The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A Nightmare on Elm Street
A Nightmare on Elm Street is a 1984 American supernatural slasher film written and directed by Wes Craven, produced by Robert Shaye. It is the first installment of a series and stars Heather Langenkamp, John Saxon, Ronee Blakley, Amanda Wyss, Jsu Garcia, Robert Englund as Freddy Krueger, Johnny Depp in his film debut; the plot concerns four teenagers living on one street in the fictitious town of Springwood, who are invaded and killed in their dreams, thus killed in reality, by a burnt killer with a bladed leather glove. Craven filmed A Nightmare on Elm Street on an estimated budget of $1.8 million, a sum the film earned back during its first week. The film was released on November 9, 1984, where it went on to gross over $25 million at the United States box office. A Nightmare on Elm Street was met with rave critical reviews and is considered to be one of the greatest horror films made, spawning a franchise consisting of a line of sequels, a television series, a crossover with Friday the 13th, various other works of imitation.
A remake of the same name was released in 2010. The film is credited with using many of the tropes found in the low-budget horror films of the 1970s and 1980s that originated with John Carpenter's Halloween and led this subgenre to be called the slasher film; the film includes. Critics and film historians state that the film's premise is the struggle to define the distinction between dreams and reality, manifested by the lives and dreams of the teens in the film. Critics today praise the film's ability to transgress "the boundaries between the imaginary and real", toying with audience perceptions. In March 1981, at Springwood, Tina Gray awakens from a nightmare wherein she is attacked by a disfigured man in decayed clothes wearing a blade-fixed work glove, her mother points out four mysterious slashes on her nightgown. The following morning she is consoled by her best friend, Nancy Thompson, Nancy's boyfriend, Glen Lantz; the two stay at Tina's house when Tina's mother goes out of town, but their sleepover is interrupted by Tina's boyfriend, Rod Lane.
When Tina falls asleep, she dreams of being chased by the disfigured man. Rod sees her dragged and fatally slashed by an unseen force; the next day, Rod is arrested by Nancy's father, Lieutenant Don Thompson, despite his pleas of innocence. At school, Nancy falls asleep in class and dreams that the man, who calls himself Freddy Krueger, chases her to the boiler room where she is cornered and burns her arm on a pipe; the burn startles her awake in class and she notices a burn mark on her arm. At home, Nancy is nearly drowned by Krueger. Nancy goes to Rod at the police station, who tells her about what happened to Tina, this makes Nancy believe that Krueger is responsible for Tina's death. Nancy invites Glen to watch over her. In her dream, she sees Krueger prepare to kill Rod in his cell, but he turns his attention towards her. Nancy wakes up when her alarm clock goes off. Krueger kills Rod by wrapping bed sheets around his neck like a noose. Nancy and Glen find his body hanging in his cell. At Rod's funeral, Nancy's parents become worried.
Her mother, takes her to a sleep disorders clinic, where, in a dream, Nancy grabs Krueger's fedora and pulls it from the dream into reality. Marge begins to drink and smoke and bars the windows at home, she reveals to Nancy that Krueger was an insane child murderer, released on a technicality and burned alive by parents seeking vigilante justice. Nancy realizes that Krueger, now a vengeful ghost, desires revenge and to satiate his sociopathic needs, she tries to call Glen to warn him. Glen falls asleep and is killed by Krueger, a large fountain of blood is released in his room. Now alone, Nancy puts Marge to sleep and asks Don, across the street investigating Glen's death, to break into the house in twenty minutes, she rigs booby traps around the house, grabs Krueger out of the dream and into the real world. The booby traps affect Krueger enough that Nancy is able to light him on fire and lock him in the basement. Nancy rushes to the door for help; the police arrive to find. Nancy and Don go upstairs to find a burning Krueger smothering Marge in her bedroom.
After Don puts out the fire and Marge vanish into the bed. When Don leaves the room, Krueger rises from the bed behind Nancy. Nancy realizes that Krueger is powered by his victim's fear and she calmly turns her back to him. Krueger evaporates. Nancy steps outside into a bright morning where all of her mother are still alive, she gets into Glen's convertible to go to school and the top comes down and locks them in as the car drives uncontrollably down the street. Two girls playing jump rope are heard chanting Krueger's nursery rhyme as Marge is grabbed by Krueger through the front door window; the cast of A Nightmare on Elm Street included a crew of veteran actors such as Robert Englund and John Saxon and several aspiring young actors like Johnny Depp and Heather Langenkamp. Krueger's disfigured face was brought to life by makeup man David Miller, who based his creation on photographs of burn victims that he obtained from the UCLA Medical Center. A Nightmare on Elm Street contains many biographical elements from director Wes Craven's childhood.
The basis of the film was inspired by several newspaper articles printed in the Los Angeles Times in the 1970s about Southeast Asian refug
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo
Freddy Krueger is a character from the A Nightmare on Elm Street film series. He first appeared in Wes Craven's A Nightmare on Elm Street as a burnt serial killer who uses a gloved hand with razors to kill his victims in their dreams, causing their deaths in the real world as well. In the dream world, he is a powerful force and completely invulnerable. However, whenever Freddy is pulled into the real world, he has normal human vulnerabilities; the character was created by Wes Craven and was portrayed by Robert Englund in the original film series as well as in the television spin-off. In the 2010 franchise reboot, Freddy Krueger was portrayed by Jackie Earle Haley. In 2011, Freddy appeared as a playable character in the video game Mortal Kombat. Over the course of the series, Freddy has battled numerous survivors including Nancy Thompson. In the film Freddy vs. Jason and the Nightmares on Elm Street comics, an alias is used, namely "the Springwood Slasher". Freddy attacks his victims from within their dreams.
He is identified by his burned, disfigured face, red-and-green striped sweater, brown fedora, trademark metal-clawed brown leather glove only on his right hand. This glove was the product of Krueger's own imagination. Robert Englund has said many times that he feels the character represents neglect that suffered by children; the character more broadly represents subconscious fears. Wizard magazine rated Freddy the 14th greatest villain, the British television channel Sky2 listed him 8th, the American Film Institute ranked him 40th on its "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes & Villains" list. In 2010, Freddy won an award for Best Villain at the Scream Awards. Freddy is introduced in A Nightmare on Elm Street as a child killer from a fictitious Ohio town, who kills his victims with a bladed leather glove he crafted, he is captured, but is let off due to a technicality. He is hunted down by a mob of angry parents who lived on his street and cornered in a boiler room where he used to take his victims; the mob sets it on fire, burning Krueger alive.
While his body dies, his spirit lives on in the dreams of a group of teenagers and preadolescents living on Elm Street, whom he preys on by entering their dreams and killing them, is fueled by the town's residents' memories and fear of him. He is destroyed at the end of the film by protagonist Nancy Thompson, but the last scene reveals that he has survived, he goes on to antagonize the teenage protagonists of the next five films in the series. In A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, more of Freddy's backstory is revealed by the mysterious nun who appears to Dr. Gordon. Freddy's mother, Amanda Krueger, was a nurse at the asylum featured in the film. At the time she worked there, a abandoned, run-down wing of the asylum was used to lock up entire hordes of the most insane criminals all at once; when Amanda was young, she was accidentally locked into the room with the criminals over a holiday weekend. They managed raping her repeatedly; when she was discovered, she was alive and was pregnant with the future Freddy Krueger, with the result that Krueger was regarded as'the son of a hundred homicidal maniacs' due to it being impossible to determine which of the rapists was his individual father.
However, in A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child, it is implied that Freddy had discovered that which one of them was his biological father, hates his mother for rejecting him. In Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare, it is revealed that the children Freddy killed when still alive were the children of people who had wronged him since childhood owing to his twisted reputation. Krueger has a daughter, who seeks to end her father's horrific legacy once and for all. After a hiatus following the release of The Final Nightmare, Krueger was brought back in Wes Craven's New Nightmare by Wes Craven, who had not worked on the film series since the third film, Dream Warriors. Robert Englund, who portrayed Krueger throughout the film series and its television spin-off took the role as a fictional version of himself in New Nightmare. Having been in various manifestations throughout the ages due to the entity can be captured through storytelling, it is hinted that it was once in the form of the old witch from Brothers Grimm's fairy tale Hansel and Gretel when it was held prisoner in this allegory.
Englund describes to his former co-star and friend Heather Langenkamp that this embodiment of Freddy is darker and more evil than as portrayed by him in the films. Krueger aims to stop another film of the franchise from being made, eliminating the films' crew members including Langenkamp's husband Chase Porter after stealing a prototype bladed glove from him, causes nightmares and makes threatening phone calls to producer Robert Shaye; the entity haunts Wes Craven's dreams, to the point that he sees future events related to Krueger's actions and writes them down as a movie script. Krueger sees Langenkamp as his primary foe, because her character Nancy Thompson was the first to defeat him. Krueger's attempts to cross over to reality cause a series of earthquakes throughout Los Angeles County, including the 1994 Northridge earthquake. Langenkamp
A Nightmare on Elm Street (franchise)
A Nightmare on Elm Street is an American horror franchise that consists of nine slasher films, a television series and comic books. The films began with the film A Nightmare on Elm Street created by Wes Craven; the series revolves around the fictional character Freddy Krueger, a former child killer who after being burned alive by the vengeful parents of his victims, returns from the grave to terrorize and kill the teenage residents of Springwood, Ohio in their dreams. The original film was written and directed by Craven, who returned to co-script the second sequel, A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, to write and direct New Nightmare; the films collectively grossed over $457 million at the box-office worldwide. The original film was released in 1984. A series of sequels produced by the independent film company New Line Cinema followed. New Line attributes the growth of their company to the success of the Nightmare series; the film series as a whole has received mixed reviews by critics, but has been a financial success at the box office.
When comparing the United States box office grosses of other American horror film series, A Nightmare on Elm Street is the second highest grossing series in adjusted US dollars. In 1988, a television series was produced with Freddy as the host; the pilot episode focused on the night Freddy was burned alive by the angry parents of the children he had killed, though the rest of the series featured episodes with independent plots. Twelve novels, separate from the adaptations of the films, multiple comic book series were published featuring Freddy Krueger, as well as a crossover film featuring fellow horror icon Jason Voorhees from the Friday the 13th franchise. A remake of the 1984 film was released in 2010, a second remake is planned; the original film and directed by Wes Craven and titled A Nightmare on Elm Street, was released in 1984. The story focuses on Freddy Krueger attacking Nancy Thompson and her friends in their dreams killing all but Nancy, in fictional Springwood, Ohio. Krueger's back-story is revealed by Nancy's mother, who explains he was a child murderer.
The parents of Springwood killed Krueger. Nancy defeats Freddy by pulling him from the dream world and stripping him of his powers when she stops being afraid of him. Freddy returns to attack the new family, the Walshes, living in Nancy Thompson's house in 1985's A Nightmare on Elm Street 2: Freddy's Revenge. Freddy possesses the body of Jesse Walsh, using him to kill. Jesse is temporarily saved by his girlfriend Lisa. Wes Craven returned to write A Nightmare on Elm Street 3: Dream Warriors, released in 1987. In the second sequel, Freddy is systematically killing the last of the Elm Street children; the few remaining children have been placed in Westin Hills Mental Institution, for attempting suicide. Nancy Thompson arrives at Westin Hills as a new intern, realizes the children are being killed by Freddy. With the help of Dr. Neil Gordon, Nancy helps Kristen, Taryn and Will find their dream powers, so they can kill Freddy once and for all. Neil, unknowingly until the end, meets the spirit of Freddy's mother, Amanda Krueger, who instructs him to bury Freddy's remains in hallowed ground in order to stop him for good.
Neil completes his task, but not before Freddy kills Nancy. The story of Kristen Parker would continue with 1988's A Nightmare on Elm Street 4: The Dream Master; this time, Kristen unwittingly releases Freddy, who kills Kincaid and Joey. Before Freddy can kill Kristen, she transfers her dream powers to a friend from school. Alice begins inadvertently providing victims for Freddy when she begins pulling people into her dreams while she sleeps. Alice, who begins taking on traits of the friends who were murdered, confronts Freddy, she uses the power of the Dream Master to release all the souls. Picking up shortly after the events of The Dream Master, A Nightmare on Elm Street 5: The Dream Child involves Freddy using Alice's unborn child, Jacob, to resurrect himself and find new victims; the spirit of Amanda Krueger returns, revealing that Freddy was conceived when she, a nun working in a mental asylum, was accidentally locked in a room with "100 maniacs" and raped "hundreds of times". Amanda Krueger convinces Jacob to use the powers he was given by Freddy against him, which gives her the chance to subdue Freddy long enough for Alice and Jacob to escape the dream world.
Two years 1991's Freddy's Dead: The Final Nightmare followed the exploits of "John Doe", an amnesiac teenager from Springwood, sent out to find Freddy's daughter Maggie, who he needs to leave Springwood. Freddy's goal is to create new "Elm Streets", begin a new killing spree after having killed all of the children in Springwood. Maggie, utilizing new dream techniques, uncovers Krueger's past, which include: being taunted by schoolmates for being the "son of 100 maniacs", being cruel to animals, beaten by his stepfather, the murder of his own wife when she discovers he has been killing children, the moment when the Dream Demons arrive in his boiler room to make him the offer of eternal life. Maggie pulls Freddy out of the dream world, uses a pipe bomb to blow him up. Wes Craven returned to the Nightmare series a third time with New Nightmare in 1994; this film focuses on a fictional "reality", where Craven, La
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs is a 1978 French romantic comedy film directed by Bertrand Blier and starring Carole Laure, Gérard Depardieu, Patrick Dewaere and Riton Liebman. The film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film at the 51st Academy Awards; the film tells the story of a ménage à trois in which two men share a woman to cure her of an unexplained depression, with many symptoms. She begins an affair with an underage boy; the film employs heavy references to historical musician Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, combined with the music of the film's composer Georges Delerue, who won the César Award for Best Original Music. Get Out Your Handkerchiefs was a critical success. Raoul and his wife Solange are eating in a restaurant when Raoul expresses concern with Solange's apparent depression, as she eats little, suffers migraines and insomnia, sometimes faints, he finds another man in the room, Stéphane, to be her lover and enliven her again. Stéphane gives in to his desperate appeals for help.
The two men take turns sleeping with Solange, both try to impregnate her without success, believing a lack of a child to be the source of her depression. Stéphane shares his love for the music of Mozart and Pocket Books with the two and their neighbour grocer; the music inspires the men, but not Solange. Raoul, Stéphane work at a boys' camp in the summer, where they meet a 13-year-old math prodigy named Christian Belœil, bullied by the other boys. Solange becomes protective of one night lets him sleep in her bed, she scolds him. They have sex, despite a drastic age difference. Afterwards, Solange becomes dependent on the boy, to the point where Raoul, Stéphane, she kidnap him from his boarding school. Christian impregnates her, the film ends with Raoul and Stéphane walking away after serving six months in prison. Director Bertrand Blier wrote the screenplay "from the middle", starting by writing the scene where Raoul and Stéphane fantasize about meeting Mozart. Blier considered using an actor to portray Mozart in a historically-appropriate costume for the scene.
Collaborating with the film's composer Georges Delerue, Blier employed Mozart's string chamber music in scenes such as where Stéphane and Solange are first seen in bed, followed by using Mozart's G minor string quintet when Raoul is in the bar with Bernadette. Mention of a conductor named. While writing the script, Blier planned to use actors Gérard Depardieu and Patrick Dewaere as the leads, having worked with them on Going Places; the familiarity meant. Blier discovered Riton Liebman, 13 years old at the time, cast him as Christian in the film, where he is credited as Riton. While Liebman said he had strained relations with Depardieu and Dewaere, Blier defended him during filming; the film had a total of 1,321,087 admissions in France. It played at the New York Film Festival, where the audience hissed at the film, it was a success in the United States, considered a surprise given the taboo subject matter of a woman in a relationship with a minor. Texas Monthly writer George Morris reported it was the most discussed film of the New York festival, because of the perceived sexist portrayal of Carole Laure as a "sex object," expressing surprise the controversy was not in relation to sex with a minor.
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs received positive reviews in the United States, with some concerns about sexism. David Denby, writing for New York magazine, praised Get Out Your Handkerchiefs as "courageous and enjoyable" and made in the spirit of the French New Wave. Richard Fuller, writing for Cincinnati, gave it three and a half stars and said it was "a joy to spend time with," though he objected to Mozart's music being overly loud. Variety wrote that "a rather bizarre mixture of gritty comedy and delving into female status makes this a literary film. There is a lot of talk, sometimes good, but edgy and too pointless in lieu of a more robust visual dynamism and life." People wrote the humour could be "downright incomprehensible" and "so airy it floats right off the screen."Time Out called it "an erratic hilarious movie." In his 2002 Movie & Video Guide, Leonard Maltin gives the film three and a half stars and calls it "disarming" and "highly unconventional." Arion Berger writes that "to experience Get Out Your Handkerchiefs is to watch a master at the peak of his powers."
According to Take One's Essential Guide to Canadian Film, French Canadian actress Carole Laure was "permanently eroticized" by Get Out Your Handkerchiefs and her music career, as having "reinvented the screen goddess." An Epinions critic wrote "Get Out Your Handkerchiefs is good for some laughs while flaunting somewhat outrageous disregard for standard sexual mores." The Rotten Tomatoes website counts nine favourable reviews out of ten. The film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. After four ballots, the National Society of Film Critics named it the Best Film of 1978, with it picking up 25 points for Best Screenplay; the Best Film honour was considered a surprise, with People objecting the award was "downright incomprehensible." List of submissions to the 51st Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of French submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film Everist, Mark. Mozart's Ghosts: Haunting the Halls of Musical Culture. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0195389174. Harris, Sue. Bertrand Blier. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0719052971. Lanzoni, Remi Fournier. F
Polyester is a 1981 American black comedy film directed and written by John Waters, starring Divine, Tab Hunter, Edith Massey, Mink Stole. It was filmed in Waters' native Baltimore and features a gimmick called "Odorama", whereby viewers can smell what they see on screen using scratch and sniff cards; the film is a satirical look at suburban life in the early 1980s involving divorce, adultery, foot fetishism, the religious right. Overweight housewife Francine Fishpaw watches her upper middle-class family's life crumble in their suburban Baltimore home, her husband Elmer is a polyester-clad lout who owns an adult movie theater, causing anti-pornography protesters to picket the Fishpaws' house. Francine's Christian beliefs are offended by the behavior of her children—Lu-Lu, her spoiled, promiscuous daughter, Dexter, her delinquent, glue-sniffing son who secretly derives pleasure from stomping on women's feet. Francine's troubles are compounded by her cocaine-snorting mother La Rue, a class-conscious snob who robs her daughter blind and derides her obese appearance.
La Rue berates Francine for befriending her former housecleaner, Cuddles Kovinsky, a simple-minded woman who tries to console Francine with "seize-the-day" bromides. Cuddles inherits a large sum of money from a former employer. After Francine discovers her husband is having an affair with his secretary, Sandra Sullivan, she confronts them during a motel tryst and demands a divorce. Francine falls into alcoholism and depression, exacerbated by her children's behavior: Lu-Lu becomes pregnant by her delinquent boyfriend Bo-Bo Belsinger and announces she is getting an abortion. Lu-Lu is harassed by anti-abortion picketers, she tries to induce a miscarriage, causing Francine to call an unwed mothers' home. Two nuns arrive, force Lu-Lu into the trunk of their car, take her to a Catholic home for unwed mothers. La Rue is shot by his friend, who have come to trash the Fishpaw house on Halloween night. La Rue manages to retrieve shoots Bo-Bo, killing him. After Lu-Lu flees the unwed mothers' home, she returns home to discover her boyfriend's dead body and is so distraught that she attempts suicide.
Francine comes home and faints after witnessing her daughter's suicide attempt—and the apparent suicide by hanging of the family dog, based on a suicide note left near the dog's dangling body. However, Francine's life soon begins to change. Dexter is released from jail. Lu-Lu suffers a miscarriage from her suicide attempt and is contrite about her past, becoming an artistic flower child who embraces macramé. Francine summons the strength to quit drinking, confronts and rebukes her mother, finds new romance with Todd Tomorrow. Todd proposes marriage to an elated Francine. However, Francine soon discovers that Todd and La Rue are romantically involved and conspiring to embezzle her divorce settlement and drive her insane. Elmer and Sandra break into the house to murder Francine, but are killed by Dexter and Lu-Lu: Dexter steps on Sandra's foot, causing her to accidentally shoot Elmer, Lu-Lu uses her macramé to strangle Sandra; when Cuddles and her German chauffeur and fiancé Heintz arrive, their car runs over La Rue and Todd, killing them.
The film concludes with a happy ending for Francine, her children, newlyweds Cuddles and Heintz. Waters' usual troupe of actors, the Dreamlanders, played minor roles in Polyester compared to Waters' previous films Desperate Living, Female Trouble, Pink Flamingos, which starred several Dreamlanders in major roles. Only two Dreamlanders and Edith Massey, received top billing in this film. Dreamlander perennials Mink Stole, Mary Vivian Pearce, Cookie Mueller, Sharon Niesp, Marina Melin, Susan Lowe, Jean Hill played small roles in Polyester. While their parts are integral to the plot, they are much smaller compared to their earlier roles. Principal photography for the film took place over the course of three weeks in October 1979. Polyester was the first Waters film to skirt the mainstream garnering an R rating; the film was set in a middle-class suburb of Baltimore instead of its slums and bohemian neighborhoods, the setting of Waters' earlier films. These are the only songs known to be in the film: "Polyester" by Tab Hunter – words and music by Chris Stein and Debbie Harry "Be My Daddy's Baby" by Michael Kamen – words and music by Harry and Kamen "The Best Thing" by Bill Murray – words and music by Harry and Kamen Polyester was a send-up of women's pictures, an exploitative genre of film, popular from the 1950–60s and featured bored, unfulfilled, or otherwise troubled women middle-aged suburban housewives, finding release or escape through the arrival of a handsome younger man.
Women's pictures were hackneyed B-movies, but Waters styled Polyester after the work of the director Douglas Sirk, making use of similar lighting and editing techniques using film equipment and movie-making techniques from Sirk's era. Odors Francine's keen sense of smell, play an important role in the film. To highlight this, Waters designed Odorama, a "scratch-and-sniff" gimmick inspired by