Confederate States of America
The Confederate States, officially the Confederate States of America, commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was a breakaway country of 11 secessionist slave states existing from 1861 to 1865. It was never recognized as an Independent country, although it achieved belligerent status by Britain. A new Confederate government was established in February 1861 before Lincoln took office in March, after the Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The government of the United States rejected the claims of secession, the Civil War began with the April 12,1861, Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. In spring 1865, after four years of fighting which led to an estimated 620,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered. Jefferson Davis lamented that the Confederacy had disappeared in 1865, Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions from those states, while the legitimate governments of those two states retained formal adherence to the Union.
Also fighting for the Confederacy were two of the Five Civilized Tribes located in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona. Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of law, while Delaware, though of divided loyalty. A Unionist government in parts of Virginia organized the new state of West Virginia. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1,1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal, as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers, the most notable advance was Shermans March to the Sea in late 1864. Much of the Confederacys infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs, plantations in the path of Shermans forces were severely damaged. Internal movement became increasingly difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance.
Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Daviss administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, after four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. Shortly afterward, Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant, President Davis was captured on May 10,1865, and jailed in preparation for a treason trial that was ultimately never held. The U. S. government began a process known as Reconstruction which attempted to resolve the political and constitutional issues of the Civil War. By 1877, the Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction in the former Confederate states, Confederate veterans had been temporarily disenfranchised by Reconstruction policy. The prewar South had many areas, the war left the entire region economically devastated by military action, ruined infrastructure
American Civil War
The American Civil War was an internal conflict fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. The Union faced secessionists in eleven Southern states grouped together as the Confederate States of America, the Union won the war, which remains the bloodiest in U. S. history. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, War broke out in April 1861 when Confederates attacked the U. S. fortress of Fort Sumter. The Confederacy grew to eleven states, it claimed two more states, the Indian Territory, and the southern portions of the western territories of Arizona. The Confederacy was never recognized by the United States government nor by any foreign country. The states that remained loyal, including border states where slavery was legal, were known as the Union or the North, the war ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies and the dissolution of the Confederate government in the spring of 1865. The war had its origin in the issue of slavery. The Confederacy collapsed and 4 million slaves were freed, but before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies formed the Confederacy.
The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, the first seven with state legislatures to resolve for secession included split majorities for unionists Douglas and Bell in Georgia with 51% and Louisiana with 55%. Alabama had voted 46% for those unionists, Mississippi with 40%, Florida with 38%, Texas with 25%, of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession, outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincolns March 4,1861 inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war, speaking directly to the Southern States, he reaffirmed, I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists. I believe I have no right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so. After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed, the Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on King Cotton that they would intervene, but none did, and none recognized the new Confederate States of America.
Hostilities began on April 12,1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, while in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive in 1861–62. The autumn 1862 Confederate campaigns into Maryland and Kentucky failed, dissuading British intervention, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy, much of their western armies, the 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lees Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg, Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grants command of all Union armies in 1864
New Mexico is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States of America. It was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6,1912 and it is usually considered one of the Mountain States. New Mexico is fifth by area, the 36th-most populous, inhabited by Native Americans for thousands of years before European exploration, New Mexico was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. Later, it was part of independent Mexico before becoming a U. S. territory and eventually a U. S. state as a result of the Mexican–American War. Among U. S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanics, the major Native American nations in the state are Navajo and Apache peoples. The demography and culture of the state are shaped by these strong Hispanic and Native American influences and its scarlet and gold colors are taken from the royal standards of Spain, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Pueblo-related tribe. New Mexico, or Nuevo México in Spanish, is incorrectly believed to have taken its name from the nation of Mexico.
The name simply stuck, even though the area had no connection to Mexico or the Mexica Indian tribes, formerly a part of New Spain, adopted its name centuries in 1821, after winning independence from Spanish rule. New Mexico was a part of the independent Mexican Empire and Federal Republic of Mexico for 27 years,1821 through 1848, New Mexico and Mexico developed as neighboring Spanish-speaking communities under Spanish rule, with relatively independent histories. The states total area is 121,412 square miles, the eastern border of New Mexico lies along 103° W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, and 2.2 miles west of 103° W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, the western border with Arizona runs along the 109°03 W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel, the 37° N latitude parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in the corner of New Mexico.
New Mexico, although a state, has very little water. Its surface water area is about 250 square miles, the New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. Despite New Mexicos arid image, heavily forested mountain wildernesses cover a significant portion of the state, the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, the southernmost part of the Rocky Mountains, run roughly north-south along the east side of the Rio Grande in the rugged, pastoral north. The most important of New Mexicos rivers are the Rio Grande, Canadian, San Juan, the Rio Grande is tied for the fourth-longest river in the United States. Tourists visiting these sites bring significant money to the state, other areas of geographical and scenic interest include Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument and the Gila Wilderness in the southwest of the state
Union (American Civil War)
The Union was opposed by 11 southern slave states that formed the Confederate States, or the Confederacy. All of the Unions states provided soldiers for the U. S. Army, the Border states played a major role as a supply base for the Union invasion of the Confederacy. The Northeast provided the resources for a mechanized war producing large quantities of munitions and supplies. The Midwest provided soldiers, horses, financial support, Army hospitals were set up across the Union. Most states had Republican governors who energetically supported the war effort, the Democratic Party strongly supported the war in 1861 but in 1862 was split between the War Democrats and the anti-war element led by the Copperheads. The Democrats made major gains in 1862 in state elections. They lost ground in 1863, especially in Ohio, in 1864 the Republicans campaigned under the National Union Party banner, which attracted many War Democrats and soldiers and scored a landslide victory for Lincoln and his entire ticket.
The war years were quite prosperous except where serious fighting and guerrilla warfare took place along the southern border, prosperity was stimulated by heavy government spending and the creation of an entirely new national banking system. The Union states invested a great deal of money and effort in organizing psychological and social support for soldiers wives, widows and for the soldiers themselves. Most soldiers were volunteers, although after 1862 many volunteered to escape the draft, Draft resistance was notable in some larger cities, especially New York City with its massive anti-draft riots of 1863 and in some remote districts such as the coal mining areas of Pennsylvania. In the context of the American Civil War, the Union is sometimes referred to as the North and now, as opposed to the Confederacy, which was the South. The Union never recognized the legitimacy of the Confederacys secession and maintained at all times that it remained entirely a part of the United States of America, in foreign affairs the Union was the only side recognized by all other nations, none of which officially recognized the Confederate government.
The term Union occurs in the first governing document of the United States, the subsequent Constitution of 1787 was issued and ratified in the name not of the states, but of We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union. Union, for the United States of America, is repeated in such clauses as the Admission to the Union clause in Article IV. Even before the war started, the preserve the Union was commonplace. Using the term Union to apply to the non-secessionist side carried a connotation of legitimacy as the continuation of the political entity. In comparison to the Confederacy, the Union had a large industrialized and urbanized area, the Union states had a manpower advantage of 5 to 2 at the start of the war. Year by year, the Confederacy shrank and lost control of increasing quantities of resources, the Union turned its growing potential advantage into a much stronger military force
History of Minnesota
Minnesota achieved prominence through fur trading and farming, and through railroads, and iron mining. While those industries remain important, the economy is now driven by banking, computers. The earliest known settlers followed herds of game to the region during the last glacial period. They preceded the Anishinaabe, the Dakota, and other Native American inhabitants, fur traders from France arrived during the 17th century. Europeans moving west during the 19th century, drove out most of the Native Americans, Fort Snelling, built to protect United States territorial interests, brought early settlers to the area. Early settlers used Saint Anthony Falls for powering sawmills in the area that became Minneapolis, Minnesota gained legal existence as the Minnesota Territory in 1849, and became the 32nd U. S. state on May 11,1858. After the upheaval of the American Civil War and the Dakota War of 1862, railroads attracted immigrants, established the farm economy, and brought goods to market. The power provided by St.
Anthony Falls spurred the growth of Minneapolis, New industry came from iron ore, discovered in the north, mined relatively easily from open pits, and shipped to Great Lakes steel mills from the ports at Duluth and Two Harbors. Economic development and social changes led to a role for state government. The Great Depression brought layoffs in mining and tension in labor relations, after World War II, Minnesota became known for technology, fueled by early computer companies Sperry Rand, Control Data and Cray. The Twin Cities became a center for the arts with cultural institutions such as the Guthrie Theater, Minnesota Orchestra. The oldest known human remains in Minnesota, dating back about 9000 years ago, were discovered near Browns Valley in 1933, Browns Valley Man was found with tools of the Clovis and Folsom types. Some of the earliest evidence of a presence in the area comes from a site known as Bradbury Brook near Mille Lacs Lake which was used around 7500 BC. Subsequently, extensive trading networks developed in the region, the body of an early resident known as Minnesota Woman was discovered in 1931 in Otter Tail County.
Radiocarbon dating places the age of the bones approximately 8,000 years ago and she had a conch shell from a snail species known as Busycon perversa, which had previously only been known to exist in Florida. Several hundred years later, the climate of Minnesota warmed significantly, as large animals such as mammoths became extinct, native people changed their diet. They gathered nuts and vegetables, and they hunted animals such as deer, bison. The stone tools found from this era became smaller and more specialized to use these new food sources and they devised new techniques for catching fish, such as fish hooks and harpoons
The Gila River is a 649-mile tributary of the Colorado River flowing through New Mexico and Arizona in the United States. The river drains a watershed of nearly 60,000 square miles that lies mainly within the U. S. but extends into northern Sonora. Indigenous peoples have lived along the river for at least 2,000 years, Euro-Americans did not permanently settle the Gila River watershed until the mid-19th century. The historic natural discharge of the river is around 1900 cfs and these engineering projects have transformed much of the river valley and its surrounds from arid desert to irrigated land, and supply water to over five million people that live in the watershed. The Gila River has its source in western New Mexico, in Sierra County on the slopes of Continental Divide in the Black Range. It flows southwest through the Gila National Forest and the Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, westward into Arizona, past the town of Safford. After flowing along the slope of the Gila Mountains in Graham County through a series of canyons.
It emerges from the mountains into the valley southeast of Phoenix, well west of Phoenix, the river bends sharply southward along the Gila Bend Mountains, it swings westward again near the town of Gila Bend. It flows southwestward between the Gila Mountains to the south and the Languna and Muggins ranges to the north in Yuma County, and finally it empties into the Colorado at Yuma, Arizona. The Gila is joined by tributaries, beginning with the East and West Forks of the river. Above Safford, it is joined by the San Francisco River, further downstream it is joined by the San Carlos River from the north in San Carlos Lake. At Winkelman, Arizona it picks up the San Pedro River, the Salt River, its main tributary, joins in the Phoenix metro area, and further west the Gila receives its last two major tributaries, the Agua Fria and Hassayampa Rivers, from the north. Although the Gila River flows entirely within the United States, the headwaters of two tributaries – the San Pedro and Santa Cruz Rivers – extend into Mexico, about 1,630 sq mi, or 2.
8% of the Gilas 58, 200-square-mile watershed, is in Mexico. A further 3,300 sq mi or 5. 7% lies within New Mexico, a band of Pima, the Keli Akimel Oodham, have lived on the banks of the Gila River since before the arrival of Spanish explorers. Popular theory says that the word Gila was derived from a Spanish contraction of Hah-quah-sa-eel and their traditional way of life was and is centered at the river, which is considered holy. Traditionally, sand from the banks of the river is used as an exfoliant when bathing, indigenous peoples such as the Hohokam and were responsible for creating large, complex civilizations along the Middle Gila River and Salt River between 600 and 1450 A. D. These native civilizations depended largely on irrigated agriculture, for the purposes of which they constructed over 200 miles of canals. The upper Gila was inhabited by the Mogollon culture over most of the time period
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western United States and the Mountain West states and it is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix, Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Nevada and Mexico, Arizonas border with Mexico is 389 miles long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the states to be admitted to the Union. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, after being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase, Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, in addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona, the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the Oodham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area, There is a misconception that the states name originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona. See lists of counties, rivers, state parks, national parks, Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico, of the states 113,998 square miles, approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land, Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the states southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This regions topography was shaped by volcanism, followed by the cooling-off. Its climate has hot summers and mild winters. The state is well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau.
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains, despite the states aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany. The worlds largest stand of pine trees is in Arizona
Ohio in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, the State of Ohio played a key role in providing troops, military officers, and supplies to the Union army. Due to its location in the Northern United States and burgeoning population. Despite the states boasting a number of very powerful Republican politicians, portions of Southern Ohio followed the Peace Democrats and openly opposed President Abraham Lincolns policies. Ohio played an important part in the Underground Railroad prior to the war, several leading generals were from Ohio, including Ulysses S. Grant, William T. Sherman, and Philip H. Sheridan. Five Ohio-born Civil War officers would serve as the President of the United States. The Fighting McCooks gained fame as the largest immediate family ever to become officers in the U. S. Army. The state was spared many of the horrors of war as two minor battles were fought within its borders. Morgans Raid in the summer of 1863 spread terror among the populace, Ohio troops fought in nearly every major campaign during the war.
Nearly 7,000 Buckeye soldiers were killed in action and its most significant Civil War site is Johnsons Island, located in Sandusky Bay of Lake Erie. Barracks and outbuildings were constructed for a prisoner of war depot, over three years more than 15,000 Confederate men were held there. The island includes a Confederate cemetery where about 300 men were buried, much of southern Ohios economy depended upon trade with the South across the Ohio River, which had served for years as passage and a link with the slave states of Virginia and Kentucky. Most of the population was solidly against secession and in favor of a strong central government. During the 1860 Presidential Election, Ohio voted in favor of Abraham Lincoln over Stephen Douglas and Governor Salmon P. Chase as Secretary of the Treasury. Prominent Ohio politicians in Congress included Senators John Sherman and Benjamin F. Wade, during the war, three men would serve as Governor of Ohio– William Dennison, David Tod and John Brough. Without being asked by the War Department, Dennison sent Ohio troops into western Virginia, the convention led to the admission of West Virginia as a free state.
Tod became known as the friend, for his determined efforts to help equip. He was noted for his response in calling out the state militia to battle Confederate raiders. Through the middle of the war, the Copperhead movement had appeal in Ohio, driven in part by noted states rights advocate, Congressman Clement Vallandigham, after General Ambrose E. Burnside ordered his arrest and took Vallandigham to Cincinnati for trial
New York in the American Civil War
The state of New York during the American Civil War was a major influence in national politics, the Union war effort, and the media coverage of the war. New York provided a key member of the Lincoln Administration, as well as several important voices on Capitol Hill. The press and media of the state, heavily concentrated in New York City, influenced not only state politics and the view on the war. Important periodicals based in New York included The New York Times, New York Tribune, Harpers Weekly, Frank Leslies Illustrated Newspaper, german-born illustrator Thomas Nast was among the early political cartoonists. In the decades after the war ended, numerous memorials and monuments were erected across the Empire State to commemorate specific regiments, several archives and repositories, as well as historical societies, hold archives and collections of relics and artifacts. Upstate New York was among the leaders in the revolutions in transportation, turnpikes and railroads connected eastern cities with western markets.
New Yorks farmland was some of the most productive in the nation, the Genesee country became known as the breadbasket of the nation for its extraordinary grain production. Rapid-flowing rivers offered power for industrial sites. Following these expanding economic opportunities, people poured into upstate New York and they came from several different cultures—New England Yankees and Yorkers from eastern New York and Scots Irish from Pennsylvania, and immigrants from England and Ireland. New York provided 400, 000–460,000 men during the war, nearly 21% of all the men in the state, of the total enlistment, more than 130,000 were foreign-born, including 20,000 from British North American possessions such as Canada. 51,000 were Irish and 37,000 German, the average age of the New York soldiers was 25 years,7 months, although many younger men and boys may have lied about their age in order to enlist. By the time the Civil War ended in 1865, New York had provided the Union Army with 27 regiments of cavalry,15 regiments of artillery,8 of engineers, and 248 of infantry.
Among the more prominent military units from the state of New York was the Excelsior Brigade of controversial former congressman Daniel Sickles. Several early volunteer regiments traced their origins to antebellum New York State Militia regiments, including the 14th Brooklyn, which became known for its bright red chasseur-style pants. The first organized unit to leave the state for the front lines was the 7th New York State Militia, the 11th New York Infantry, a two-years regiment of new recruits, departed ten days later. Among the earliest casualties of the Civil War was Malta, New York, native Col. Elmer E. Ellsworth, who was killed in May 1861 during an armed encounter in Alexandria, Virginia. New York had long played an important role in the U. S. military, macDougall Hospital at Fort Schuyler would become a leading wartime military hospital, and Davids Island was a significant prisoner-of-war camp for captured Confederates. Several wealthy New York industrialists played crucial roles in supporting the war effort through materiel, ammunition, railroad impresario Cornelius Vanderbilt used his growing network of rail systems to effectively move large quantities of troops through the state to staging and training areas
Battle of Glorieta Pass
The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought from March 26 to 28,1862, in the northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War. Dubbed the Gettysburg of the West by some authors, it was intended as the blow by Confederate forces to break the Union possession of the West along the base of the Rocky Mountains. It was fought at Glorieta Pass in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in what is now New Mexico, there was a skirmish on March 26 between advance elements from each army, with the main battle occurring on March 28. Although the Confederates were able to push the Union force back through the pass, they had to retreat when their train was destroyed. Eventually, the Confederates had to withdraw entirely from the back into Confederate Arizona. Glorieta Pass thus represented the climax of the campaign, the lower portion of the New Mexico Territory had been largely neglected by both the Federal government and the territorial government in Santa Fe.
As a result, Confederate sympathy was strong, in hopes of receiving treatment by the new government. Following secession moves by residents, the Confederate troops seized Mesilla, in early 1862 the Confederacy established the Confederate Arizona Territory, which included the southern halves of both modern Arizona and New Mexico. The territial capital was at Mesilla, some 45 miles from El Paso, the strategic goals were to gain access to the gold and silver mines of California and the Colorado Territory, and the seaport ports in Southern California and thus evade the Union naval blockade. The commanders of the New Mexico Campaign were Confederate brigadier general Henry Hopkins Sibley, Sibley attempted to capture Fort Craig, completely outmaneuvering Canby at the Battle of Valverde in February and driving him back into his fort, but failing to force Canbys surrender. Sibley bypassed the fort, and advanced north through the Rio Grande Valley, Canby remained at Fort Craig, hoping to cut Sibleys logistical support from Texas and awaiting reinforcements before he dared to take the offensive.
Sibley made his headquarters at the abandoned Union storehouse at Albuquerque, control of the pass would allow the Confederates to advance onto the High Plains and make an assault on Fort Union, a Union stronghold on the route northward over Raton Pass. Sibley sent six companies under the command of Colonel Tom Green to block the eastern end of Glorieta Pass, the Confederates were led by Charles L. Pyron and William Read Scurry. During the battle on March 26, Pyron had his battalion of the 2nd Texas Mounted Rifles, four companies of the 5th Texas Mounted Rifles under Major John Shropshire, and two cannons. The Union forces were led by Colonel John P. Slough of the 1st Colorado Infantry, in the action on March 26, Chivington had three infantry companies and one mounted company of the 1st Colorado and a detachment of the 1st and 3rd U. S. Cavalry regiments. During the main battle on the 28th, Slough commanded, in person, nine companies of the 1st Colorado, a detachment from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd U. S.
Cavalry regiments, and two artillery batteries. Chivington commanded five companies of the 5th U. S. Infantry, one company from the 1st Colorado, James Hobart Fords independent company from the 2nd Colorado, and some New Mexico militiamen. Prior to the battle, Union forces performed a march from Denver, over Raton Pass, to Fort Union
Rhode Island in the American Civil War
The state of Rhode Island during the American Civil War, as with all of New England, remained loyal to the Union. Rhode Island furnished 25,236 fighting men to the Union Army, on the home front, Rhode Island, along with the other northern states, used its industrial capacity to supply the Union Army with the materials it needed to win the war. Rhode Islands continued growth and modernization led to the creation of a mass transit system. During the war, Fort Adams near Newport was used temporarily as the United States Naval Academy, in September, the Academy moved to the Atlantic House hotel in Newport and remained there for the rest of the war. In 1862 Fort Adams became the headquarters and recruit depot for the 15th U. S and this regiment, along with several others, had an organization in which the regiment had three eight company battalions. The 3rd Battalion of the 15th Infantry was organized at the fort in March 1864, the USS Rhode Island was a side-wheel steamer commissioned in 1861 for the Union Navy.
It served to intercept blockade runners in the West Indies and was a part of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron, anthony, a former governor born in Coventry, was a powerful newspaper owner and staunch advocate of the policies of President Lincoln during the Civil War. The other Senator from Rhode Island, Samuel G, Arnold of Providence, was a Republican, he served in the Union Army until 1862 when he was elected to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James F. Simmons. Rhode Islands early war governor, William Sprague, accompanied a detachment of troops in the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21,1861. He declined a commission as a general and remained in office. In 1862, he attended the Loyal War Governors Conference in Altoona, which ultimately backed Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation, after failing to be re-elected as governor, he was elected as a U. S. Senator to replace Arnold, taking office in 1863 and serving into Reconstruction, during the war, Sprague married Kate Chase, daughter of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P.
Chase. On March 4,1863, Sprague became a United States Senator was replaced as governor by prominent businessman, cozzens left office in May when he was succeeded by Governor James Y. Smith who led Rhode Island during the last two years of the war. Maj. Gen. Ambrose Burnside, an arms manufacturer, politician. He rose to command of the Army of the Potomac before his disastrous defeat at the Battle of Fredericksburg in December 1862 and he commanded the Department of the Ohio as well as the IX Corps. He star-crossed field duty ended during the Siege of Petersburg with another fiasco for which he took the blame, the Battle of the Crater. Maj. Gen. Silas Casey of East Greenwich led a division in the Army of the Potomac during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign that suffered losses at Battle of Seven Pines facing George Picketts brigade. He wrote the three-volume System of Infantry Tactics, including Infantry Tactics volumes I and II, published in August 1862 and Infantry Tactics for Colored Troops, the manuals were used by both sides during the Civil War
Texas in the American Civil War
As with those of other States, the Declaration was not recognized by the United States government at Washington. Some Texan military units fought in the Civil War east of the Mississippi River, Texas supply role lasted until mid-1863, after which time Union gunboats controlled the Mississippi River, making large transfers of men, horses or cattle impossible. Some cotton was sold in Mexico, but most of the crop became useless because of the Union naval blockade of Galveston, Houston, in the late winter of 1860, Texan counties sent delegates to a special convention to debate the merits of secession. The convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession by a vote of 166 to 8, separately from the Ordinance of Secession, which was considered a legal document, Texas issued a declaration of causes spelling out the rationale for declaring secession. It accuses northern politicians and abolitionists of committing a variety of outrages upon Texans, the bulk of the document offers justifications for slavery and white supremacy, saying that remaining a part of the United States would jeopardize the security of the two.
By February 1861, the six states of the sub-region had separately passed ordinances of secession. However, events in Texas were delayed, largely due to the resistance of Southern Unionist governor, in early December 1860, before South Carolina even seceded, a group of State officials published via newspaper a call for a statewide election of convention delegates on January 8,1861. This election was irregular, even for the standards of the day. It often relied on voice vote at meetings, although viva voce voting for popular elections had been used since at least March 1846. Unionists were often discouraged from attending or chose not to participate and this resulted in lopsided representation of secessionists delegates. The election call had stipulated for the delegates to assemble in convention on January 28, Houston called the Legislature into session, hoping that the elected body would declare the unauthorized convention illegal. On January 21,1861, the Legislature met in Austin and was addressed by Houston, calling Lincolns election unfortunate, he nonetheless emphasized, in a reference to the upcoming meeting of the secession convention, it was no justification for rash action.
However, the Texas Legislature voted the delegates expense money and supplies and—over Houstons veto—made a pledge to uphold the legality of the Conventions actions, the only stipulation was that the people of Texas have the final say in referendum. The following day, convention president Oran Roberts introduced a resolution suggesting Texas leave the Union. S, Federal government and the U. S. Constitution. In the interests of historical significance and posterity, the ordinance was written to take effect on March 2, the date of Texas Declaration of Independence. On February 1, members of the Legislature, and a crowd of private citizens, packed the House galleries. Seventy yea votes were recorded there was a single nay. One of the votes is enshrined in Texas history books