Jason Chao Teng Hei was born in Macau. Chao is a voluntary social activist and LGBT rights campaigner, he was President of the New Macau Association and Director of the satirical newspaper Macau Concealer. He co-founded the Rainbow of Macau. Chao graduated in high school in 2006 and started doing Bachelor of Arts in Communications at the University of Macau. Chao works as an IT software developer. Chao is a democratic socialist. Elected as the president of the New Macau Association. In June, Chao campaigned against a high-rise building proposal that would hugely impact the landscape of the Small Taipa Hill, by holding a referendum. In December, Chao revealed that government misled the public to respond in favour of putting more regulations on the journalists and news media at the consultation on revising the Publishing Law and Audio-visual Law. During the consulting period for political reform at Macau, Chao fought for universal suffrage in the election of Legislative Assembly and Chief Executive, by conducting survey, holding a referendum and going on a hunger strike.
However, he failed to accomplish it under pro-establishment organizations’ overwhelming propaganda. Chao exposed that the free Wi-Fi service provided by the MSAR government would decrypt users’ protected data and enforce censorship. Chao co-founded the activist organization Macau Conscience in July with several netizens including Bill Chou, an associate professor at the University of Macau. In November, Chao co-authored with Bill Chou the second annual NGO Human Rights Report on Macau for 2012. In January, Chao conducted the “Initial Survey on LGBT individuals in Macau”, the first-ever survey on the LGBT community in Macau, for the Macau LGBT Rights Concern Group. Chao revealed the architecture of the new campus of the University of Macau was in fact a copycat of the architecture of Nanjing Audit University, constructed a few years earlier. Chao and associate professor Bill Chou had a video conference with the Human Rights Committee of the United Nations, in which they revealed the human right violations in Macau that were never mentioned in the report submitted by the MSAR government.
By invitation of the European Union, Chao visited the EU committee in Brussels and the European Council in Strasbourg in May. He is the first Macau citizen from NGOs to be invited by the EU. During his visit, Chao met with several EU leaders of NGOs headquartered in Brussels. In November 2012, the MSAR government withdrew same-sex cohabitants from the domestic violence legislation, leaving LGBT individuals unprotected under the proposed counter-domestic violence law. In December and some of his friends founded the Macau LGBT Rights Concern Group, which marks the beginning of LGBT rights movement in Macau; the group organized the first Rainbow Equality Parade, dedicated to fighting for LGBT rights, including the protection under domestic violence legislation. In January 2013, the Macau LGBT Rights Concern Group conducted a survey over LGBT individuals’ situation in Macau. On the day the results being published, Chao announced publicly his sex orientation towards males. In February 2013, Chao believed that the fact that the government banned same-sex cohabitants from being in the domestic violence legislation might violate the International Covenant on Civil and Political Right since LGBT group should not be discriminated.
Therefore, he sent a letter to United Nations Human Rights Committee, hoping that UN could intervene in this scenario. In April 2013, Macau Rainbow was established. On the International Day against Homophobia, 2013, representing Macau Rainbow, held a flash mob at the Ruins of St. Pauls. Jason Chao's website Access Granted Jason Chao Facebook account website of New Macau Association YouTube channel of New Macau Association website of Macau Concealer Youtube channel of Macau Concealer
Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information, on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by a government private institutions, corporations. Governments and private organizations may engage in censorship. Other groups or institutions may petition for censorship; when an individual such as an author or other creator engages in censorship of their own works or speech, it is referred to as self-censorship. It occurs in a variety of different media, including speech, music and other arts, the press, radio and the Internet for a variety of claimed reasons including national security, to control obscenity, child pornography, hate speech, to protect children or other vulnerable groups, to promote or restrict political or religious views, to prevent slander and libel. Direct censorship may or may not be legal, depending on the type and content. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law, but none of these protections are absolute and a claim of necessity to balance conflicting rights is made, in order to determine what could and could not be censored.
There are no laws against self-censorship. In 399 BC, Greek philosopher, defied attempts by the Greek state to censor his philosophical teachings and was sentenced to death by drinking a poison, hemlock. Socrates' student, Plato, is said to have advocated censorship in his essay on The Republic, which opposed the existence of democracy. In contrast to Plato, Greek playwright Euripides defended the true liberty of freeborn men, including the right to speak freely. In 1766, Sweden became the first country to abolish censorship by law; the rationale for censorship is different for various types of information censored: Moral censorship is the removal of materials that are obscene or otherwise considered morally questionable. Pornography, for example, is censored under this rationale child pornography, illegal and censored in most jurisdictions in the world. Military censorship is the process of keeping military intelligence and tactics confidential and away from the enemy; this is used to counter espionage.
Political censorship occurs. This is done to exert control over the populace and prevent free expression that might foment rebellion. Religious censorship is the means by which any material considered objectionable by a certain religion is removed; this involves a dominant religion forcing limitations on less prevalent ones. Alternatively, one religion may shun the works of another when they believe the content is not appropriate for their religion. Corporate censorship is the process by which editors in corporate media outlets intervene to disrupt the publishing of information that portrays their business or business partners in a negative light, or intervene to prevent alternate offers from reaching public exposure. Cuban media used to be operated under the supervision of the Communist Party's Department of Revolutionary Orientation, which "develops and coordinates propaganda strategies". Connection to the Internet is censored; the People's Republic of China employs sophisticated censorship mechanisms, referred to as the Golden Shield Project, to monitor the internet.
Popular search engines such as Baidu remove politically sensitive search results. Strict censorship existed in the Eastern Bloc. Throughout the bloc, the various ministries of culture held a tight rein on their writers. Cultural products there reflected. Party-approved censors exercised strict control in the early years. In the Stalinist period the weather forecasts were changed if they suggested that the sun might not shine on May Day. Under Nicolae Ceauşescu in Romania, weather reports were doctored so that the temperatures were not seen to rise above or fall below the levels which dictated that work must stop. Possession and use of copying machines was controlled in order to hinder production and distribution of samizdat, illegal self-published books and magazines. Possession of a single samizdat manuscript such as a book by Andrei Sinyavsky was a serious crime which might involve a visit from the KGB. Another outlet for works which did not find favor with the authorities was publishing abroad.
Iraq under Baathist Saddam Hussein had much the same techniques of press censorship as did Romania under Nicolae Ceauşescu but with greater potential violence. According to Christian Mihr, executive director of Reporters Without Borders, "censorship in Serbia is neither direct nor transparent, but is easy to prove." According to Mihr there are numerous examples of censorship and self-censorship in Serbia According to Mihr, Serbian prime minister Aleksandar Vučić has proved "very sensitive to criticism on critical questions," as was the case with Natalija Miletic, correspondent for Deutsche Welle Radio, who questioned him in Berlin about the media situation in Serbia and about allegations that some ministers in the Serbian government had plagiarized their diplomas, who received threats and offensive articles on the Serbian press. Multiple news outlets have accused Vučić of anti-democratic strongman tendencies. In July 2014, journalists associations were concerned about the freedom of the media in Serbia, in which Vučić came under criticism.
In September 2015 five members of United States Congress have informed Vice President of the United States Joseph Biden that Aleksandar's brother, Andrej Vučić, is leading a group responsible for deteriorating media freedom in Serbia. In th
Legislative Assembly of Macau
The Legislative Assembly is the organ of the legislative branch of Macau. It is a 33-member body comprising 14 directly elected members, 12 indirectly elected members representing functional constituencies and 7 members appointed by the chief executive, it is located at Sé. It is known in English as the Legislative Council of Macao, according to the official translation of the territory's basic law; the Assembly has the following charter: To enact, suspend or repeal laws. The press has reported that the Assembly shall be moving to a new building within the next few years. From 1784 to 1999, the Assembly met at the Leal Senado Building. According to the Basic Law of Macau, the number of directly elected legislators has increased from 10 to 12 in 2005, bringing the number of legislators to 29. After 2009, the selection of the Chief Executive may be changed by ⅔ endorsement of the Legislative Assembly and approval by the National People's Congress Standing Committee. To change the method for forming the Legislative Assembly require a ⅔ endorsement of the assembly, agreement by the Chief Executive, notification to the NPC Standing Committee.
Civic organisations in Macau are not well-developed. The ability of Macau residents to change their government is restricted. Supermajority majority plurality minority Chief Executive of Macau Executive Council of Macau Municipal Council of Macau List of members of the Legislative Assembly of Macau Legislative Council of Hong Kong Members of the Assembly of Macau Legislative Assembly of Macau The Basic Law of Macau: The Legislature University of Macau
1992 Macanese legislative election
Legislative elections were held on 30 September 1992. Geographical constituency List F —: Leong Heng Teng and Kou Hou In List B —: Tong Chi Kin and Fernando Chui List H —: Antonio Ng List G —: Susana Chou List I —: Alberto Madeira Noronha List A —: Alexandre HoFunctional constituencies Business: Ma Man Kei, Edmund Ho, Pedro Segundo Pan Sau Macias and Victor Ng Labor: Lau Cheok Va and Pang Vai Kam Professionals: Leonel Alberto Alves Welfare, Cultural and Sports: Anabela Fátima Xavier Sales RitchieNominated members José João de Deus Rodrigues do Rosário Raimundo Arrais do Rosário Beatriz Amélia Alves de Sousa Oliveira Basto da Silva Joaquim Jorge Perestrelo Neto Valente António Correia António José Félix Pontes Rui António Craveiro Afonso election results
António Ng Kuok Cheong is a member in the Macau Legislative Assembly, returned by direct election. He was the founding chairman of the pro-democratic political party New Macau Association, he is the leader of the political pressure group Union for Democracy Development. Ng has been a major figure in the Macau democracy movement and is one of the three pro-democratic legislators in the Assembly. After his graduation from Yuet Wah College, Macau, Ng obtained his undergraduate degree in economics at Chinese University of Hong Kong. Politics of Macau Antonio Ng's blog
2013 Macanese legislative election
The 2013 Macanese general election took place on 15 September 2013 according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. This election was the first of its kind succeeding the reform of the Legislative Assembly that created four new seats. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive. A Portuguese colony, Macau has been a Special Administrative Region within China since 1999; as a Special Administrative Region it is entitled to a high degree of autonomy from the mainland Chinese legal system through the year 2050, although China represents the city on foreign policy matters. Macau's economy is based on its status as a tech and financial sector, as well as its internationally famous casino industry; the previous legislative election took place in 2009. The pro-democracy camp ANMD+APMD, led by António Ng, received 19.35% of the votes cast, the next largest party, the pro-establishment camp UPD, received 14.88% in vote with 2 seats while the pro-establishment ACUM received 12.00% with 2 seats.
Due to the characteristics of the Macanese election system, only 14 members are directly elected. On 1 July 2013 twenty-two parties have submitted their nominations for the direct election including current incumbents and new candidates. See also: Legislative Assembly of Macau and Chief Executive of Macau Macau's government is headed by the Chief Executive, who controls government appointments and in many ways serves as the face of the city. Prior to 2012, the Chief Executive was elected by a 300-member Election Committee consisting of representatives from functional constituencies. 100 total came from the industrial and financial sectors, 18 from the culture sector, 20 from the education sector, 30 from the "specialty" sector, 12 from the sports sector, 40 from the labor sector, 34 from the social services sector, 6 total from various religious groups. 16 were representatives of the Macanese Legislative Assembly and 24 were Macanese representatives in the mainland Chinese government. While all members of the Election Committee are technically elected, in practice they are appointed as each functional constituency nominates only one candidate.
Most power in the Macanese government is concentrated in the Legislative Assembly. Macau's Legislative Assembly is unicameral. Prior to 2012 it had 29 members - 12 directly elected, 10 indirectly elected and 7 appointed by the Chief Executive. Macanese democracy advocates had criticized the large number of indirectly elected members, charging that these tended to be pro-establishment and pro-Beijing businesspeople; as an alternative, they called for a larger number of directly elected legislators. As a result of the 2012 passage of "Amendment to Electoral Law for the Legislative Assembly of Macau" known as the "+2+2+100" Law, the number of Legislative Council members is increased from 29 to 33. Two new geographical constituency seats, two new indirectly elected Functional Constituency seats are created. Another key proposal was increasing the Election Committee for the chief executive election from 300 members to 400 on the next Chief Executive election in 2014; these changes were designed to create representation for a larger number of groups in the Election Committee and to reduce the power of the Chief Executive over the Legislative Assembly.
However, democracy advocates criticized the law for not going far enough. Under the constitutional reform package passed in 2012, this election saw AL increase its total size from 29 seats to 33 seats, half of which are geographical constituencies and half functional constituencies; the GC seats are returned by universal suffrage with gaining two extra seats. The Welfare, Culture and Sports constituency is split into two groups. Culture and Sports retains the two seats of the initial group, with the two incumbents running unopposed. Culture and Sports continues to be run by the Excellent Sports Union Association. A new constituency is created for Education, receiving one seat. Welfare and Education is managed by the Association for Promotion of Social Services and Education. Additionally, one seat is added to the Professionals constituency, lead by the Macau Professional Interest Union. Chan Lek Lap is elected, unopposed; this year, there are three lists for the pro-democrats instead of two campaigning on high property prices and freedom of speech.
The three lists included the New Macau Association, New Hope, the addition of New Macau Liberals. Antonio Ng for ANM campaigns for universal suffrage, promotion of a minimum wage and public housing, increasing government accountability. José Maria Pereira Couthino of NE campaigns for improvements in public housing and pension services, equal pay for workers, increasing government accountability. Jason Chao Teng-hei is a radical young candidate for New Macau Liberals and a prominent social activist for LGBT rights. Pro-establishment Chan Meng-kam, casino owner and lawmaker-elect of the ACUM, said he believed the city should implement universal suffrage "step by step", that functional constituencies should be preserved. Others with casino links on the pro-es
2017 Macanese legislative election
The 2017 Macanese general election took place on 17 September 2017 according to the provisions of the Basic Law of Macau. Out of a total of 33 seats, 14 were directly elected by universal suffrage under the highest averages method, while 12 were voted on from the Functional constituency, 7 from nomination by the Chief Executive. A Portuguese colony, Macau has been a Special Administrative Region within China since 1999; as a Special Administrative Region it is entitled to a high degree of autonomy from the mainland Chinese legal system through the year 2050, although China represents the city on foreign policy matters. Macau's economy is based on its status as a tech and financial sector, as well as its internationally famous casino industry; the previous legislative election took place in 2013. The pro-establishment camp ACUM, led by Chan Meng Kam, received 18.02% votes with 3 seats, the next largest party, the pro-democracy camp ANMD+APMD, led by António Ng, received 15.73% of the votes with 2 seats while the pro-establishment camp UGM received 11.09% with 2 seats.
Due to the characteristics of the Macanese election system, only 14 members are directly elected. On 10 July 2017 twenty-five parties have submitted their nominations for the direct election including current incumbents and new candidates. Macau's direct electoral system is based around proportional representation, with elections carried out through a closed party-list balloting system; this means that each geographic electoral district has multiple members, with the number of its seats filled by each competing party determined by the proportion of the vote that party receives. Parties nominate a slate of candidates. After the election, party leaders decide. Shortly before usual campaign period for the 2013 elections, the Electoral Affairs Commission of Macau banned the use of commercial advertising by election candidates; the new election rules stipulate that candidates should not carry out activities that could influence voters in the two-month period between their registration and the start of the campaign period on August 31.
Commercial advertising is barred from most public areas, except those specially designated by the government. In areas where campaigning is permitted, it is still limited to a 14-day official campaign period; these restrictions are intended to limit the advertising advantage of wealthy business interests. However, they have been criticized for limiting the amount of canvassing candidates with less money can do, thus encouraging clientelistic bloc voting where parties strike deals with associations, business interests and community leaders to turn out assured votes in their favor. Working around the rules, candidates resorted to using loudspeakers to promote their campaigns. Among the most powerful special interests in Macau are casinos. Macau's casino industry has a long history of other organized crime connections. Since laws around casinos were liberalized in 2002 to promote more foreign investment, the Triad has lost its stranglehold on Macau's casino industry. Casinos have long played a major role in clientelistic politics in Macau, since liberalization their influence has further increased.
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