A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities.
In his book and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses.
Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
A cotton gin is a machine that quickly and easily separates cotton fibers from their seeds, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. The fibers are processed into various goods such as linens. Seeds may be used to grow cotton or to produce cottonseed oil. Handheld roller gins had been used in India and other countries since at earliest 500 CE, the Indian worm-gear roller gin, invented some time around the sixteenth century, according to Lakwete, remained virtually unchanged up to the present time. The modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793, whitneys gin used a combination of a wire screen and balls to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint to prevent jams. It revolutionized the industry in the United States, but led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased. The invention has thus been identified as an inadvertent contributing factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War, modern automated cotton gins use multiple powered cleaning cylinders and saws, and offer far higher productivity than their hand-powered forebears.
The original cotton gin was invented by Eli Whitney in 1793, Whitney began to work on this project after moving to Georgia in search of work. Given that farmers were desperately searching for a way to cotton farming profitable. Whitney created two cotton gins, a one that could be hand cranked and a large one that could be driven by a horse or water power. Thanks to the gin, the amount of raw cotton yielded doubled each decade after 1800. The creation of the cotton gin led to the creation of machines designed to spin and weave the fabric, single roller cotton gin, The Ajanta caves of India yield evidence of a single roller cotton gin in use by the 5th century. This cotton gin was used in India until innovations were made in form of foot powered gins, the cotton gin was invented in India as a mechanical device known as charkhi, more technically the wooden-worm-worked roller. This mechanical device was, in parts of India, driven by water power. Cotton fibers are produced in the pods of the cotton plant where the fibers in the bolls are tightly interwoven with seeds.
To make the fibers usable, the seeds and fibers must first be separated, many simple seed-removing devices had been invented, but until the innovation of the cotton gin, most required significant operator attention and worked only on a small scale. The earliest versions of the cotton gin consisted of a single roller made of iron or wood, evidence for this type of gin has been found in Africa and North America. These early gins were difficult to use and required a deal of skill
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, graupel, Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and precipitates. Thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated, Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers, moisture that is lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain is occurring. A stationary front is often present near the area of freezing rain, provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus.
Eventually, the droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy, thundersnow is possible within a cyclones comma head and within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation, on the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. The movement of the trough, or intertropical convergence zone. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 cubic kilometres of it over the oceans and 107,000 cubic kilometres over land. Given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes.
Precipitation may occur on celestial bodies, e. g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most likely takes the form of frost. Precipitation is a component of the water cycle, and is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. Approximately 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year,398,000 km3 of it over the oceans, given the Earths surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall, Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in the United States, Romania, China, in the United Kingdom and Ireland, county towns have a similar function. In the United States, counties are the subdivisions of a state. Depending on the state, counties may provide services to the public, impose taxes. Some types of subdivisions, such as townships, may be incorporated or unincorporated. The city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county, a county seat is usually, but not always, an incorporated municipality. The exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, likewise, some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, in some of the colonial states, county seats include or formerly included Court House as part of their name.
Most counties have only one county seat, an example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats. The practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days when travel was difficult, there have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states, Coffee County, for example, the official county seat is Greensboro, but an additional courthouse has been located in nearby High Point since 1938. For example, Clearwater is the county seat of Pinellas County, Florida, in New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government. Historically, counties in this region have served mainly as dividing lines for the judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of government and thus no county seats, in Vermont and Maine the county seats are legally designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the shire town.
Bennington County has two towns, but the Sheriff is located in Bennington. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town governments. As such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county
New Madrid County, Missouri
New Madrid County new-MAD-rid) is a county located in the Bootheel of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18,956, the largest city and county seat is New Madrid, located on the northern side of the Kentucky Bend in the Mississippi River, where it has formed an oxbow around an exclave of Fulton County, Kentucky. This feature has known as New Madrid Bend or Madrid Bend. The county was organized on October 1,1812, and is named after Nuevo Madrid. This area was under Spanish rule following Frances cession of North American territory after being defeated by Britain in the Seven Years War, the Spanish named the district after Madrid, the capital of Spain. The county includes a part of the New Madrid Fault that produced the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes. This zone has the potential to more earthquakes in the future. French Canadians from New France landed in area in 1781. Later France ceded this area to Spain following its loss in the Seven Years War, Spain returned it to France late in the 18th century, and France sold this and a large area west of the Mississippi River in 1803 to the United States under the Louisiana Purchase.
New Madrid County was organized on October 1,1812, as an act of the First General Assembly of the Missouri Territory, in the floodplain of the Mississippi, this area was long cultivated for cotton production. A series of more than 1,000 earthquakes struck the area in 1811 and 1812, the New Madrid earthquakes were the strongest non-subduction zone earthquake in the United States. A request dated January 13,1814, by the Territorial Governor William Clark, the county had its peak of population in 1940, according to US census data, as shown in the table. Many residents left the county from 1950 to 1970, seeking work opportunities. County population has continued to decline, according to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 697 square miles, of which 675 square miles is land and 22 square miles is water. The county is located on the Kentucky Bend of the Mississippi River and this feature is known as New Madrid Bend or Madrid Bend. This oxbow flows around an exclave of Fulton County, scientists expect that eventually the river will cut a new channel across the narrow neck of the peninsula, which will gradually be attached by infill land to Missouri.
The population density was 29 people per square mile, there were 8,600 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile. Approximately 0. 93% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race, among the major first ancestries reported in New Madrid County were 32. 4% American,10. 3% Irish,8. 8% English, and 8. 7% German ancestry
American Revolutionary War
From about 1765 the American Revolution had led to increasing philosophical and political differences between Great Britain and its American colonies. The war represented a culmination of these differences in armed conflict between Patriots and the authority which they increasingly resisted. This resistance became particularly widespread in the New England Colonies, especially in the Province of Massachusetts Bay. On December 16,1773, Massachusetts members of the Patriot group Sons of Liberty destroyed a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor in an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. Named the Coercive Acts by Parliament, these became known as the Intolerable Acts in America. The Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, establishing a government that removed control of the province from the Crown outside of Boston. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, and established committees, British attempts to seize the munitions of Massachusetts colonists in April 1775 led to the first open combat between Crown forces and Massachusetts militia, the Battles of Lexington and Concord.
Militia forces proceeded to besiege the British forces in Boston, forcing them to evacuate the city in March 1776, the Continental Congress appointed George Washington to take command of the militia. Concurrent to the Boston campaign, an American attempt to invade Quebec, on July 2,1776, the Continental Congress formally voted for independence, issuing its Declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe began a British counterattack, focussing on recapturing New York City, Howe outmaneuvered and defeated Washington, leaving American confidence at a low ebb. Washington captured a Hessian force at Trenton and drove the British out of New Jersey, in 1777 the British sent a new army under John Burgoyne to move south from Canada and to isolate the New England colonies. However, instead of assisting Burgoyne, Howe took his army on a campaign against the revolutionary capital of Philadelphia. Burgoyne outran his supplies, was surrounded and surrendered at Saratoga in October 1777, the British defeat in the Saratoga Campaign had drastic consequences.
Giving up on the North, the British decided to salvage their former colonies in the South, British forces under Lieutenant-General Charles Cornwallis seized Georgia and South Carolina, capturing an American army at Charleston, South Carolina. British strategy depended upon an uprising of large numbers of armed Loyalists, in 1779 Spain joined the war as an ally of France under the Pacte de Famille, intending to capture Gibraltar and British colonies in the Caribbean. Britain declared war on the Dutch Republic in December 1780, in 1781, after the British and their allies had suffered two decisive defeats at Kings Mountain and Cowpens, Cornwallis retreated to Virginia, intending on evacuation. A decisive French naval victory in September deprived the British of an escape route, a joint Franco-American army led by Count Rochambeau and Washington, laid siege to the British forces at Yorktown. With no sign of relief and the situation untenable, Cornwallis surrendered in October 1781, Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tory majority in Parliament, but the defeat at Yorktown gave the Whigs the upper hand
Cairo is the southernmost city in the U. S. state of Illinois, and is the county seat of Alexander County. Cairo is located at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, the rivers converge at Fort Defiance State Park, a Civil War fort that was built in 1862 by Union General Ulysses S. Grant. Cairo has the lowest elevation of any location in Illinois and is the only Illinois city surrounded by levees and it is in the area known as Little Egypt. Several blocks in the town comprise the Cairo Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the Old Customs House is on the NRHP. The city is part of the Cape Girardeau−Jackson, MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area, the population at the 2010 census was 2,831, a significant decline from its peak population of 15,203 in 1920. The entire city was evacuated during the 2011 Mississippi River Floods, after the Ohio River rose higher than the 1937 flood levels, the first municipal charter for Cairo and for the Bank of Cairo were issued in 1818, bit without any settlement and without any depositors.
A second and successful effort to establish a town was made by the Cairo City and Canal Company in 1836-37, this effort collapsed in 1840, with few settlers remaining. Charles Dickens visited Cairo in 1842, and was unimpressed, the city would serve as his prototype for the nightmare City of Eden in his novel Martin Chuzzlewit. A new city charter was written in 1857, and Cairo flourished as trade with Chicago spurred development, by 1860, the population had exceeded 2,000. In January 1862, during the Civil War, General Ulysses S. Grant occupied the city, Cairo would become an important supply base and training center for the rest of the war. Grants military occupation caused much of the trade to be diverted to Chicago. Instead, agriculture and sawmills now dominated the economy, the strategic importance of Cairos geographic location during the Civil War did spark prosperity. Several banks were founded during the war years, and the growth in banking, even before that, Cairo had been becoming an important steamboat port, and the city had been designated as a port of delivery by Act of Congress in 1854.
In 1869 construction began on the United States Custom House and Post Office, the custom house was completed in 1872. It served as a house, post office, and United States Court. The U. S. District Court for the Southern District of Illinois met at the building until 1905, from 1905 to 1942, the building housed the U. S. District Court for the Eastern District of Illinois. The building housed the U. S. Circuit Court for the Eastern District of Illinois from 1905 to 1912, the post office in the building was the third busiest in the United States at the height of Cairos prosperity. One of only seven of Mullets Victorian structures remaining in the nation and it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves, Lynchings most frequently targeted African American men and women in the South. They were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892, starting with large mob actions attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers, lynchings in the 20th century began to be conducted secretly by small groups of people. Lynchings were common in the Old West, where Native Americans, Mexican Americans, after the Reconstruction era, most of the South was dominated politically by Democrats. Lynchings enforced white supremacy and intimidated blacks by racial terrorism, the rate of lynchings in the South has been strongly associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching, constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War was resisted by many white Southerners.
Some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, and post-war economic losses, during Reconstruction and whites working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence, White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, and a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disenfranchised by the states across the South from 1890 to 1908, Whites enacted segregation and Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks second-class status. During this period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900-1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900-1931 with 302 incidents, Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, and numbers vary depending on the source, years considered, and definition used in defining an incident.
A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men, over this period Georgias 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways and journalists encouraged public education, actively protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and government complicity. Anti-lynching plays and literary works were produced, African-American womens clubs raised funds and conducted petition drives, letter campaigns and demonstrations to highlight the issues and combat lynching. From 1910 to 1930 particularly, more blacks migrated from counties with high numbers of lynchings, from 1882 to 1968, nearly 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in Congress, and three passed the House. Seven presidents between 1890 and 1952 petitioned Congress to pass a federal law, none succeeded in gaining passage, blocked by the Solid South - the delegation of white Southerners in the Senate. During the 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights Movement, black activists were attacked and murdered throughout the South, in 1964 three Mississippi civil rights workers were murdered, galvanizing public support for passage of civil rights legislation that year and the next
The Kentucky Bend, variously called the New Madrid Bend, Madrid Bend or Bessie Bend, is an exclave of Fulton County, United States, encircled by the states of Tennessee and Missouri. Kentucky Bend is the southwestern corner of Kentucky. The peninsula includes the lowest point in the state of Kentucky, the only highway into the area is Tennessee State Route 22, whose continuation into Kentucky Bend at one time was signed as Kentucky State Route 313. As of the 2010 census, the population was 18 persons in this area, tabulated as the Kentucky Bend County Census Division. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the Kentucky Bend covers a area of 26.9 square miles, of which 17.5 square miles is land and 9.4 square miles. The water area is primarily within the Mississippi River, the western border of Kentucky is designated as the Mississippi River, as is the eastern border of Missouri—thus the creation of a notch for Kentucky, but not for Tennessee. The border predates the separation of Kentucky from Virginia and Tennessee from North Carolina and its location stems from the Royal Colonial Boundary of 1665, which was meant to delimit overlapping inland claims of the Colony of Virginia and the Province of Carolina, respectively.
The state of Tennessee contested the inclusion of the Kentucky Bend in the state of Kentucky, claiming it as part of Obion County until at least 1848, due to its highly productive soil in the rivers floodplain, Kentucky Bend was developed as a major cotton-producing area. The 1870 census recorded more than 300 residents, in The West Tennessee Farm edited by Marvin Downing, Norman L. Parks reports that in 1880 there was a population of 303, of whom 18 were African American. By 1900, there were numbers of Negroes in the Bend working as laborers to plant. In Mark Twains book Life on the Mississippi, he described the feud between the Darnell and Watson families and other elements of life in the Bend. Article about Kentuckys Mississippi border Article on life in the Kentucky Bend Article on Kentucky Bend and source of its name Bubbleland Bowed Radio at the New Madrid Bend Google Maps link
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the largest drainage system on the North American continent. Flowing entirely in the United States, it rises in northern Minnesota, with its many tributaries, the Mississippis watershed drains all or parts of 31 U. S. states and 2 Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian Mountains. The Mississippi ranks as the fourth longest and fifteenth largest river in the world by discharge, the river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans long lived along the Mississippi River and its tributaries, most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies. The arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the way of life as first explorers, settlers. The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, and the early United States, and as a vital transportation artery and communications link.
Formed from thick layers of the silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile agricultural regions of the country. In recent years, the river has shown a shift towards the Atchafalaya River channel in the Delta. The word itself comes from Messipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, see below in the History section for additional information. In addition to historical traditions shown by names, there are at least two measures of a rivers identity, one being the largest branch, and the other being the longest branch. Using the largest-branch criterion, the Ohio would be the branch of the Lower Mississippi. Using the longest-branch criterion, the Middle Mississippi-Missouri-Jefferson-Beaverhead-Red Rock-Hellroaring Creek River would be the main branch and its length of at least 3,745 mi is exceeded only by the Nile, the Amazon, and perhaps the Yangtze River among the longest rivers in the world. The source of this waterway is at Browers Spring,8,800 feet above sea level in southwestern Montana and this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St.
Louis and the phrase Trans-Mississippi as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition. It is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, the New Madrid Seismic Zone along the river is noteworthy. These various basic geographical aspects of the river in turn underlie its human history and present uses of the waterway, the Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca,1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation. The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river
Battle of Island Number Ten
The Battle of Island Number Ten was an engagement at the New Madrid or Kentucky Bend on the Mississippi River during the American Civil War, lasting from February 28 to April 8,1862. The position, an island at the base of a double turn in the course of the river, was held by the Confederates from the early days of the war. It was an excellent site to impede Union efforts to invade the South by the river, as ships had to approach the island bows on, for the defenders, however, it had an innate weakness in that it depended on a single road for supplies and reinforcements. If an enemy force managed to cut that road, the garrison would be isolated, Union forces began the siege in March 1862, shortly after the Confederate Army abandoned their position at Columbus, Kentucky. Popes army moved north and soon brought siege guns to bear on New Madrid, the Confederate commander, Brig. Gen. John P. McCown, decided to evacuate the town after only one day of heavy bombardment, moving most of his troops to Island No. 10, abandoning his artillery and most of his supplies.
Two days after the fall of New Madrid, Union gunboats, over the next three weeks, the islands defenders and forces in the nearby supporting batteries were subjected to a steady bombardment by the flotilla, mostly carried out by the mortars. At the same time, the Union forces at New Madrid were digging a canal across the neck of land east of the town to bypass Island No.10. Several transports were sent to the Army of the Mississippi when the canal was finished, the USS Carondelet, under Commander Henry Walke, slipped past the island on the night of April 4,1862. This was followed by the USS Pittsburg, under Lieutenant Egbert Thompson two nights later, with the support of these two gunboats, Pope was able to move his army across the river and trap the Confederates opposite the island, who by now were trying to retreat. Outnumbered at least three to one, the Confederates realized their situation was hopeless and decided to surrender, at about the same time, the garrison on the island surrendered to Flag Officer Foote and the Union flotilla.
The Union victory marked the first time the Confederate Army lost a position on the Mississippi River in battle, the river was now open to the Union Navy as far as Fort Pillow, a short distance above Memphis. Only three weeks later, New Orleans fell to a Union fleet led by David G. Farragut, Island No.10 owed its name to the fact that it was at one time the tenth island in the Mississippi River south of its junction with the Ohio. An evanescent product of the river, it was an enlarged sandbar, roughly 1 mi long and 450 yd wide at its maximum width, more important than the island itself was the course of the river in its neighborhood. The turns are quite tight, the distance from the limit of the first turn to the northern limit of the second is only 9 mi by air. The double bend, which exists in almost the same location, is known as the New Madrid Bend. However, the area across the Mississippi River from New Madrid, Missouri on the Kentucky, the town of New Madrid, which gives the bend its name, is at the northern apex of the second turn.
The mainland behind the island on the side was connected to the town of Tiptonville, Tennessee