Louisiana (New Spain)
Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1763 to 1801 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans. Spain acquired the territory from France, which had named it La Louisiane in honor of King Louis XIV in 1682, it is sometimes known as Spanish Louisiana. The district was retroceded to France, under the terms of the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso and the Treaty of Aranjuez. In 1802, King Charles IV of Spain published a royal bill on 14 October, effecting the transfer and outlining the conditions. However, Spain agreed to continue administering the colony until French officials arrived and formalized the transfer; the ceremony was conducted at the Cabildo in New Orleans on 30 November 1803, just three weeks before the formalities of cession from France to the United States pursuant to the Louisiana Purchase. Spain was a benign absentee landlord administering it from Havana and contracting out governing to people from many nationalities as long as they swore allegiance to Spain.
During the American War of Independence, the Spanish funneled their supplies to the American revolutionists through New Orleans and the vast Louisiana territory beyond. In keeping with being absentee landlords, Spanish efforts to turn Louisiana into a Spanish colony were fruitless. For instance, while Spanish was the only language of government, the majority of the populace continued to speak French. Official business conducted at the Cabildo lapsed into French, requiring a translator on hand; when Alejandro O'Reilly re-established Spanish rule in 1769, he issued a decree on December 7, 1769, which banned the trade of Native American slaves. Although there was no movement toward abolition of the African slave trade, Spanish rule introduced a new law called coartación, which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, that of others. A group of maroons led by Jean Saint Malo resisted re-enslavement from their base in the swamps east of New Orleans between 1780 and 1784. On May 4, 1795, 57 slaves and 3 local white men were put on trial in Point Coupee.
At the end of the trial 23 slaves were hanged, 31 slaves received a sentence of flogging and hard labor, the three white men were deported, with two being sentenced to six years forced labor in Havana. Spanish colonial officials divided Luisiana into Upper Louisiana and Lower Louisiana at 36° 35' North, at about the latitude of New Madrid; this was a higher latitude than during the French administration, for whom Lower Louisiana was the area south of about 31° North or the area south of where the Arkansas River joined the Mississippi River at about 33° 46' North latitude. In 1764, French fur trading interests founded St. Louis in what was known as the Illinois Country; the Spanish referred to St. Louis as "the city of Illinois" and governed the region from St. Louis as the "District of Illinois". To establish Spanish colonies in Louisiana, the Spanish military leader Bernardo de Gálvez, governor of Louisiana at the time, recruited groups of Spanish-speaking Canary Islanders to emigrate to North America.
In 1778, several ships embarked for Louisiana with hundreds of settlers. The ships made stops in Venezuela, where half the settlers disembarked. In the end, between 2,100 and 2,736 Canarians settled near New Orleans, they settled in what is today St. Bernard Parish. However, many settlers were relocated for various reasons. Barataria suffered hurricanes in 1779 and in 1780. In 1782, a splinter group of the Canarian settlers in Saint Bernard emigrated to Valenzuela. In 1779, another ship with 500 people from Málaga; these colonists, led by Lt. Col. Francisco Bouligny, settled in New Iberia, where they intermarried with Cajun settlers. In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War and the Anglo-Spanish War, Bernardo de Gálvez recruited men from the Canarian settlements of Louisiana and Galveston to join his forces, they participated in three major military campaigns: the Baton Rouge, the Mobile, the Pensacola, which expelled the British from the Gulf Coast. In 1790 settlers of mixed Canarian and Mexican origin from Galveston settled in Galveztown, Louisiana, to escape the annual flash floods and prolonged droughts of this area.
Beginning in the 1790s, following the slave rebellion in Saint-Domingue that began in 1791, waves of refugees came to Louisiana. Over the next decade, thousands of migrants from the island landed there, including ethnic Europeans, free people of color, African slaves, some of the latter brought in by the white elites, they increased the French-speaking population in New Orleans and Louisiana, as well as the number of Africans, the slaves reinforced African culture in the city. The French established settlements in French Louisiana beginning in the 17th century; the French began exploring the region from French Canada. 1762 – As negotiations began to end the Seven Years' War, Louis XV of France secretly proposed to his cousin Charles III of Spain that France give Louisiana to Spain in the Treaty of Fontainebleau. 1763 – The Treaty of Paris ended the war, with a provision in which France ceded all territory east of the Mississippi to Britain. Spain ceded land east of the Mississippi to Britain.
1763 – George III of the United Kingdom, in the Royal P
Mississippi County, Missouri
Mississippi County is a county located in the Bootheel of the U. S. state with its eastern border formed by the Mississippi River. As of the 2010 census, the population was 14,358; the largest city and county seat is Charleston. The county was organized on February 14, 1845, was named after the Mississippi River. Mississippi County is located in what was known as "Tywappity Bottom," a vast floodplain area bordered by the Scott County Hills on the north, St. James Bayou on the south, the Mississippi River on the east, Little River on the west. In 1540, the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto penetrated to the Arkansas River and well into present-day southeastern Missouri, populated by various Native American tribes, including the Osage. Under pressure from a advancing white settlement, the Native Americans retreated westward; the area of southeastern Missouri was noted for its level swampy lowlands, subject to the seasonal flooding of the Mississippi River, which had resulted in fertile soil. By 1820 American pioneers, many migrating from the southern states, had settled most of the present counties of southeastern Missouri.
The settlers were farmers who came from Illinois and the states of the Upper South: Virginia and Tennessee. They were drawn by the fertile and cheap lands found in the area of present-day Charleston, Missouri. Cotton was cultivated through the 19th century, the planters depended on enslaved African-American workers before the Civil War and freedmen afterward. There were marked adjustments as people adjusted to the free labor market; the first American settlers reached what became Charleston in 1830. Seven years Thankful Randol sold Joseph Moore 22½ acres of land. Moore used it to lay out a plan for the city of Charleston, its original boundary was 12 blocks square - four north and south, three east and west. The Original Plat was filed on May 20, 1837; the General Assembly passed an act to incorporate the city of Charleston on March 25, 1872. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, violence increased against black Americans as the state disfranchised minority voters and enforce the Jim Crow segregation laws.
Four African Americans were lynched in Mississippi county, the second-highest number in the state and tied with Callaway County. Three of these murders took place in the county seat of Charleston; the fourth man was killed in Belmont, Missouri in 1905. Sam Fields and Robert Coleman were lynched in Charleston on July 3, 1910 for committing murder and robbery; the joint lynching was witnessed by a crowd of about 1,000. Roosevelt Grigsby was lynched in Charleston in December 1924 by a mob of 200, who accused him of attempting to rape a woman. At the turn of the 20th century, the virgin forests attracted timber barons. Following the clearing of the timber, the state assisted in the construction of levees, forming drainage districts to redevelop the land; as hundreds of miles of levees and dikes were constructed within the Little River Drainage District, thousands of acres of land were drained and "reclaimed" for agricultural use. The reclaimed land fertile due to centuries of flooding from the Mississippi River, was cultivated for cotton and wheat.
Since the late 20th century and rice have been important commodity crops and are grown on an industrial scale. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 429 square miles, of which 412 square miles is land and 17 square miles is water. Alexander County, Illinois Ballard County, Kentucky Carlisle County, Kentucky Hickman County, Kentucky Fulton County, Kentucky New Madrid County Scott County Mississippi County has borders across the river with four Kentucky counties, but it has no direct highway connection between any of them due to the mile-wide barrier of the river in this area. None of the four Kentucky counties that border Missouri has any direct highway connection with Missouri. Kentucky and Missouri are the only two U. S. states to border each other across a major river, without a direct highway connection between them. This reflects the low populations among the river counties on both sides, which are rural in character. In early 2016, Mississippi County was declared as the poorest county in Missouri.
Interstate 57 U. S. Route 60 U. S. Route 62 Route 77 Route 80 Route 105 The rural county was at its peak of population in 1940. With changes in agriculture and mechanization requiring fewer workers, the number of jobs have declined, as has county population; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,427 people, 5,383 households, 3,671 families residing in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile. There were 5,840 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 77.93% White, 20.53% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,383 households out of which 31.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 17.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 28.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.98. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 25.40% from 2
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti. The French had established themselves on the western portion of the islands of Hispaniola and Tortuga by 1659. In the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, Spain formally recognized French control of Tortuga Island and the western third of the island of Hispaniola. In 1791, the slaves and some free people of color of Saint-Domingue began waging a rebellion against French authority; the rebels became reconciled to French rule following the abolition of slavery in the colony in 1793, although this alienated the island's dominant slave-holding class. France controlled the entirety of Hispaniola from 1795 to 1802; the last French troops withdrew from the western portion of the island in late 1803, the colony declared its independence as Haiti, its indigenous name, the following year. Spain controlled the entire island of Hispaniola from the 1490s until the 17th century, when French pirates began establishing bases on the western side of the island.
The official name was La Española, meaning "The Spanish". It was called Santo Domingo or San Domingo, after Saint Dominic; the western part of Hispaniola was neglected by the Spanish authorities, French buccaneers began to settle first on the Tortuga Island on the northwest of the island: they called it le Grande Terre. Spain ceded the entire western coast of the island to France, retaining the rest of the island, including the Guava Valley, today known as the Central Plateau; the French called their portion of Hispaniola Saint-Domingue, the French equivalent of Santo Domingo. The Spanish colony on Hispaniola remained separate, became the Dominican Republic, the capital of, still named Santo Domingo; when Christopher Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana, meaning "the Spanish island" in Latin As Spain conquered new regions on the mainland of the Americas, its interest in Hispaniola waned, the colony's population grew slowly. By the early 17th century, the island and its smaller neighbors, notably Tortuga, became regular stopping points for Caribbean pirates.
In 1606, the king of Spain ordered all inhabitants of Hispaniola to move close to Santo Domingo, to avoid interaction with pirates. Rather than secure the island, this resulted in French and Dutch pirates establishing bases on the now-abandoned north and west coasts of the island. French buccaneers established a settlement on the island of Tortuga in 1625 before going to Grande Terre. At first they survived by pirating Spanish ships, eating wild cattle and hogs, selling hides to traders of all nations. Although the Spanish destroyed the buccaneers' settlements several times, on each occasion they returned due to an abundance of natural resources: hardwood trees, wild hogs and cattle, fresh water; the settlement on Tortuga was established in 1659 under the commission of King Louis XIV. In 1665, French colonization of the islands Hispaniola and Tortuga entailed slavery-based plantation agricultural activity such as growing coffee and cattle farming, it was recognized by King Louis XIV. Spain tacitly recognized the French presence in the western third of the island in the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick.
The economy of Saint-Domingue became focused on slave-based agricultural plantations. Saint-Domingue's black population increased, they followed the example of neighboring Caribbean colonies in coercive treatment of the slaves. More cattle, slave agricultural holdings, coffee plantations and spice plantations were implemented, as well as fishing, cultivation of cocoa and snuff. Saint-Domingue came to overshadow the previous colony in both wealth and population. Nicknamed the "Pearl of the Antilles," Saint-Domingue became the richest and most prosperous French colony in the West Indies, cementing its status as an important port in the Americas for goods and products flowing to and from France and Europe. Thus, the income and the taxes from slave-based sugar production became a major source of the French budget. Among the first buccaneers was Bertrand D'Ogeron, who played a big part in the settlement of Saint-Domingue, he encouraged the planting of tobacco, which turned a population of buccaneers and freebooters, who had not acquiesced to royal authority until 1660, into a sedentary population.
D'Orgeron attracted many colonists from Martinique and Guadeloupe, including Jean Roy, Jean Hebert and his family, Guillaume Barre and his family, who were driven out by the land pressure, generated by the extension of the sugar plantations in those colonies. But in 1670, shortly after Cap-Français had been established, the crisis of tobacco intervened and a great number of places were abandoned; the rows of freebooting grew bigger. The first sugar windmill was built in 1685. On 22 July 1795, Spain ceded to France the remaining Spanish part of the island of Hispaniola, Santo Domingo, in the second Treaty of Basel, ending the War of the Pyrenees; the people of the eastern part of Saint-Domingue were opposed to the arrangements and hostile toward the French. The isla
The Louisiana Purchase was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory of New France by the United States from France in 1803. The U. S. paid fifty million francs and a cancellation of debts worth eighteen million francs for a total of sixty-eight million francs. The Louisiana territory included land from fifteen present U. S. states and two Canadian provinces. The territory contained land that forms Arkansas, Iowa, Oklahoma and Nebraska, its non-native population was around 60,000 inhabitants. The Kingdom of France controlled the Louisiana territory from 1699 until it was ceded to Spain in 1762. In 1800, Napoleon the First Consul of the French Republic, hoping to re-establish an empire in North America, regained ownership of Louisiana. However, France's failure to put down the revolt in Saint-Domingue, coupled with the prospect of renewed warfare with the United Kingdom, prompted Napoleon to sell Louisiana to the United States to fund his military; the Americans sought to purchase only the port city of New Orleans and its adjacent coastal lands, but accepted the bargain.
The Louisiana Purchase occurred during the term of the third President of the United States, Thomas Jefferson. Before the purchase was finalized, the decision faced Federalist Party opposition. Jefferson agreed that the U. S. Constitution did not contain explicit provisions for acquiring territory, but he asserted that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties was sufficient. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, Louisiana was a pawn on the chessboard of European politics, it was controlled by the French, who had a few small settlements along the Mississippi and other main rivers. France ceded the territory to Spain in the secret Treaty of Fontainebleau. Following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, Spain gained control of the territory west of the Mississippi and the British the territory to the east of the river. Following the establishment of the United States, the Americans controlled the area east of the Mississippi and north of New Orleans; the main issue for the Americans was free transit of the Mississippi to the sea.
As the lands were being settled by a few American migrants, many Americans, including Jefferson, assumed that the territory would be acquired "piece by piece." The risk of another power taking it from a weakened Spain made a "profound reconsideration" of this policy necessary. New Orleans was important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the areas of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains. Pinckney's Treaty, signed with Spain on October 27, 1795, gave American merchants "right of deposit" in New Orleans, granting them use of the port to store goods for export. Americans used this right to transport products such as flour, pork, lard, cider and cheese; the treaty recognized American rights to navigate the entire Mississippi, which had become vital to the growing trade of the western territories. In 1798, Spain revoked the treaty allowing American use of New Orleans upsetting Americans. In 1801, Spanish Governor Don Juan Manuel de Salcedo took over from the Marquess of Casa Calvo, restored the American right to deposit goods.
However, in 1800 Spain had ceded the Louisiana territory back to France as part of Napoleon's secret Third Treaty of San Ildefonso. The territory nominally remained under Spanish control, until a transfer of power to France on November 30, 1803, just three weeks before the formal cession of the territory to the United States on December 20, 1803. A further ceremony was held in Upper Louisiana regarding the New Orleans formalities; the March 9–10, 1804 event is remembered as Three Flags Day. James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston had traveled to Paris to negotiate the purchase of New Orleans in January 1803, their instructions were to purchase control of New Orleans and its environs. The Louisiana Purchase was by far the largest territorial gain in U. S. history. Stretching from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, the purchase doubled the size of the United States. Before 1803, Louisiana had been under Spanish control for forty years. Although Spain aided the rebels in the American Revolutionary War, the Spanish didn't want the Americans to settle in their territory.
Although the purchase was thought of by some as unjust and unconstitutional, Jefferson determined that his constitutional power to negotiate treaties allowed the purchase of what became fifteen states. In hindsight, the Louisiana Purchase could be considered one of his greatest contributions to the United States. On April 18, 1802, Jefferson penned a letter to United States Ambassador to France Robert Livingston, it was an intentional exhortation to make this mild diplomat warn the French of their perilous course. The letter began: The cession of Louisiana and the Floridas by Spain to France works most sorely on the U. S. On this subject the Secretary of State has written to you fully, yet I cannot forbear recurring to it s
Missouri's 8th congressional district
Missouri's 8th Congressional District is one of 435 congressional districts in the United States and one of eight congressional districts in the state of Missouri. The district encompasses rural Southeast Missouri and South Central Missouri as well as some counties in Southwest Missouri; the district stretches from the Bootheel in the south to the St. Louis southern exurbs of Festus and surrounding areas in the Lead Belt; the district's largest city is Cape Girardeau. A predominantly rural district, the district votes Republican for national offices. In 2004, President George W. Bush received 63% of the vote in the district over U. S. Senator John Kerry who clinched 36%. In 2008, U. S. Senator John McCain carried the district with 61.92% over U. S. Senator Barack Obama, who received 36.42%. The district increased the margin for Republicans in 2012 when former Governor Mitt Romney gained 65.88% of the vote over President Barack Obama's 31.99%. The district swung towards Republican Donald Trump in the 2016 Election.
Mr. Trump garnered 75.4% of the vote, Democratic Nominee Hillary Clinton received just 21.0% of the vote, making it one of the most Republican Congressional Districts in the United States. Jason T. Smith, a Republican, has represented the district in the U. S. Congress since winning a special election on June 4, 2013; the incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Jo Ann Emerson resigned on January 22, 2013 to take a position as CEO for the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Missouri lost one of its nine congressional district seats following redistricting based on population numbers from the 2010 U. S. Census; the Republican-controlled state legislature decided to redefine Missouri's 3rd Congressional District, represented by U. S. Representative Russ Carnahan; the district included all of Ste. Genevieve and Jefferson counties and southern St. Louis County and the neighborhoods making up what is known as South City of St. Louis. Missouri’s 8th Congressional District lost its Taney County parts (which were redistricted to the Southwestern-based 7th Congressional District, picked up all of Crawford and Ste.
Genevieve counties, most of the southern and western rural parts of Jefferson County. Parts of Jefferson County that are now included in Missouri’s 8th include all of the cities of Hillsboro and De Soto, the extreme southern portions of the Twin Cities of Festus and Crystal City. Missouri's 8th is a diverse congressional district. Although it is quite conservative and Republican-leaning at the federal level, Democrats perform well here in local and state elections. Bill Clinton, a Democrat from neighboring Arkansas, carried the previous 8th District both times in 1992 and 1996. At the local level, Democrats control a slight majority of elected county offices in Southeast Missouri. In presidential elections, Democratic candidates perform best in the Bootheel, an agricultural area, the most impoverished region in the district, it has a wide majority of whites and a significant minority of African Americans. Democrats do well in the Lead Belt region, which contains a core constituency of voters who belong to labor unions in the mining industry.
The district takes in a large swath of the Bible Belt with evangelical Protestantism being the dominant religion in most counties in the district. This influence is demonstrated in conservative voters' positions on social issues such as abortion, gay rights and gun control. Racially, this district is predominately white. Many voters here maintain a rural lifestyle where agriculture and farming are the backbone of the economy and are important issues of concern. Socioeconomically, it is the poorest district in Missouri. There are 30 counties included in the district; these numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District. These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District; these numbers reflect only the western and southern sections of Jefferson County that are included in the 8th Congressional District. These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District at the time of the Missouri Democratic Presidential Primary on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008.
These numbers reflect only the eastern sections of Taney County that were included in the 8th Congressional District at the time of the Missouri Republican Presidential Primary on Super Tuesday, February 5, 2008. The 10 largest cities in the district are as follows. Southeast Missouri State University - Cape Girardeau Southeast Missouri State University-Kennett Southeast Missouri State University-Malden Perryville Area Higher Education Center - Perryville Sikeston Area Higher Education Center - Sikeston Southeast Missouri Hospital College of Nursing Missouri University of Science and Technology - Rolla Missouri State University - Springfield - Located in Missouri's 7th congressional district Missouri State University-Mountain Grove Missouri State University-West Plains (Satellite
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (