click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

New River (Kanawha River tributary)

The New River is a river which flows through the U. S. states of North Carolina and West Virginia before joining with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River at the town of Gauley Bridge, West Virginia. Part of the Ohio River watershed, it is about 360 miles long; the origins of the name are unclear. Possibilities include being a new river, not on the Fry-Jefferson map of Virginia, an Indian name meaning "new waters", or the surname of an early settler. Despite its name, the New River is one of the five oldest rivers in the world geologically; however this claim is disputed by the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey and the National Park Service. This low-level crossing of the Appalachians, many millions of years old, has long been a biogeographical corridor allowing numerous species of plants and animals to spread between the lowlands of the American East Coast and those of the Midwest. Portions of this corridor are now used by various railroads and highways, some segments of the river have been dammed for hydroelectric power production.

The New River Gorge is not only quite scenic, but offers numerous opportunities for white-water recreation such as rafting and kayaking. Many open ledges along the rim of the gorge offer popular views, with favorites including Hawks Nest State Park and various overlooks on lands of the New River Gorge National River; the New River Gorge and the U. S. 19 bridge crossing it are shown on the West Virginia State Quarter, minted in 2005. This ancient river begins in the mountains of North Carolina near the Tennessee state line, flows northeastward through the Blue Ridge Mountains, Great Appalachian Valley and Valley Province, the Allegheny Front in western North Carolina and Virginia, before turning and following a more northwestward course into West Virginia, where it cuts through the Appalachian Plateau to meet the Gauley River and become the Kanawha River in south-central West Virginia; the Kanawha flows into the Ohio River at Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Much of the river's course is lined with steep cliffs and rock outcrops in its gorge in West Virginia.

The New River is formed by the confluence of the South Fork New River and the North Fork New River on the Ashe County-Alleghany County line in North Carolina. It flows through Alleghany County into southwestern Virginia, passing near Galax, Virginia, it is impounded by three small dams between Galax and Ivanhoe: at Fries, by Byllesby Dam, by Buck Dam. Continuing north, the river enters Pulaski County, where it is impounded by Claytor Dam, creating Claytor Lake. North of the dam the New River accepts the Little River and passes the city of Radford, Virginia before passing through Walker Mountain via a narrow water gap. After flowing north through Giles County and the town of Narrows, the river crosses into West Virginia; the New River is impounded by Bluestone Dam, creating Bluestone Lake in Summers County, West Virginia. The Bluestone River tributary joins the New River in Bluestone Lake. Just below the dam the Greenbrier River joins the New River, which continues its northward course into the New River Gorge.

Near the end of the gorge the river flows by the town of West Virginia. A few miles northwest of Fayetteville, much of the New River's flow is diverted through the 3-mile Hawks Nest Tunnel for use in power generation; the water re-enters the river just upstream of Gauley Bridge, where the New merges with the Gauley River to form the Kanawha River. The Kanawha is a tributary of the Ohio River. Few highways cross the gorge, with the most dramatic bridge by far being the New River Gorge Bridge on U. S. 19, a steel arch bridge spanning 1,700 feet, with the roadway 876 feet above the average level of the river. This structure is the third-longest single-arch bridge in the world, is the world's twenty-third-highest vehicular bridge, the fourth highest in the Americas; the New River is considered by some geologists to be one of the oldest rivers in the world. And one of the oldest rivers in North America; the New River flows in a south-to-north course, at times cutting through the southwest-to-northeast-trending ridges and geological texture of the Appalachian Mountains, flows directly through the Appalachian Plateau, contrasting with the west-to-east flow of most other major rivers to the east and northeast in Virginia and North Carolina, on the west side of the Appalachians on the Plateau.

It may have been in its present course for at least 65 million years. In the geologic past, the New River was a much longer stream. Geologists have named it the Teays; the last advance of Pleistocene continental glacial ice buried most of this river. At that time, the waters of the New were diverted into rivers created by the glaciers. On its journey through the New River Gorge, the New River passes through an extensive geological formation. Emergent rocks, rock outcrops and coal mines are found to provide diverse habitat producing rich and abundant flora and fauna species. In the gorge, there is a 1000 feet difference in elevation between the river bottom and the adjacent plateau; the New River dissects all physiographic provinces of the Appalachian Mountains, therefore is believed to be a corridor facilitating the movement of southern plant and animal species into West Virginia. In addition to serving as a refuge for some species, New River Gorge provides a geographical barrier that limits the east-west distribution of other species.

Because the New River is so old, its habitats and wild

Mirabilis macfarlanei

Mirabilis macfarlanei is a rare species of flowering plant in the four o'clock family known by the common name MacFarlane's four o'clock. It is native to Idaho and Oregon in the United States, where it is only known from three river canyons, it is federally listed as a threatened species of the United States. This plant is a perennial herb forming rounded clumps of stems up to a meter long; the plant grows from a taproot up to 3 inches wide. It spreads via long rhizomes; the purplish stems. The inflorescence contains 3 to 7 flowers; the flower has a calyx of magenta sepals 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. The flowers are pollinated by the bumblebee species Bombus fervidus; this plant grows in the canyons of the Snake and Imnaha Rivers in western Idaho and far eastern Oregon. The sandy soil overlies talus, the steep canyon slopes are eroded; the habitat is dry and warm native grassland with some shrubs. Common grasses include bluebunch wheatgrass, sand dropseed, pine bluegrass. Other plants in the habitat include yellow alyssum, tufted evening primrose, smooth sumac, rubber rabbitbrush, hackberry.

The plant was federally listed as an endangered species in 1979. Conservation efforts and the discovery of additional populations led to a more optimistic outlook for the plant and its status was downlisted to threatened in 1996. By 2000 there were eleven populations. Based on monitoring data collected on federal lands, the total population had neither increased nor decreased by 2008, it is difficult to count or estimate the number of plants because many clumps of stems can belong to one genetic individual. This species faces a number of threats. Most all of the populations are on land, grazed by domestic cattle and sheep, trampling and predation by the animals can adversely affect the plant. Grazing still occurs in some parts of the plant's range, it grows in steeper spots that have been less impacted by grazing; the area is browsed by bighorn sheep, elk and mountain goats. The ecosystem is negatively impacted by introduced species of plants, including cheat grass, St. John's wort, field bindweed, Dalmatian toadflax, yellow starthistle.

The three-toed stem-boring weevil has been released into four o'clock habitat, infested with dalmatian toadflax to act as an agent of biological pest control against the weed. While the four o'clock survives wildfire due to its large underground rhizome, fires increase the number of non-native plants growing in the area. Insecticides may damage populations of important pollinating insects. Off-road vehicles and trampling by hikers may damage plants. Herbicide spraying has damaged populations. Insects have been noted to feed on the plant, including spittlebugs and the small moth Lithariapteryx abroniaeella. USDA Plants Profile for Mirabilis macfarlanei

Cameron Mather

Cameron George Mather is a rugby union footballer who plays in the back row. He won eleven caps for Scotland between 1999 and 2004. Cameron George Mather or "Sarge" as his teammates called him - Was born in Christchurch New Zealand, He was Educated at St Kentigern School and Auckland Grammar School before joining the University Club in Auckland upon leaving school, he had represented the Auckland Province at age level, but in 1993 chose to join the East Coast Bays Club in North Harbour. He was selected for the North Harbour representative Colts side and was an present member of the championship winning side, his successful season lead to his selection for the New Zealand colts trials, although not selected for the national side. In 1994 following another successful club and provincial season with further 7's and XV's honours Mather left New Zealand to join the Watsonians football club in Edinburgh, he went on to play over 100 games for the Edinburgh club side helping them land their first Melrose 7’s title for over 60 years in 1996 and lead them to their first Premiership title in 1998 before returning as player coach in 2006 and delivering the Scottish Cup at the first time of asking.

In 1996 Mather signed a professional contract with the Scottish Rugby Union and was placed with the Edinburgh Side. Mather qualified for Scotland through his Paternal Grandfather, George Scott Urquhart –, honoured for gallantry as a young sailor in the Great War and is buried in the grounds of Stirling Castle. In 1998 the Edinburgh side was merged with the Border Reivers to form the Edinburgh Reivers. Mather toured South Africa and Zimbabwe with the Scottish side in 1997 having won international A caps and sevens honours in Dubai and the 7’s world cup in Hong Kong earlier that season, he toured Australia in 1998 playing in 4 of the 8 touring matches scoring tries against Victoria and Queensland. He again toured South Africa in 1999 and was subsequently selected for the 1999 rugby world cup squad, winning his first cap in August 99 against Romania at Hampden Park in Glasgow. Further caps followed against Spain, Western Samoa and a quarter final against New Zealand at Murrayfield. Further 6 nations involvement followed with his championship debut against France in March 2000.

At the beginning of the 2000/01 Season Mather Joined National Division one side Leeds Tykes helping them win promotion to the premiership and scoring the club's first premiership try in their opening day defeat of Bath at Headingly in August 2001. He would go on to score a further 5 in his first premiership season. Mather was an present in the Tykes side and a standout player in the Premiership, winning the player of the year and players player of the year award in 2003 having help the Leeds outfit to its highest league position of 5th. At the end of the 2002/03 season Mather returned to Scotland to Captain the Glasgow Warriors side, his form secured him a late replacement call for the 2003 World Cup Squad and he was one of the few standout Scottish performers in what was a disappointing tournament for the Scots. He gained further caps against France and another quarter final appearance against hosts Australia in Brisbane, he was cornerstone of the new look Scotland side under the guidance of Australian Mat Williams, but injury against England and France faltered any consistency in his play.

He returned to full fitness in the narrow defeat by the Barbarians at Murrayfield in May 2004 to subsequently break his ankle 5 days against Queensland in Brisbane in the first Australian tour match. That was to be Mather’s final appearance for Scotland as he chose to retire from the international game in the lead up to the 2005 Six nations sighting lack of Motivation and despondency with injury, he would play the remaindered of the season with Glasgow before returning to Edinburgh as Director of Rugby at Watsonians while assisting his former Glasgow Warriors side as a Lineout analyst. Mather retired from Rugby in 2007 and moved into a Marketing role with brewer Heineken UK in October of that year

Pennsylvania Route 770

Pennsylvania Route 770 is a 12-mile-long, east–west state highway located in McKean county in Pennsylvania. The western terminus is at PA 59 in Lafayette Township; the eastern terminus is at PA 646 in Keating Township. PA 770 begins in Lafayette Township at an intersection with PA 59; the route goes east to the village of Custer City, where it has a short concurrency with US 219. After the concurrency with US 219, the route continues southeast to its terminus at PA 646 in the village of Aiken; the route goes by 3 names at various points—Warren Road, Buffalo–Pittsburgh Highway, Minard Run Road. The route was signed in December 1962 alongside the creation of PA 321, has stayed on the same roads since its inception; the entire route is in McKean County. Pennsylvania Route 770 Truck is a 13-mile-long truck route bypassing a segment of PA 770 where trucks over 10 tons are prohibited in McKean County, it begins at the PA 770 terminus in Lafayette Township. It ends at PA 770 in Bradford Township; the route is an oddity as it is longer than its main route by one mile, that its only signed as such westbound, instead of both directions.

The entire route follows PA 59 on its western end, US 219 on its eastern end. U. S. Roads portal Pennsylvania portal Pennsylvania Highways - Pennsylvania Route 770

The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership

The Low Carbon Vehicle Partnership was announced by the UK Government in 2002 as an element of its Powering Future Vehicles Strategy. The purpose of the LowCVP is support reduction of carbon emissions from road transport in the UK with a clear focus on accelerating the adoption of low carbon vehicles and fuels; the UK government has set a target for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions and recognises that achieving its target will require emissions from road transport, which are significant, to be cut. The LowCVP is a public-private membership organisation which operates by bringing significant stakeholders together to provide broad-based expert commentary on the issues, to stimulate promising initiatives, to encourage lower carbon vehicle and fuel technologies and businesses. Membership is open to organisations with a stake in the UK’s move to low carbon vehicles and fuels who agree with its principles and commitments; this diversity of stakeholders holding a common interest in low carbon vehicles and fuels, willing to work together to tackle current issues, is a distinguishing feature of the LowCVP and one of the reasons that it receives UK government funding.

LowCVP has a Board of a Members' Council and a Secretariat. The LowCVP has contributed to many relevant issues since it was formed, amongst these the implementation of Vehicle Labelling to inform buyers of the fuel economy of new and used cars, programmes to bring low carbon buses into use, an evaluation of the success of UK government intervention to promote the development of low carbon vehicle technology, work to advise government on biofuel issues The organization gives the Low Carbon Champions Awards to celebrate innovation in reducing road transport emissions; the award is one of the few sustainable development awards that are accredited by the Royal Society of the Arts. Http://www.lowcvp.org.uk

Zubin Khan

Zubin Khan is a fictional character from the BBC medical drama Holby City, played by actor Art Malik. He first appeared in the series five episode "Private Lives", broadcast on 17 June 2003. Zubin arrives at Holby City hospital as a consultant anaesthetist; the BBC's drama controller Mal Young approached Malik with the offer of joining the show. He let Malik have control over Zubin's characterisation and as a result Zubin became a Muslim man with an "honourable" persona; the actor accepted the role because he believed that Holby City positively featured many multiracial characters. To prepare for the role Malik consulted with his real-life family of surgeons and took work experience in a hospital. Writers planned a series of dramatic affairs for the character, the first being with patient Elizabeth Woods, married, she becomes obsessed with Zubin, stalks him, makes a false sexual assault allegation against him. He proves his innocence and writers developed an "illicit affair" with nurse Jess Griffin.

She is twenty years younger and his best friend's daughter. Writers created special episodes featuring them falling in love in Paris, which were filmed on a two-week location shoot, they keep their relationship Jess becomes pregnant. She pretends the baby is his; the truth comes out and he and Jess get together. Other stories include Zubin being promoted as the head of the hospital's intensive care unit; when Malik decided to leave the show in 2005, Zubin's final episodes saw him investigated over a patient's death and moving to live in the United States. His final appearance occurred in the episode titled "Days of Repentance", which aired on 4 October 2005. For his portrayal of Zubin, Malik won the "Best TV Actor" award at the 2004 Ethnic Multicultural Media Awards; the introduction of Zubin proved popular with critics of the genre, while many others opined that the character had assumed the role as Holby City's "heart-throb" archetype. In November 2002, it was announced that Art Malik had been cast in Holby City and would begin filming in February 2003.

A BBC representative said that the company were happy that he had agreed to join the show and said he would appear from June 2003. They added that "he will play a doctor drafted in to help sort out management problems at the hospital." BBC drama controller Mal Young approached Malik and Denis Lawson who plays Tom Campbell-Gore with the other of joining the show. He wanted to attract well known actors to the show and promised to create the characters to suit them. Producers decided to let Malik continue working on another film project while he was contracted with them. Malik has said that he "jumped at the chance" to join the cast of Holby City because of its history of multiracial characters; when Malik was negotiating the terms of his contract with the show, he requested that Zubin would be an "honourable" character. He requested that the character would be a practicing Muslim, because he believed there needed to be a better Muslim representation on television. Malik told Annie Leask of the Daily Mirror that "there was no opposition to the idea, people were supportive.

I just wanted this sort of image of an educated Muslim man to reach the audience that Holby City goes out to". He wanted to play a "moral center" character, having played an "evil" one, he reflected "that's what Zubin was in Holby City. I wanted to place him there because of the turmoil happening in the world". To prepare for the role, Malik spent time with actual anaesthetists at a south London hospital. There he began to appreciate the "crucial role". In addition, he was able to gain advice from family, as his father is an eye surgeon and his brother is a neurosurgeon. Zubin is well respected among his colleagues and as an "outstanding anaesthetist" he is an important part of the team. Malik has said. Zubin made debut in the series five episode titled "Private Lives", broadcast on 17 June 2003. In one of his first storylines, Zubin's estranged daughter brings in her friend with gunshot wounds for treatment, he treats her anyway. Another plot sees his colleague Helen Grant accuse Zubin of medical negligence when he incorrectly believes a patient's morphine pump is faulty.

Producers hired Emma Samms to play Elizabeth Woods and announced that she would falsely accuse Zubin of raping her. A publicist from the show revealed, he thinks she's single but she is married and she accuses him of rape when she is found out." Samms told a reporter from The Scotsman that Elizabeth and Zubin would "get quite close". She arrives on the ward after being admitted with an ulcer but has a cancer scare while in Zubin's care. Samms revealed, their affair begins. She confides in him that she has decided to leave her husband because he has been abusive towards her. Zubin realises that kisses her, but it soon transpires. She soon becomes "infatuated" with Zubin and Malik confirmed that his character would "battle on his hands". Emma begins to stalk Zubin around the hospital as her obsession grows, she steps up her vendetta and accuses Zubin of sexually assaulting her. Zubin is suspended from his role, he has to return to the hospital under escort to retrieve his possessions and clothing so that they can be tested.

He sees Elizabeth and begs her to tell the truth, but she refuses to