Secrets of a Soul
Secrets of a Soul is a 1926 silent German drama film directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst. As with other Pabst films of the late 1920s, it reflects the style and themes of the New Objectivity movement; the sets were designed by the art director Ernö Metzner. Werner Krauss as Martin Fellman Ruth Weyher as Seine Frau Ilka Grüning as Die Mutter Jack Trevor as Erich Pavel Pavlov as Dr. Orth Hertha von Walther as Fellmans Assistentin Renate Brausewetter as Dienstmädchen Colin Ross as Kriminalkommissar Lili Damita Secrets of a Soul on IMDb
Westfront 1918 is a German war film, set in the trenches of the Western Front during World War I. It was directed in 1930 by Georg Wilhelm Pabst, from the novel Vier von der Infanterie by Ernst Johannsen and shows the effect of the war on a group of infantrymen, it has an ensemble cast led by screen veterans Fritz Gustav Diessl. The film bears a resemblance to its close contemporary, the All Quiet on the Western Front, an American production, although it has a bleaker tone, consistent with Pabst's New Objectivity work through the late 1920s, it was pioneering in its early use of sound—it was Pabst's first "talkie"—in that Pabst managed to record live audio during complex tracking shots through the trenches. Westfront 1918 was a critical success when it was released, although it was shown in truncated form. With the rise of National Socialism, the German authorities judged the film to be unsuitable for the public for its obvious pacifism and for its denunciation of war, which propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels labelled as "cowardly defeatism".
Some shots from the film were used for scene-setting purposes in a 1937 BBC Television adaptation of the play Journey's End. France 1918; the student falls in love with Yvette. Back at the front, the four suffer again the everyday hardships of war; the Bavarian and the lieutenant become trapped when part of the trench collapses and the student digs them out. They are mistakenly fired upon by their artillery due to a misjudgement of distance and are again saved by the student, who as a messenger risks his life to relay instructions to the soldiers setting the firing range of the artillery. Karl receives leave, returning to his starving home town and promptly catches his wife in bed with a butcher. Embittered and unreconciled, he returns to the front. In his absence, the student is stabbed in a melee. An offensive by the Allies begins, supported by tanks, a mass of French infantry breaks through the thin German lines. During the defensive battle against the French and the Bavarian are wounded, covering the remaining members of the group.
The lieutenant falls into insanity. Shouting "Hurrah" non-stop, he salutes a pile of corpses, he is admitted to the field hospital together with the Bavarian. While the lieutenant is being carried though the hospital, many injured soldiers can be seen. In a fever, Karl sees his wife again and dies with the words "We are all to blame!". He is covered up. A wounded Frenchman lying beside him takes the hand in his and says "comrades, not enemies"; the final message "End" is displayed with a question mark. Fritz Kampers as The Bavarian Gustav Diessl as Karl Hans-Joachim Moebis as The Student Claus Clausen as The Lieutenant Jackie Monnier as Yvette Hanna Hoessrich as Karl's Wife Else Heller as Karl's Mother Carl Ballhaus as Journeyman butcher Wladimir Sokoloff as Purser The contemporary reviews were very positive, according to film scholar Jan-Christopher Horak in a video interview accompanying the Criterion Collection release package. More recent reviews of the film, though positive, are more subdued.
The review aggregator rotten tomatoes records 9/9 positive professional reviews, with the average score 7.9/10. Walter Goodman, in his review in the New York Times on 22 Nov 1987, compares the film unfavorably to Lewis Milestone's All Quiet in the Westfront, stating: " isn't nearly as moving as"All Quiet," it has a power of its own... Pabst is good at giving a gritty documentary quality to the battle scenes; the movie is weaker when it focuses on individual soldiers.... The truth of the movie is all in the trenches." J. Hoberman reviews the film positively in The Village Voice on 10 May 2005, "The always protean Pabst made a brilliant adjustment to sound." Additionally, there are comments on the film in the film criticism literature. The following are selections from four different sources. Apart from anything, everything I saw in the winter, a sound film these days was my most felt: because he exposes the face of war for non-participants in the rudest; the impression drowned months. One should perform every New Year's Day, once each year beginning.
What are plays "? The urge to truthful reproduction of horror that prevails here outgrown two scenes almost exceed the limit of the expressible. One: a single battle ends with an infantryman is nipped in the swamp in front of everyone; the other is the front military hospital in the church with the maimed and doctors who can operate their craft farther from exhaustion. It is as if medieval torture pictures come to life ". Western Front 1918 "is the only war denunciatory film, which denied any complacency of the army - in this respect it is a cleaner work than that of Milestone "; the War: "Westfront 1918"...refuses...nor the mo
The Love of Jeanne Ney
The Love of Jeanne Ney is a 1927 silent German drama film directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst from a Soviet novel by Ilya Ehrenburg. Jeanne is the daughter of a French diplomat and political observer; the family is based in Russia during the post-revolutionary civil war. Her father is set up by the scheming Khalibiev, who sells him a list of Bolshevik agents that includes Jeanne's lover, Andreas Labov; the information is leaked by Alfred's Chinese servant. Andreas and another communist demand the list, he tries to shoot them and Andreas' colleague shoots him dead. Andreas has blood on his head from a near miss; the revolutionary army about to storm the city. Andreas warns Jeanne as the Red Army will soon occupy the town, she escapes with the help of an senior communist, who's become smitten with her. Jeanne flees to Paris, followed by Andreas, she takes a job as a private detective. Khalibiev sets about seducing Raymond's blind daughter, Gabrielle, in order to marry her, murder her and run away with a flapper he meets at a bar.
The latter girl balks and warns Gabrielle and Raymond, who has meanwhile been searching for a stolen diamond with a $50,000 reward. The diamond turns out to have been swallowed by a shiny-object-loving parrot. Raymond tries to force himself on Jeanne; that night Khalibiev sneaks in, strangles him, steals the diamond. He frames Andreas by letting the blind Gabrielle grab his coat while he flees the scenes of the crime and dropping a wallet with Andreas's photo. Andreas is caught delivering money for the communist party in France, which makes him look all the more suspicious. Jeanne thinks to use Khalibiev as an alibi, as he saw her leaving the building with Andreas, without realizing he is the murderer, they travel by train with the apparent intention of clearing Andreas, but Khalibiev makes sexual advances to her. When she screams he attempts to silence her with his handkerchief, forgetting he has wrapped the stolen diamond in it, she realizes. He is arrested, Andreas is freed. Édith Jéhanne as Jeanne Ney Uno Henning as Andreas Labov Fritz Rasp as Khalibiev Brigitte Helm as Gabrielle Adolf E. Licho as Raymond Ney Eugen Jensen as André Ney Hans Jaray as Poitras Sig Arno as Gaston Hertha von Walther as Margot Vladimir Sokoloff as Zacharkiewicz Jack Trevor Mammey Terja-Basa Josefine Dora Heinrich Gotho Margarete Kupfer Robert Scholz J. Hoberman lists The Love of Jeanne Ney among "the culminating works of silent cinema" as "an ambitious attempt to synthesize Soviet montage, Hollywood action-melodrama, German mise-en-scène."
The Love of Jeanne Ney on IMDb
G. W. Pabst
Georg Wilhelm Pabst was an Austrian film director and screenwriter. He started as an actor and theater director, before becoming one of the most influential German-language filmmakers during the Weimar Republic. Pabst was born in Raudnitz, Austria-Hungary, the son of a railroad official. While growing up in Vienna, he studied drama at the Academy of Decorative Arts and began his career as a stage actor in Switzerland and Germany. In 1910, Pabst traveled to the United States, where he worked as an actor and director at the German Theater in New York City; when World War I began, Pabst returned to Europe, where he was interned in a prisoner-of-war camp in Brest. While imprisoned, Pabst organised a theatre group at the camp. Upon his release in 1919, he returned to Vienna, where he became director of the Neue Wiener Bühne, an avant-garde theatre. Pabst began his career as a film director at the behest of Carl Froelich who hired Pabst as an assistant director, he directed his first film, The Treasure, in 1923.
He developed a talent for "discovering" and developing the talents of actresses, including Greta Garbo, Asta Nielsen, Louise Brooks, Leni Riefenstahl. Pabst's early and most famous films concern the plight of women, including The Joyless Street with Greta Garbo and Asta Nielsen, Secrets of a Soul with Lili Damita, The Loves of Jeanne Ney with Brigitte Helm, Pandora's Box, Diary of a Lost Girl with American actress Louise Brooks, he co-directed with Arnold Fanck a mountain film entitled The White Hell of Pitz Palu starring Leni Riefenstahl. After the coming of sound, he made a trilogy of films that secured his reputation: Westfront 1918, The Threepenny Opera with Lotte Lenya, Kameradschaft. Pabst filmed three versions of Pierre Benoit's novel L'Atlantide in 1932, in German and French, titled Die Herrin von Atlantis, The Mistress of Atlantis, L'Atlantide, respectively. In 1933, Pabst directed Don Quixote, once again in German and French versions. After making A Modern Hero in the USA and Street of Shadows in France, Pabst was caught in France in 1938 whilst visiting his mother, when war was declared, was forced to return to Nazi Germany.
Under the auspices of propaganda minister, Josef Goebbels, Pabst made two films in Germany, during this period. In 1953, Pabst directed four opera productions in Italy: La forza del destino for the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino in Florence, a few weeks for the Arena di Verona Festival, a spectacular Aïda, with Maria Callas in the title role, Il trovatore and again La forza del destino. In 1955, he directed The Last Ten Days, the first post-war German feature film to feature the character of Adolf Hitler. On 29 May 1967, Pabst died in Vienna at the age of 81, he was interred at the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna. 1941, Venice Film Festival: Gold Medal of the Biennale for Best Director for his film The Comedians Max Deutsch, composer Notes Further reading Amengual, Barthélémy. G. W. Pabst. Paris, Seghers, 1966 Atwell, Lee. G. W. Pabst. Boston, Twayne Publishers, 1977 Baxter, John. "G. W. Pabst" in International Directory of Films and Filmmakers. Chicago, 1990. Pp. 376–378 Groppali, Enrico. Georg W. Pabst. Firenze, La Nuova Italia, 1983 Jacobsen, Wolfgang G.
W. Pabst. Berlin, Argen, 1997 Kagelmann and Keiner, Reinhold. "Lässig beginnt der Tod, Mensch und Tier zu ernten: Überlegungen zu Ernst Johannsens Roman Vier von der Infanterie und G. W. Pabsts Film Westfront 1918" in Johannsen, Eric. Ihre letzen Tage an der Westfront 1918. Media Net-Edition, 2014. S. 80-113. ISBN 978-3-939988-23-6 Kracauer, Siegfried. De Caligari à Hitler. Une histoire psychologique du cinéma allemand, Flammarion, 1987 Mitry, Jean. Histoire du cinéma: Art et industrie Paris, Editions Universitaires – J. P. Delarge, 1967–1980 Rentschler, Eric The Films of G. W. Pabst. An extraterritorial cinema. New Brunswick, Rutgers University Press, 1990 Pabst, Georg Wilhelm. "Servitude et grandeur de Hollywood" in Le rôle intellectuel du cinéma, Paris, SDN-Institut International de Coopération Intellectuelle, 1937. Pp. 251–255 Van den Berghe, Marc. La mémoire impossible. Westfront 1918 de G. W. Pabst. Grande Guerre, automates. Le film et sa problématique vus par la'Petite Illustration', Bruxelles, 200 G. W. Pabst Biography G. W. Pabst on IMDb G. W. Pabst at Find a Grave"The Other Eye", Filmessay on G.
W. Pabst, by Hannah Heer & Werner Schmiedel
People on Sunday
People on Sunday is a 1930 German silent drama film directed by Robert Siodmak and Edgar G. Ulmer from a screenplay by Billy Wilder; the film follows the lives of a group of residents of Berlin on a summer's day during the interwar period. Hailed as a work of genius, it is a pivotal film not only in the development of German cinema but of Hollywood. In addition to the directors and Wilder, the film features the talents of Curt Siodmak, Fred Zinnemann and Eugen Schüfftan, who had developed the Schüfftan process for Metropolis three years earlier; the film is subtitled "a film without actors" and was filmed over a succession of Sundays in the summer of 1929. The actors were amateurs whose day jobs were those that they portrayed in the film—the opening titles inform the audience that these actors have all returned to their normal jobs by the time of the film's release in February 1930, they were part of a collective of young Berliners who wrote and produced the film themselves on a shoestring budget.
This scripted, loosely observational work of New Objectivity became a surprise hit. People on Sunday is notable not only for its portrayal of daily life in Berlin shortly before Adolf Hitler became Chancellor, but as an early work by the future Hollywood writer/director Billy Wilder before he moved to the United States to escape from Hitler's Germany; the film is the directorial debut of the Siodmak Brothers. The film was co-produced by Moriz Seeler, founder of the Filmstudio 1929 production company, Seymour Nebenzal, cousin to the Siodmaks, whose father Heinrich put up the funds to make the movie; this began a thirty-year collaborative friendship between Wilder. The film opens at Bahnhof Zoo train station one Saturday morning, its opening scenes show the bustling traffic of central Berlin. The action of the movie centres on five central characters, takes place over a single weekend. Wolfgang, a handsome young man, sees a pretty woman who seems to be waiting in the street for someone who has not arrived.
He takes her for an ice cream, teases her about having been stood up, invites her to come for a picnic the following day. In the meantime, Erwin is carrying out his own day job as a taxi driver. While he is fixing the car, his depot receives a phone call from his girlfriend, who wants to know if they are going to the cinema that evening. Erwin is not keen to go. At the end of the day, Erwin returns home to find Annie moping about in their threadbare apartment; the couple bickers continually. The first row is over the pictures of movie stars in their bathroom. Annie cherishes the pictures of various actors while Erwin enjoys the photos of actresses, the couple tear up each other's pictures during the squabble. Another argument arises over whether Annie should wear the brim of her hat down. Wolfgang arrives in the middle of this argument and Annie never gets to the cinema. Instead and Wolfgang drink beer and plan to go to the countryside the following day; the next morning, the two men take a train to Nikolassee, accompanied by Christl and her friend Brigitte.
Annie stays home. The four daytrippers walk to Wannsee, along with many other Berliners, to enjoy the beaches and parks; as the four friends have a picnic, swim in the lake, play records on a portable gramophone, Wolfgang flirts with Brigitte, to the annoyance of Christl. He play-chases Brigitte into the forest, where they find a secluded spot and make love. Afterwards, the four friends take a boat-ride, during which Erwin and Wolfgang flirt with two girls who are in a rowboat; as they head back into Berlin, Brigitte suggests to Wolfgang that they meet again the following Sunday. He agrees, but Erwin reminds him afterwards that they had planned instead to attend a football match. Wolfgang's decision remains unresolved. Erwin returns home to find Annie still lying in bed waking up to realize this was the day for their excursion. Erwin angrily shows her; the final scene returns to shots of the streets of Berlin. The closing series of intertitles announces: "And on Monday...it is back to work... back to the everyday... back to the daily grind...
Four... million... wait for... the next Sunday. The end." Erwin Splettstößer as himself - The five leading actors were all amateur actors. Like his film figure, Splettstößer was a taxi driver in real life, he liked acting and appeared in small roles in two other films directed by Robert Siodmak: Abschied and Voruntersuchung. In an unfortunate accident, he died. Brigitte Borchert as herself - Like her film figure, Brigitte Borchert worked as a Gramophone seller when she was discovered for this film, it was her only film role. In 2000, Brigitte Borchert appeared in Weekend am Wannsee, a documentary film about People on Sunday. Brigitte Borchert died as a centenarian in Hamburg-Blankenese in August aged 100 years. Wolfgang von Waltershausen as himself - Wolfgang von Waltershausen came from a wealthy family in Bavaria, he was a descendant of Georg Friedrich Sartorius. Waltershausen had small roles in two other movies. During the Third Reich he worked in the mining industry, in post-war-Germany he sold books and audiocassett
Joyless Street, a film based on the novel by Hugo Bettauer and directed by Georg Wilhelm Pabst in Germany, is one of the first films of the "New Objectivity“ movement. Greta Garbo stars in her second major role; the film is described as a morality story in which the'fallen woman' suffers for her sins, while the more virtuous is rewarded. The film's sets were designed by the art directors Otto Hans Sohnle. In 1921 in a street called Melchiorgasse in the poor part of Vienna, there are only two wealthy people: the butcher Josef Geiringer and Mrs. Greifer, who runs a fashion boutique and a nightclub, patronized by wealthy Viennese. Annexed to the nightclub is Merkl Hotel, a brothel to which the women of the nightclub bring their clients; the film follows the lives of two women from the same poor neighborhood, as they try to better themselves during the period of Austrian postwar hyperinflation. They are Marie, who becomes a prostitute, Grete, who at the last moment, is saved from that fate. Marie, in love with a young banker assistant, Egon Stirner, believes him to be unfaithful, falsely accuses him of murder, all the while knowing the true identity of the murderer, from having witnessed it herself.
At the finale Else, a wife and mother, who has provided sexual favors to the butcher for meat, kills the butcher because he refuses her any more meat. The poor of the neighborhood, hearing the sounds of the nightclub, revolt against the clients by throwing stones; the nightclub burns down killing Else and her husband in the attic, but not before allowing them to ease their infant safely down from the window to the waiting poor. Only Grete seems to have any hope of leaving Melchiorgasse and this because of her relationship with an American Red Cross officer. Rotten Tomatoes reports per July 2010 that 83% of six sampled critics gave the film positive reviews and that it got a rating average of 8 out of 10. Shortly after its release, different versions of the film circulated because of censorship cuts; the Filmmuseum in Munich restored the film in 1999 to its original length. A digital version of this new film, 151 minutes in length, was produced by Austrian Filmarchiv, from which it is available.
A region 2 DVD version with documentary extras is available. Greta Garbo by Alexander Binder during the filming of Die freudlose Gasse. Joyless Street on IMDb Joyless Street is available for free download at the Internet Archive Literature on Joyless Street
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg