Spiritual warfare is the Christian concept of fighting against the work of preternatural evil forces. It is based on the biblical belief in evil spirits, or demons, that are said to intervene in human affairs in various ways. Various Christian groups have adopted practices to repel such forces, as based on their doctrine of Christian demonology. Prayer is a common form of spiritual warfare among Christians. Other practices may include exorcism, the laying on of hands and anointing with oil. Jewish demonology escalated with the rise of Jewish pseudepigraphic writings of the 1st Century BCE, in particular with Enochic apocrypha. Jewish apocrypha influenced post-New Testament writings of the early fathers, which further defined Christian demonology, thus followed literary works such as The Didache, The Shepherd of Hermas, Ignatius's epistle to the Ephesians, Origen's Contra Celsum. Mainstream Christianity acknowledge a belief in the reality of demons, fallen angels, the Devil in Christianity and Satan.
In Christian evangelism, doctrines of demonology are influenced by interpretations of the New Testament, namely with the Gospels, in that dealing with spirits became a customary activity of Jesus' ministry. Mark states that "he traveled throughout Galilee, preaching in their synagogues and driving out demons". Exorcisms may be promoted by evangelists referring to Jesus comment, "If I drive out demons by the spirit of God the kingdom of God is upon you". Evangelical Christian traditions believe that Satan and his minions exercise significant influence over this world and its power structures. A hostile realm in conflict with the kingdom of God is recorded in the Bible by the Apostle John, "the whole world is under the control of the evil one" and by Jesus who referred to Satan as "the prince of this world", which may point to the concept of Territorial Spirits. Paul elaborates on demonic hierarchy in Ephesians 6 where he mentions, by way of metaphor, those qualities needed for defense against them.
Two of those articles, the helmet of Salvation and the breastplate of Righteousness, are mentioned in the book of Isaiah. It is believed that Satan occupies a temporal existence when the Apostle Paul refers to him as "the god of this age". Further, Paul's epistles focus on the Victory of Christ over powers. Evangelical interpretation has history divided into two eras: the present evil age and the age to come which supports the concept of the Second coming of Christ. Imagery of spiritual warfare is displayed in the Book of Revelation when after the War in Heaven, the beasts and kings of the earth wage war against God's people, a final battle ensues with Satan and the nations of the earth against God himself. Christian practices of spiritual warfare vary throughout Christianity; the development of specific spiritual warfare techniques has generated many discussions in the Christian missions community. Critical exchanges of views may be found in periodicals like the Evangelical Missions Quarterly, in conferences sponsored by the Evangelical Missions Society.
In 2000, an international collaborative attempt was made by evangelicals and charismatics in the Lausanne Committee for World Evangelization to reach some common agreement about spiritual warfare. The conference gathered in Nairobi and yielded a consultation document as well as many technical papers published as the book Deliver Us from Evil. Spiritual warfare has been practiced by non-Christians and in non-Christian countries. According to the Christian Broadcasting Network commentator Carl Moeller, spiritual warfare is practiced in North Korea, a country, described as the most dangerous place on earth to be Christian. Non-Christian media reported on the African spiritual warrior Pastor Thomas Muthee visit to America who prayed over a 2008 presidential candidate; the Nigerian Tribune, the oldest surviving private newspaper in Nigeria, has published articles calling for the need for spiritual warfare. In the case of Haiti, American televangelist Pat Robertson and others blamed the earthquake of 2010 on demons, called for Christians to increase spiritual warfare prayer.
Expositors of spiritual warfare include Jessie Penn-Lewis, who published the Pentecostal 1903 book, War on the Saints, prolific author Pastor Win Worley started publishing his Hosts of Hell series in 1976, Kurt E. Koch published Occult ABC, which all contain elements of the concept of spiritual warfare, if not explicitly using the expression. In 1991, C. Peter Wagner published Confronting the Powers: How the New Testament Church Experienced the Power of Strategic-Level Spiritual Warfare and edited Territorial Spirits. In 1992, Dr. Ed Murphy wrote a modern 600 page book on the subject, “The Handbook of Spiritual Warfare“, from the point of view of deliverance ministry. Laws of Deliverance, From Proverbs, 1980, 1983, 1995, 2000, 2003, written by Marilyn A. Ellsworth, is another important Biblical work of authority, as is her book ICBM Spiritual Warfare, God's Unbeatable Plan. Other notable expositions on spiritual warfare were written by Pastor Win Worley, Mark Bubeck, Neil Anderson. Pope John Paul II stated, “‘Spiritual combat’… is a secret and interior art, an invisible struggle in which monks engage every day against the temptations”.
In modern times the views of individual Roman Catholics have tended to divide into traditional and more modern understandings of the subject. An example of a more modern view of the demonic is found in the work of the Dominican scholar Richard Woods' The Devil; the traditional outlook is represented by Father Gabriele Amorth who
A field ration, combat ration or ration pack is a canned or pre-packaged meal prepared and eaten, transported by military troops on the battlefield. They are distinguished from regular military rations by virtue of being designed for minimal preparation in the field, using canned, pre-cooked or freeze-dried foods, powdered beverage mixes and concentrated food bars, as well as for long shelf life; such meals prove invaluable for disaster relief operations, where large stocks of these can be ferried and distributed and provide basic nutritional support to victims before kitchens can be set up to produce fresh food. Most armies in the world today now field some form of pre-packaged combat ration, suitably tailored to meet national or ethnic tastes. Traditionally Hexamine has been the preferred solid fuel for cooking rations. An alternative is gelatinised ethanol; the Ración de Combate was introduced in 2003, consisting of a gray plastic-foil laminate pouch containing a mix of canned and dehydrated foods, plus minimal supplements, for 1 soldier for 1 day.
All products in the RC are domestically produced, commercially available items. Each ration contains: canned meat, small can of meat spread, instant soup, cereal bar with fruit, a chocolate bar with nuts or caramels, instant coffee, orange juice powder, salt, a heating kit with disposable stove and alcohol-based fuel tablets, disposable butane lighter, resealable plastic bag, cooked rice and a pack of paper tissues. Menu #1 contains: corned beef, meat pate, crisp water crackers, instant soup with fideo pasta. Menu #2 contains: roasted beef in gravy, meat pate, whole wheat crackers, quick-cooking polenta in cheese sauce; the Ração Operacional de Combate - R2 is the current field & combat ration for the Brazilian Army. It is based on the earlier, but similar, RAC developed by the Brazilian Navy for use by Naval Infantry units, it contains supplemental items needed by 1 soldier for 24 hours. It is to be used in situations. All foods are packed inside 4-ply plastic & aluminum polylaminate retort pouches and are ready to eat without further preparation.
The ration is packed inside a heavy-duty matte green or olive drab polyethylene bag measuring 300 mm wide by 400 mm long. It is printed with the logo of the Brazilian Army, "Ração de Combate R2" and Menu information. Inside are 5 thinner semi-transparent plastic bags, one for each meal and one for the accessories; each bag is printed with meal information and contents. Bag #1: Desjejum * Bag #2: Almoço Bag #3: Jantar Bag #4: Ceia Bag #5: Acessórios *also called "Café da Manhã" - eg "Morning Coffee", Each breakfast consists of: 40 g instant coffee w/milk & sugar; each lunch consists of: 250 g retort pouched main meal, 150 g pouch of precooked rice, 40 g pouch of cassava pudding, 10 g instant coffee, 2 x 6 g packets of refined sugar, a 25 g bar of pressed raw brown sugar or banana or fruit-flavored sugar, 45 g of fruit juice powder. Each dinner consists of: 250 g retort pouched main meal, 100 g can or pouch of precooked sausages, 10 g instant coffee, 2 x 6 g packets refined sugar, 50 g jelly beans or hard candy, 45 g of fruit drink powder.
Each supper consists of: 40 g of chocolate milk powder, 25 g cereal bar, 2 slices of toast, 15 g tub of jelly. The accessory packet contains: disposable ration heater, 120 g can of alcohol-based fuel, 1 box or folder of moisture-resistant matches, a strip of 5 water purification tablets, 55 g envelope of electrolyte replacement beverage powder, 6 sheets of multipurpose paper; the 250 g main meal pouches differ by menu, two provided for each menu as follows: Menu #1: shredded beef in gravy, spaghetti w/meat sauce Menu #2: chicken w/vegetables, rice w/black beans & beef Menu #3: black bean stew, ground beef w/potatoes Menu #4: dried beef w/pumpkin, chicken w/mixed vegetables and pasta Menu #5: white beans w/sausage, risotto w/meat & vegetables Brazil fields the Ração Operacional de Emergência - R3. This is a 12-hour ration to be used in situations where cooked foods cannot be provided for all meals; the ration uses the same components, but contains less food. The bag is printed with the emblem of the Brazilian Army, "Ração de Emergência R3" and Menu information.
Inside are 3 thin plastic bags: 1 accessory packet. Information from Mreinfo.com. Canada provides each soldier with a complete pre-cooked meal known as the IMP, packaged inside a heavy-duty folding paper bag. There are 5 breakfast menus, 6 lunch menus, 6 supper menus. Canadian rations provide generous portions and contain a large number of commercially available items. Like the US ration, the main meal is precooked and ready-to-eat, packed in heavy-duty plastic-foil retort pouches boxed with cardboard; the ration contains a meal item, wet-packed fruit in a boxed retort pouch, depending on the meal a combination of instant soup or cereal, fruit drink crystals, jam or cheese spread, peanut butter, crackers, bread compressed into a retort pouch and tea, commercially available chocolate bars and hard candy, a long plastic spoon, paper towels and wet wipes. Canada makes limited
Epistle to Philemon
The Epistle of Paul to Philemon, known as Philemon, is one of the books of the Christian New Testament. It is a prison letter, co-authored by Paul the Apostle with Timothy, to Philemon, a leader in the Colossian church, it deals with the themes of reconciliation. Paul does not identify himself as an apostle with authority, but as "a prisoner of Jesus Christ", calling Timothy "our brother", addressing Philemon as "fellow labourer" and "brother." Onesimus, a slave that had departed from his master Philemon, was returning with this epistle wherein Paul asked Philemon to receive him as a "brother beloved."Philemon was a wealthy Christian a bishop of the house church that met in his home in Colosse. This letter is now regarded as one of the undisputed works of Paul, it is the shortest of Paul's extant letters, consisting of only 335 words in the Greek text. The epistle of Philemon is attributed to the apostle Paul, this attribution has been questioned by scholars. Along with six others, it is numbered among the "undisputed letters", which are considered to be authentically Pauline.
The main challenge to the letter's authenticity came from a group of German scholars in the nineteenth century known as the Tübingen School. Their leader, Ferdinand Christian Baur, only accepted four New Testament epistles as genuinely written by Paul: Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians and Galatians. Commenting on Philemon, Baur described the subject matter as "so singular as to arouse our suspicions," and concluded that it is a "Christian romance serving to convey a genuine Christian idea."The opening verse of the salutation names Timothy alongside Paul. This, does not mean that Timothy was the epistle's co-author. Rather, Paul mentions others in the address if they have a particular connection with the recipient. In this case, Timothy may have encountered Philemon while accompanying Paul in his work in Ephesus. According to the majority interpretation, Paul wrote this letter on behalf of Onesimus, a runaway slave who had wronged his owner Philemon; the details of the offence are unstated, although it is assumed that Onesimus had fled after stealing money, as Paul states in verse 18 that if Onesimus owes anything, Philemon should charge this to Paul's account.
Sometime after leaving, Onesimus came into contact with Paul, although again the details are unclear. He may have been imprisoned alongside Paul. Alternatively, he may have heard Paul's name and so travelled to him for help. After meeting Paul, Onesimus became a Christian believer. An affection grew between them, Paul would have been glad to keep Onesimus with him. However, he considered it better to send him back to Philemon with an accompanying letter, which aimed to effect reconciliation between them as Christian brothers; the preservation of the letter suggests. Onesimus' status as a runaway slave was challenged by Allen Dwight Callahan in an article published in the Harvard Theological Review and in a commentary. Callahan argues that, beyond verse 16, "nothing in the text conclusively indicates that Onesimus was the chattel of the letter's chief addressee. Moreover, the expectations fostered by the traditional fugitive slave hypothesis go unrealized in the letter. Modern commentators those committed to the prevailing interpretation, have tacitly admitted as much."
Callahan argues that the earliest commentators on this work – the homily of Origen and the Anti-Marcion Preface – are silent about Onesimus' possible servile status, traces the origins of this interpretation to John Chrysostom, who proposed it in his Homiliae in epistolam ad Philemonem, during his ministry in Antioch, circa 386–398. In place of the traditional interpretation, Callahan suggests that Onesimus and Philemon are brothers both by blood and religion, but who have become estranged, the intent of this letter was to reconcile the two men. Ben Witherington III has challenged Callahan's interpretation as a misreading of Paul's rhetoric. Further, Margaret M. Mitchell has demonstrated that a number of writers before Chrysostom either argue or assume that Onesimus was a runaway slave, including Athanasius, Basil of Caesarea and Ambrosiaster; the only extant information about Onesimus apart from this letter is found in Paul's epistle to the Colossians 4:7–9, where Onesimus is called "a faithful and beloved brother": All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, a beloved brother, a faithful minister and fellowservant in the Lord: 8 Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he might know your estate, comfort your hearts.
They shall make known unto you all things. The letter is addressed to Philemon and Archippus, the church in Philemon's house. Philemon is described as a "fellow worker" of Paul, it is assumed that he lived in Colossae. Philemon may have converted to Christianity through Paul's ministry in Ephesus. Apphia in the salutation is Philemon's wife; some have speculated that Archippus, described by Paul as a "fellow soldier", is the son of Philemon and Apphia. The American John Knox proposed that Onesimus' owner was in fact Archippus, the letter was addressed to him rather than Philemon. In this reconstruction, Philemon would receive the letter first and encourage Archippus to release Onesimus so that he could work alongside Paul; this view, has not found widespread support. In particular, Knox's view has bee
Matthew 10 is the tenth chapter in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament section of the Christian Bible. Matthew 10 comes after Jesus had called some of his disciples and before the meeting with the disciples of John the Baptist; this section is known as the Mission Discourse or the Little Commission, in contrast to the Great Commission. The Little Commission is directed to the Jewish believers of the early church, while the Great Commission is to all nationalities; the Pulpit Commentary suggests that Jesus' message in this discourse "was hardly to have been remembered outside Jewish Christian circles". Matthew names the twelve apostles, or "twelve disciples", in verses 1 to 4 and the remainder of the chapter consists entirely of sayings attributed to Jesus. In this chapter, Jesus sends out the apostles to heal and preach throughout the region and gives them careful instruction. Many of the sayings found in Matthew 10 are found in Luke 10 and the Gospel of Thomas, not found in the accepted canon of the New Testament.
Written in Koine Greek Some ancient manuscripts containing this chapter are: Papyrus 110 Uncial 0171 Codex Vaticanus Codex Sinaiticus Codex Bezae Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus Codex Petropolitanus Purpureus This chapter is divided into 42 verses. The text in verse 1 refers to "his twelve disciples". Verse 2 calls them "the twelve apostles": Now the names of the twelve apostles are these: The first, called Peter, Andrew his brother. Verse 5 refers to them as "the twelve". Nor bag for your journey, nor two tunics, nor sandals, nor staffs. Cross reference: Mark 6:8–9; the disciples were neither to carry money with them, nor any provisions for their journey."Two tunics": one to wear during travel, another to put on, when they came to their quarters. The disciples were not allowed change of raiment, either because superfluous, or too magnificent to appear in, or too troublesome to carry."Staffs": that is, more than one staff, sufficient to assist and lean upon during the journey. According to Mark, one staff was allowed, as though they might take a traveling staff, but not staffs for defense or to fight with.
Now these several things were forbidden them because they would be burdensome to them in traveling. Since they were to take neither money, nor provisions with them, were to preach the Gospel they might reasonably ask how they should be provided for, supported, so Jesus said, that they should not be anxiously concerned about that, as he would take care that they had a suitable supply and would so influence and dispose the minds of such, to whom they should minister, as that they should have all necessary provisions made for them, without any care or expense of theirs."For a worker is worthy of his food": Jesus uses this proverbial expression to remark that the disciples are workmen, or laborers in his vineyard, for doing their duty, they were entitled to all the necessaries of life. This is their due and justified to give it to them, on which they might depend. So that this whole context is so far from militating against a minister's maintenance by the people, that it most establishes it. You will be brought before governors and kings for My sake, as a testimony to them and to the Gentiles.
Cross references: Matthew 27:2 "Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword."This is a much-discussed passage explained in terms of the "apocalyptic-eschatological" context of the 1st century. R. T. France explains the verse, in context with the subsequent verse 35: "The sword Jesus brings is not here military conflict, but, as vv. 35–36 show, a sharp social division which severs the closest family ties. … Jesus speaks here, as in the preceding and following verses, more of a division in men’s personal response to him."The text of Matthew's Gospel in the Book of Kells alters gladium, the Vulgate translation of makhairan "sword", to gaudium "joy", resulting in a reading of "I came not to bring peace, but joy". Matthew 10 contains many parallels found in the Gospel of Thomas. Matthew 10:16 parallels saying 39 in the Gospel of Thomas. Matthew 10:37 parallels sayings 101 Matthew 10:27 b parallels saying 33a. Matthew 10:34–36 parallels saying 16. Matthew 10:26 parallels saying 5b.
Paul the Apostle
Paul the Apostle known as Saint Paul and known by his Jewish name Saul of Tarsus, was an apostle who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world. Paul is considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age and in the mid-30s to the mid-50s AD he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe, he took advantage of his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to minister to both Jewish and Roman audiences. According to writings in the New Testament and prior to his conversion, Paul was dedicated to persecuting the early disciples of Jesus in the area of Jerusalem. In the narrative of the Acts of the Apostles, Paul was traveling on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus on a mission to "arrest them and bring them back to Jerusalem" when the resurrected Jesus appeared to him in a great light, he was struck blind, but after three days his sight was restored by Ananias of Damascus and Paul began to preach that Jesus of Nazareth is the Jewish Messiah and the Son of God. Half of the book of Acts deals with Paul's life and works.
Thirteen of the twenty-seven books in the New Testament have traditionally been attributed to Paul. Seven of the Pauline epistles are undisputed by scholars as being authentic, with varying degrees of argument about the remainder. Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Hebrews is not asserted in the Epistle itself and was doubted in the 2nd and 3rd centuries, it was unquestioningly accepted from the 5th to the 16th centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews, but that view is now universally rejected by scholars. The other six are believed by some scholars to have come from followers writing in his name, using material from Paul's surviving letters and letters written by him that no longer survive. Other scholars argue that the idea of a pseudonymous author for the disputed epistles raises many problems. Today, Paul's epistles continue to be vital roots of the theology and pastoral life in the Catholic and Protestant traditions of the West, as well as the Orthodox traditions of the East.
Paul's influence on Christian thought and practice has been characterized as being as "profound as it is pervasive", among that of many other apostles and missionaries involved in the spread of the Christian faith. Martin Luther's interpretation of Paul's writings influenced Luther's doctrine of sola fide, it has been popularly assumed that Saul's name was changed when he became a follower of Jesus Christ, but, not the case. His Jewish name was "Saul" after the biblical King Saul, a fellow Benjamite and the first king of Israel. According to the Book of Acts, he was a Roman citizen; as a Roman citizen, he bore the Latin name of "Paul"—in biblical Greek: Παῦλος, in Latin: Paulus. It was typical for the Jews of that time to have one Hebrew, the other Latin or Greek. Jesus called him "Saul, Saul" in "the Hebrew tongue" in the book of Acts, when he had the vision which led to his conversion on the Road to Damascus. In a vision to Ananias of Damascus, "the Lord" referred to him as "Saul, of Tarsus".
When Ananias came to restore his sight, he called him "Brother Saul". In Acts 13:9, Saul is called "Paul" for the first time on the island of Cyprus—much than the time of his conversion; the author indicates that the names were interchangeable: "Saul, called Paul." He thereafter refers to him as Paul Paul's preference since he is called Paul in all other Bible books where he is mentioned, including those that he authored. Adopting his Roman name was typical of Paul's missionary style, his method was to put people at their ease and to approach them with his message in a language and style to which they could relate, as in 1 Cor 9:19–23. The main source for information about Paul's life is the material found in Acts. However, the epistles contain little information about Paul's pre-conversion past; the book of Acts recounts more information but leaves several parts of Paul's life out of its narrative, such as his probable but undocumented execution in Rome. Some scholars believe Acts contradicts Paul's epistles on multiple accounts, in particular concerning the frequency of Paul's visits to the church in Jerusalem.
Sources outside the New Testament that mention Paul include: Clement of Rome's epistle to the Corinthians. Paul was born between the years of 5 BC and 5 AD; the Book of Acts indicates that Paul was a Roman citizen by birth, but Helmut Koester takes issue with the evidence presented by the text. He was from a devout Jewish family in the city of Tarsus, one of the largest trade centers on the Mediterranean coast, it had been in existence several hundred years prior to his birth. It was renowned for its university. During the time of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC, Tarsus was the most influential city in Asia Minor. Paul referred to himself as being "of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of the Hebrews; the Bible reveals little abou
Faith in Christianity
In one sense, faith in Christianity is discussed in terms of believing God's promises, trusting in his faithfulness, relying on God's character and faithfulness to act. Some of the definitions in the history of Christian theology have followed the biblical formulation in Hebrews 11:1: "the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen"; as in other Abrahamic religions, it includes a belief in the existence of God, in the reality of a transcendent domain that God administers as his kingdom and in the benevolence of the will of God or God's plan for humankind. Christianity differs from other Abrahamic religions in that it focuses on the teachings of Jesus, on his place as the prophesied Christ, it includes a belief in the New Covenant. According to most Christian traditions, Christian faith requires a belief in Jesus' resurrection from the dead, which he states is the plan of God the Father. Since the Protestant Reformation the meaning of this term has been an object of major theological disagreement in Western Christianity.
The differences have been overcome in the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification. The precise understanding of the term "faith" differs among the various Christian traditions. Despite these differences, Christians agree that faith in Jesus lies at the core of the Christian tradition, that such faith is required in order to be a Christian; the word "faith", translated from the Greek πιστις, was used in the New Testament with the Greek perfect tense and translates as a noun-verb hybrid. The verb form of pi'stis is pisteuo, translated into English versions of the New Testament as'believe'; the adjectival form, pistos, is always translated as'faithful'. The New Testament writers, following the translators of the Septuagint rendered words in the Hebrew scriptures that concerned'faithfulness' using pi'stis-group words; the pi'stis-group words are most appropriately translated into English by a range of words, depending on the context in which they occur. In both the New Testament and other Greek texts, pi'stis describes connections of firmness that can form between a wide variety of entities: people, practices, purposes, facts or propositions.
The appropriate English translation is evident from the relationship between the two entities connected by pi'stis. The pi'stis-group words in the New Testament can thus be interpreted as relating to ideas of faithfulness, loyalty, trust and proof; the most appropriate interpretation and translation of pi'stis-group words in the New Testament is a matter of recent controversy over the meaning of pi'stis when it is directed towards Jesus. In the Protestant tradition, faith is understood to be associated with ideas of belief and reliance; this understanding is founded in the doctrinal statements of the Reformers. One of their confessional statements explains: "the principle acts of saving faith are accepting and resting upon Christ alone for justification and eternal life." The Reformers contrasted faith with human efforts to do good works as a means of justification. This understanding of saving faith has remained within the Protestant tradition. Saving faith is understood in terms of a belief of, trust in, reliance on the person of Jesus and his work of atonement accomplished through his death on the cross.
In a more everyday sense, faith is discussed in terms of believing God's promises, trusting in his faithfulness, relying on God's character and faithfulness to act. Yet, many Protestants stress that genuine faith is acted on, thus it brings about different behaviour or action and does not consist of mental belief, trust or confidence or outright antinomianism. Hence, having authentic'faith in Jesus' is understood to lead to changes in how one thinks and lives. However, the Protestant tradition holds that these changes in character and conduct do not have any value for obtaining a positive final judgment, but that a positive final judgment depends on faith alone. In recent decades, scholars have researched what pi'stis meant in the social context of the New Testament writers. Several scholars who have studied the usage of pi'stis in both early Greek manuscripts and the New Testament have concluded that'faithfulness' is the most satisfactory English translation in many instances; this recent research has prompted some to argue that New Testament faith and belief in Jesus should be understood in terms of faithfulness and commitment to him and his teachings, rather than in terms of belief and reliance.
Such an understanding of faith can be integrated well with the moral influence theory of atonement. Hebrews 11:1: "Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen." This passage concerning the function of faith in relation to the covenant of God is used as a definition of faith. Υποστασις, translated "assurance" here appears in ancient papyrus business documents, conveying the idea that a covenant is an exchange of assurances which guarantees the future transfer of possessions described in the contract. In view of this, James Hope Moulton and George Milligan suggest the rendering: "Faith is the title deed of things hoped for"; the Greek word e´leg-khos, rendered "conviction" in Hebrews 11:1, conveys the idea of bringing forth evidence that demonstrates something something contrary to what appears to be the case. Thereby this evidence makes clear what has not been discerned before and so refutes
Onward, Christian Soldiers
"Onward, Christian Soldiers" is a 19th-century English hymn. The words were written by Sabine Baring-Gould in 1865, the music was composed by Arthur Sullivan in 1871. Sullivan named the tune "St Gertrude," after the wife of his friend Ernest Clay Ker Seymer, at whose country home he composed the tune; the Salvation Army adopted the hymn as its favoured processional. The piece became Sullivan's most popular hymn; the hymn's theme is taken from references in the New Testament to the Christian being a soldier for Christ, for example II Timothy 2:3: "Thou therefore endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ." The lyric was written as a processional hymn for children walking from Horbury Bridge, where Baring-Gould was curate, to Horbury St Peter's Church near Wakefield, Yorkshire, at Whitsuntide in 1865. It was entitled, "Hymn for Procession with Cross and Banners." According to the Centre for Church Music, Baring-Gould wrote "Onward, Christian Soldiers" in about 15 minutes apologising, "It was written in great haste, I am afraid that some of the lines are faulty."
He allowed hymn-book compilers to alter the lyrics. For example, The Fellowship Hymn Book, with his permission, changed the phrase "one in hope and doctrine" to "one in hope and purpose." For the 1909 edition of Hymns Ancient and Modern, he changed the fifth line of the same verse from "We are not divided" to "Though divisions harass." However, Baring-Gould’s original words are used in most modern hymnals. Baring-Gould set the lyrics to a melody from the slow movement of Joseph Haydn’s Symphony in D, No. 15. This was printed in 1871 in the Church Times; the hymn did not receive wide acceptance, until Sullivan wrote the tune "St. Gertrude" for it. Sullivan quoted the tune in his Boer War Te Deum, first performed after his death. Another hymn sung to the St. Gertrude tune is "Forward Through the Ages", written by Frederick Lucian Hosmer in 1908; when Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt met in August 1941 on the battleship HMS Prince of Wales to agree the Atlantic Charter, a church service was held for which Prime Minister Churchill chose the hymns.
He chose "Onward, Christian Soldiers" and afterwards made a radio broadcast explaining this choice: We sang "Onward, Christian Soldiers" indeed, I felt that this was no vain presumption, but that we had the right to feel that we were serving a cause for the sake of which a trumpet has sounded from on high. When I looked upon that densely packed congregation of fighting men of the same language, of the same faith, of the same fundamental laws, of the same ideals... it swept across me that here was the only hope, but the sure hope, of saving the world from measureless degradation. The song has been sung at many funerals, including at the funeral of American president Dwight D. Eisenhower at the National Cathedral, Washington, D. C. March 1969. Apart from its obvious martial associations, the song has been associated with protest against the established order in the case of the civil rights movement. An attempt was made in the 1980s to strip "Onward, Christian Soldiers" from the United Methodist Hymnal and the Episcopal Hymnal 1982 due to perceived militarism.
Outrage among church-goers caused both committees to back down. However, the hymn was omitted from both the 1990 and 2013 hymnals of the Presbyterian Church, the Australian Hymn Book, published in 1977, its successor, Together in Song, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America's hymnal; the Spiritualists' National Union hymnbook has a variation on the hymn, entitled "Onward, Onward". In some modern Anglican hymn books, it is replaced with Onward, Christian Pilgrims set to the same tune; because of its association with missionaries of various types, the song is sung in a number of movies and television programmes. The 1939 film and Livingstone, depicts Dr. David Livingstone spiritedly leading a choir of African people in this anthem; the piece appears in several other films, including Major Barbara, Mrs. Miniver, Elmer Gantry, A Canterbury Tale, The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming, M*A*S*H, Reds, The Bushbaby, The Ruling Class, Walker and the Lion and First Reformed, It is sung or played in episodes of TV series, including Little House on the Prairie, Boardwalk Empire, The Simpsons, The Ren & Stimpy Show, Little Britain, Downstairs, Lark Rise to Candleford and Dad's Army.
Onward Christian Soldiers is the title of a 1984 album and song by the British anarcho-punk band Icons of Filth. In the book Sins of the Assassin by Robert Ferrigno, the song is the national anthem of the fictional Bible Belt. In Christopher Webber's 1993 play Dr Sullivan and Mr Gilbert, the hymn is used with new words about Sullivan's rise to fame, the artistic compromises that entailed. "Christian Zeal and Activity", a 1973 work by American composer John Adams, is an arrangement of Sullivan's tune. The hymn's tune has been used as the basis for many parodies, including Lloyd George Knew My Father and Like a mighty tortoise, / Moves the Church of God. Christian soldier Hymns For the Living Church. Carol Stream, IL: Hope Publishing, 1974. P. 470. ISBN 0-916642-01-1 "Onward, Christian Soldiers", many early recordings, via Internet Archive ""Onward, Christian Soldiers"".. Melody and piano score at HymnSite.com. Explanations of biblical sources Information about the original title New York Times Article on the Methodist Hymnal "Onward, Christian Soldiers" at The Cyber Hymnal