A subterranean river is a river that runs wholly or beneath the ground surface – one where the riverbed does not represent the surface of the Earth. It should not be confused with an aquifer which may flow like a river but is contained within a permeable layer of rock or other unconsolidated materials. Subterranean rivers may be natural, flowing through cave systems. In karst topography, rivers may disappear through continuing underground. In some cases, they may emerge into daylight further downstream; some fish and other troglobite organisms are adapted to life in subterranean lakes. The longest subterranean river in the world is located in Mexico. Subterranean rivers can be the result of covering over a river and/or diverting its flow into culverts as part of urban development. Reversing this process is known as daylighting a stream and is a visible form of river restoration. One successful example is the Cheonggyecheon in the centre of Seoul. Examples of subterranean rivers occur in mythology and literature.
There are many natural examples of subterranean rivers. Among others: In Bosnia and Herzegovina: Unac; the Cross Cave system in Loška Dolina, Slovenia includes 22 subterranean lakes The Lost River in the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia disappears underground and reappears as the Cacapon River The Mojave River in southern California flows underground in most places The Phong Nha-Kẻ Bàng National Park in Vietnam has an underground river flowing through its cave system The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River on the island of Palawan, Philippines flows underground before emerging into the West Philippine Sea The Punkva in Moravian Karst, Czech Republic underground river flowing through cave system - Punkva Caves and Macocha gorge. The Santa Fe River in northern Florida drops into a large sinkhole in O'Leno State Park and reappears in the adjacent River Rise Preserve State Park, 3 miles downstream In many cities there are natural streams which have been or built over; such man-made examples of subterranean urban streams are too numerous to list, but notable examples include: The Bièvre underneath Paris, France The Fleet and other subterranean rivers of London The Frome underneath Bristol The Hobart Rivulet in Tasmania Mill Creek in Philadelphia The Neglinnaya River, which runs through a series of tunnels underneath the central part of Moscow The Tank Stream underneath Sydney, Australia The River Team underneath the Team Valley Trading Estate, United Kingdom The Zenne underneath Brussels, following the covering of the Zenne between 1865 and 1871 Castle Frank Brook, Garrison Creek, Russell Creek, Taddle Creek, other subterranean urban streams in Toronto The Park River underneath Hartford Some fish and other troglobite organisms are adapted to life in subterranean rivers and lakes.
Greek mythology included the Styx, Acheron and Lethe as rivers within the Underworld. Dante Alighieri, in his Inferno, included the Acheron and Styx as rivers within his subterranean Hell; the river Alph, running "Through caverns measureless to man / Down to a sunless sea" is central to the poem Kubla Khan, by Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The characters in Jules Verne's A Journey to the Centre of the Earth encounter a subterranean river: "Hans was not mistaken," he said. "What you hear is the rushing of a torrent." "A torrent?" I exclaimed. "There can be no doubt. Several other novels feature subterranean rivers; the subterranean rivers of London feature in e.g. the novel Drowning Man by Michael Robotham as well as in the novel Thrones, Dominations by Dorothy L. Sayers and Jill Paton Walsh in which a character remarks: "You can bury them deep under, sir. Hamza River Abîme – A vertical shaft in karst terrain that may be deep and opens into a network of subterranean passages Karst – Topography formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks Losing stream Speleology – Science of cave and karst systems Subterranean rivers of London Subterranean rivers in Hong Kong Subterranean waterfall Underground lake
The Tequesta Native American tribe, at the time of first European contact, occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida. They had infrequent contact with Europeans and had migrated by the middle of the 18th century; the Tequesta lived in the southeastern parts of present-day Florida. They had lived in the region since the 3rd century BCE, remained for 2,000 years, having disappeared by the time that Spanish Florida was traded to the British, who established the area as part of the province of East Florida; the Tequesta tribe lived on Biscayne Bay in what is now Miami-Dade County and at least the southern half of Broward County. Their territory may have included the northern half of Broward County and southern and central Palm Beach County, they occupied the Florida Keys at times, may have had a village on Cape Sable, at the southern end of the Florida peninsula, in the 16th century. Their central town was on the north bank of the Miami River. A village had been at that site for at least 2,000 years.
The Tequesta situated their towns and camps at the mouths of rivers and streams, on inlets from the Atlantic Ocean to inland waters, on barrier islands and keys. The Tequesta were more or less dominated by the more numerous Calusa of the southwest coast of Florida; the Tequesta were allied to their immediate neighbors to the north, the Jaega. Estimates of the number of Tequesta at the time of initial European contact range from 800 to 10,000, while estimates of the number of Calusa on the southwest coast of Florida range from 2,000 to 20,000. Occupation of the Florida Keys may have swung forth between the two tribes. Although Spanish records note a Tequesta village on Cape Sable, Calusa artifacts outnumber Tequesta artifacts by four to one at its archaeological sites. On a map the Dutch cartographer Hessel Gerritsz published in 1630 in Joannes de Laet's History of the New World, the Florida peninsula is labeled "Tegesta" after the tribe. A map from the 18th century labeled the area around Biscayne Bay "Tekesta".
A 1794 map by cartographer Bernard Romans labeled this area "Tegesta". The archaeological record of the Glades culture, which included the area occupied by the Tequestas, indicates a continuous development of an indigenous ceramics tradition from about 700 BCE until after European contact; the Tequesta language may have been related to the language of the Calusas of the southwest Florida coast and the Mayaimis who lived around Lake Okeechobee in the middle of the lower Florida peninsula. There are only ten words from the languages of those tribes; the Tequesta were once thought to be related to the Taino, the Arawakan people of the Antilles, but most anthropologists now doubt this, based on archaeological information and the length of their establishment in Florida. Carl O. Sauer called the Florida Straits "one of the most marked cultural boundaries in the New World", noting that the Straits were a boundary between agricultural systems, with Florida Indians growing seed crops that originated in Mexico, while the Lucayans of the Bahamas grew root crops that originated in South America.
The linguist Julian Granberry states that the Tequesta spoke the same language as the Calusa, which his analysis relates to the Tunica language. The Tequestas did not practice any form of agriculture, they fished and gathered the fruit and roots of local plants. Most of their food came from the sea. Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda, who lived among the tribes of southern Florida for seventeen years in the 16th century, described their "common" diet as "fish and snails, whale,. According to Fontaneda, a lesser part of the diet consisted of lobster; the "fish" caught included manatees, sailfish, porpoises and small fish. Despite their local abundance, clams and conches were only a minor part of the Tequesta diet. Venison was popular. Sea turtles and their eggs were consumed during the turtles' nesting season; the Tequesta gathered many plant foods, including saw palmetto berries, sea grapes, prickly pear fruits, gopher apples, pigeon plums, palm nuts, false mastic seeds, cabbage palm, hog plum. The roots of certain plants, such as Smilax spp. and coontie, were edible when ground into flour, processed to remove toxins, made into a type of unleavened bread.
Briton Hammond, the sole survivor of an English sloop, attacked by Tequestas after grounding off Key Biscayne in 1748, reported that the Tequestas fed him boil'd corn. The Tequestas changed their habitation during the year. In particular, most of the inhabitants of the main village relocated to barrier islands or to the Florida Keys during the worst of the mosquito season, which lasted about three months. While the resources of the Biscayne Bay area and the Florida Keys allowed for a somewhat settled non-agricultural existence, they were not as rich as those of the southwest Florida coast, home of the more numerous Calusa. Briton Hammon reported that the Tequesta lived in 5 story houses. Other
Plantation is a city in Broward County, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census the population was 84,955, it is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area. The city's name comes from the previous part-owner of the land, the Everglades Plantation Company, their attempts to establish a rice plantation in the area. Before the start of the twentieth century, the area that became Plantation was part of the Everglades wetlands covered by 2–3 feet of water. In 1855, Florida state passed the Internal Improvement Act and established the Internal Improvement Trust Fund, the trustees of which act as a government agency to oversee management and development of state land. In 1897, the Interior Department submitted 2.9 million acres to the Florida Land Office. The Seminole people used the area for hunting and camping, used the nearby Pine Island Ridge as a headquarters during the second and third Seminole Wars. In 1903, Florida Governor William Sherman Jennings began an initiative to drain the Everglades.
To establish Florida's entitlement to the land, Jennings obtained a new patent for land "aggregating 2,862,280 acres." Following his election in 1905, Jennings' successor, Napoleon Bonaparte Broward appointed Jennings as general counsel of the Internal Improvement Fund and continued the initiative for complete drainage of the Everglades. Broward described the drainage as a duty of the trustees, promised to create an "Empire of the Everglades"; the first attempts to drain the Everglades began in 1906, with the building and launching of two dredges into the New River: The Okeechobee began cutting from the river's south fork, The Everglades began cutting from the north fork up to Lake Okeechobee. The first waterway opened after the drainage attempts was named The Holloway Canal, after Captain Holloway. Following a meeting at the 1908 Democratic National Convention and Jennings established a deal with Richard'Dicky' J. Bolles: The fund trustees granted Bolles 500,000 acres of overflowed state lands at $2 per acre, with an agreement for the State to use 50% of the $1 million proceeds purely for drainage and reclamation, another agreement to establish 5 main canals.
Following this, Bolles founded the Florida Fruit Lands Company, becoming the Everglades' first private developer. The Everglades Plantation Company was established in January 1909, following entry into a 2-year contract with the Internal Improvement Fund trustees by Adam A. Boggs and A. B. Sanders to create a rice plantation in the Everglades; the agreement enabled Boggs & Sanders to rent a significant amount of land around the North New River Canal, subsequently purchase the land for between $3 and $15 per acre. It was discovered that the area leased to Boggs & Sanders belonged to Dicky Bolles, as part of the 500,000 acres he had purchased. Sanders led further reclamation efforts including the digging of 60 miles of ditches. Boggs & Sanders were granted extensions to their 2-year contract, on the grounds that the land remained under water. In 1911, Bolles held a land lottery at $20–24 per acre, granting residential lots in the'Town of Progresso' to anyone purchasing farmland of five acres or more in the drainage land.
As a result, a lawsuit was brought against Bolles. In 1912, the North New River Canal opened, the Sewell Lock, the first lock in Florida, one of the oldest remaining structures in Broward County, was built on it, just outside of what is now Plantation; the new lock enabled access between the Everglades and Lake Okeechobee by water. The lawsuit against Bolles was settled in November 1913, with Bolles retaining the $1.4 million received, but prohibiting any further collection until the land was drained and surveyed. Bolles was arrested in December of that year, but was subsequently found innocent. Drainage of the land failed, with most of it reverting to the state for taxes. In the years following their original agreement, contract negotiation escalated into legal battles between the Everglades Plantation Company and the Internal Improvement Trustees; these disputes ended in the company's favor. The Trustees no longer insisted on continuation of the rice plantation attempts and, from this point, the company focused on land sales.
Broward county, was created by Florida legislature in 1915, by combining portions of Dade county and Palm Beach County. Driven by the success of the drainage projects, the Florida Land Boom took place between 1920 and 1925, seeing rapid growth in population and land sales; the boom reached its peak in the fall of 1925 and subsequently collapsed in 1926. The land boom was followed by two severe hurricanes striking the area impactin
South Bay, Florida
South Bay is a city in Palm Beach County, United States. It is the westernmost municipality in the South Florida metropolitan area; the population was 3,859 at the 2000 census. As of 2007, the population recorded by the U. S. Census Bureau was 4,506. While the current estimates place South Bay's population in the incorporated city limits at more than 4,000 people, surrounding areas increase the population figures to 54,000 people in a 25-mile radius and more than 1.4 million in a 50-mile radius. South Bay was named for its location on Lake Okeechobee; the town was incorporated in 1941. The first mayor of South Bay was Aubrey Walker, along with his brother, Haughty D. Walker, survived the great hurricane of 1928 by gathering his family members onto a barge in the canal. South Bay is located at 26°39′59″N 80°43′8″W, near the southern bank of Lake Okeechobee. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.7 square miles, including 2.7 square miles of land and 1.0 square mile of water.
The Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail runs through South Bay. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,859 people, 805 households, 644 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,425.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 935 housing units at an average density of 345.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 12.5% White, 66.93% Black or African American, 19.56% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 0.29% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 5.83% from other races, 2.44% from two or more races. There were 805 households out of which 41.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 32.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.0% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.39 and the average family size was 3.76. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.0% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 37.3% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 6.0% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 172.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 210.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,558, the median income for a family was $26,944. Males had a median income of $21,087 versus $22,321 for females; the per capita income for the city was $9,126. About 29.2% of families and 36.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 48.4% of those under age 18 and 27.4% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English made up 77.76% of all residents, while Spanish comprised 21.51%, French as a mother tongue accounted for 0.72% of the population. Two major roads, East-West State Road 80 and North-South U. S. 27 intersect in the town. Clarence E. Anthony, mayor, 1984 to 2008 City of South Bay Florida Portal style website, Business, Library and more City-Data.com Comprehensive Statistical Data and more about South Bay ePodunk Profile for South Bay
North Florida is a region of the Southern U. S. state of Florida, comprising the northernmost part of the state. It is one of Florida's three most common "directional" regions, along with South Florida and Central Florida, it includes Jacksonville and nearby localities in Northeast Florida, an interior region known as North Central Florida, the Florida Panhandle. As with many vernacular regions, North Florida does not have any designated boundaries or status, is defined differently in different sources. A 2007 study of Florida's regions by geographers Ary Lamme and Raymond K. Oldakowski found that Floridians surveyed identified "North Florida" as comprising the northernmost areas of the state, including both the peninsula and the Florida Panhandle. Additionally, two localized "directional" regions had emerged: North East Florida, representing the area around Jacksonville on the Atlantic coast, North Central Florida, comprising the central area. North Florida is one of Florida's three most common directional regions, along with Central Florida and South Florida.
The region includes smaller vernacular regions along the coast, including the Emerald Coast and the Big Bend on the Gulf Coast and the First Coast and Halifax area on the Atlantic. Lamme and Oldakowski note that the directional region is more used in the interior areas than on the coast. Enterprise Florida, the state's economic development agency, divides the state into three economic regions, used within the agency and other state and outside entities, including the Florida Department of Transportation, they identify three regions within the area identified as "North Florida" by Enterprise Florida: Northeast Florida, North Central Florida, Northwest Florida. The following regions are or within Northern Florida: Jacksonville is the largest metropolitan area in North Florida, its cities include St. Augustine, Orange Park, Fernandina Beach, this area is sometimes referred to as the First Coast. Other metropolitan areas include Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, Ocala, Crestview-Fort Walton Beach-Destin, Panama City-Lynn Haven, Palm Coast.
Important cities considered micropolitan areas include Lake Palatka. Lamme and Oldakowski's survey identifies several demographic and cultural elements that characterize North Florida and distinguish it from other areas of the state. North Floridians considered their area to be part the South and "Dixie". Additionally, residents of some parts of North Florida considered their area to be in the Bible Belt, while residents of other parts of the state did not. A popular expression of people in this region of the state goes "In Florida, the farther north you go, the farther south you are." Politically, in contrast to Central Florida, where a majority considered their part of the state moderate, South Florida, more liberal, residents of North Florida overwhelmingly considered their part of the state conservative. Lamme and Oldakowski's findings track with Barney Warf and Cynthia Waddell's studies of Florida's political geography during the 2000 Presidential election. Lamme and Oldakowski's survey found some cultural indicators that characterize North Florida.
In general, North Florida was similar to Central Florida and differed from South Florida in these measures. In North and Central Florida, American cuisine was the most popular food, in contrast to South Florida, where ethnic foods were popular. Additionally, while there was little geographical variation for most styles of music, there was regional variation for both country and Latin music. Country was popular in North and Central Florida, less so in South Florida, while Latin was less popular in North and Central Florida, more so in South Florida. Lamme and Oldakowski noted that North Florida's economy was much more diversified than Central and South Florida, where tourism was by far the most significant industry. While tourism was a significant factor in North Florida's economy in the Emerald Coast and Daytona areas, other important industries included agriculture in rural areas, education in Tallahassee and Gainesville, military and finance in Jacksonville. Major military bases in the region include the Pensacola Naval Air Station, Jacksonville Naval Air Station, Camp Blanding, Naval Station Mayport, Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center, Naval Support Activity Panama City, Blount Island Command, Eglin Air Force Base and Hurlburt Field.
Major attractions include the Big Kahuna's, Marineland of Florida, Florida State Capital, World Golf Village, Historic Pensacola Village, historic sites in St. Augustine. North Florida has a wide variety of natural attractions including the Ravine Gardens State Park, Big Lagoon State Park, Ocala National Forest, Osceola National Forest, Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve. North Florida has three major zoos, the Jacksonville Zoo and Gardens, St. Augustine Alligator Farm Zoological Park and Gulf Breeze Zoo. Major malls and shopping districts include The Avenues, Butler Plaza, Five Points, Gateway Town Center, Governor's Square, Jacksonville Landing, The Oaks Mall, Orange Park Mall, Paddock Mall, Pier Park, Regency Square, River City Marketplace, St. Johns Town Center and University Town Plaza; the following are major central business districts: Downtown Jacksonville Downtown Pensacola Downtown Tallahassee Thousands of companies are headquartered in North Florida. Among those, the following 4 are in the Fortune 1000: Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a si
Ivy Julia Cromartie Stranahan
Ivy Julia Cromartie Stranahan was an American philanthropist involved with the Seminoles of Southern Florida. She trained as a teacher but after marrying Frank Stranahan, she settled permanently in Fort Lauderdale. While there, she began supporting the rights of the Seminoles and aiding them in moving to an Indian reservation, she is associated with the Friends of the Florida Seminoles, an organisation through which she sought to support the education of Seminole children, build homes and to support themselves fully. Ivy Julia Cromartie was born in White Springs, Florida, to August and Sarah Cromartie on February 24, 1881, her father was a teacher based in Central Florida. During the development of the southern part of the state, the Cromartie family continued to move further south. During one part of her childhood, the family lived near a settlement named Owens on the Peace River around 15 miles from Arcadia, they moved onto Juno and later to Lemon City where her schooling was completed. She sought to become a teacher and trained through the summer following graduation.
She was assigned to work at the school in Fort Lauderdale. She arrived prior to the completion of the construction of the school building and stayed with a school trustee and his family for several months; the one room school opened in 1899 to serve the six families in the surrounding area. She met Frank Stranahan shortly after arriving in Fort Lauderdale, he had opened a trading post in 1893 to trade with the local Seminoles and held the local contract for mail delivery. The pair courted, after she returned to Lemon City at the end of the school year, she accepted Stranahan's proposal of marriage. After taking a trip following the wedding to visit family members, they settled back in Fort Lauderdale and built Pioneer House known as Stranahan House. Ivy taught English to the local Seminole children, as well as tutoring them in the Bible, she began involved in Seminole affairs with the local Government and became the Chair of the Indian Affairs Committee of the Florida Federation of Women's Clubs.
Although she had petitioned for a permanent Indian reservation for the Seminoles, when this was granted in 1917, it was her rival Minnie More-Wilson who received most of the credit through her Friends of the Florida Seminoles organisation. Only a year earlier, Ivy had attempted to remove More-Wilson from the Indian Affairs Committee. By 1924, the expansion of Fort Lauderdale had begun in earnest and there was pressure for the Seminoles to move to the approved area set aside as a reservation, she entered their existing camp and convinced members of the group to join her on an expedition to the Dania Reservation. Ivy arranged for the Seminoles to be paid to make the Reservation habitable, began transporting work parties to and from the location, she arranged for timber to be delivered courtesy of the Indian Commissioner at Fort Myers and by the end of the year several homes, a school and an administrative building had been built on the site and all the Seminoles had moved. She had promised. However, within ten years, this promise was broken as the Government was looking to move the Seminoles to the Brighton Reservation.
Ivy fought the order, it was revoked. She continued to work on introducing Christianity into the Seminoles and integrated them into the Southern Baptist Convention; this was following the foundation of a new Friends of the Florida Seminoles organisation, confused with the former under More-Wilson. The new version of the organisation named Ivy as Secretary-Treasurer, she would remain involved with the group for the rest of her life. Together they sought to stem the growing alcohol issue in the Seminoles by educating the women about the problems it could bring. In the 1940s, the focus had switched to ensuring the ongoing education of the children of the Seminoles; when the Friends of the Florida Seminoles, Florida Foundation Inc. was chartered in 1949 as a non-profit organisation, Ivy Julia Cromartie Stranahan was listed as President. The organisation grew; when Government support was withdrawn in 1954, Ivy and her Friends society helped the Seminoles to set themselves up as a business, allowing them to organise themselves as the Seminole Tribe of Florida, Inc. in 1957.
Ivy Julia Cromartie Stranahan at Find a Grave
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe