Twelve were charged with seditious conspiracy, five were jailed for a year and the others for six months. Another major problem for the party was its policy of abnegating its own role, the result was that membership of the party in mining areas increased greatly through 1926 and 1927. Much of these gains would be lost during the Third Period, Maerdy in the Rhondda Valley along with Chopwell in Tyne and Wear were two of a number of communities known as Little Moscow for their Communist tendencies.
Any kind of alliance with social-fascists was obviously to be prohibited, the Third Period meant that the CPGB sought to develop revolutionary trade unions in rivalry to the established Trades Union Congress affiliated unions. They met with an almost total lack of success although a handful of red unions were formed, amongst them a miners union in Scotland