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New Wave science fiction

The New Wave is a movement in science fiction produced in the 1960s and 1970s and characterized by a high degree of experimentation, both in form and in content, a "literary" or artistic sensibility, a focus on "soft" as opposed to hard science. New Wave writers saw themselves as part of the modernist tradition and sometimes mocked the traditions of pulp science fiction, which some of them regarded as stodgy and poorly written; the New Wave science fiction writers of the 1960s emphasized stylistic experimentation and literary merit over the scientific accuracy or prediction of hard science fiction writers. It was conceived as a deliberate break from the traditions of pulp science fiction, which many of the New Wave writers involved considered irrelevant and unambitious. Academic Brian McHale claimed that the ambition of reaching literary status for SF writers cames from its "edge" and from the emergence of postmodernism; the most prominent source of New Wave science fiction was the magazine New Worlds under the editorship of Michael Moorcock, who assumed the position in 1964.

Moorcock sought to use the magazine to "define a new [ role" for science fiction by the use of "new literary techniques and modes of expression." It was a period marked by the emergence of a greater diversity of voices in science fiction, most notably the rise in the number of female writers, including Joanna Russ, Ursula K. Le Guin and Alice Bradley Sheldon; the New Wave was influenced by the political turmoil of the 1960s, such as the controversy over the Vietnam War, by social trends such as the drug subculture and sexual liberation. The term "New Wave" is borrowed from the French film movement the nouvelle vague. Gary K. Wolfe, professor of humanities and English at Roosevelt University, identifies the introduction of the term New Wave to science fiction as occurring in 1966 in an essay for The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction written by Judith Merril, indirectly yet it seems unambiguously referring to that term in order to comment on the experimental fiction that had begun to appear in the English magazine New Worlds, after Michael Moorcock assumed editorship in 1964.

However, Judith Merril denied she used that term. Merril popularized this fiction in the United States through her edited anthology England Swings SF: Stories of Speculative Fiction, although an earlier anthology is a key harbinger of New Wave science fiction in the US. With negligible exceptions, nearly every science-fiction writer up to a few years ago made one hidden—and indefensible—assumption, they assumed. They assumed. Though the New Wave began in the 1960s, some of its tenets can be found in H. L. Gold's editorship of Galaxy, a science fiction magazine which began publication in 1950. James Gunn described Gold's focus as being "not on the adventurer, the inventor, the engineer, or the scientist, but on the average citizen," and according to SF historian David Kyle, Gold's work would lead to the New Wave. Algis Budrys in 1965 wrote of the "recurrent strain in'Golden Age' science fiction of the 1940s—the implication that sheer technological accomplishment would solve all the problems and that all the problems were what they seemed to be on the surface".

The New Wave did not define itself as a development from the science fiction which came before it, but reacted against it. New Wave writers did not operate as an organized group, but some of them felt the tropes of the pulp and Golden Age periods had become worn out, should be abandoned: J. G. Ballard stated in 1962 that "science fiction should turn its back on space, on interstellar travel, extra-terrestrial life forms, galactic wars", Brian Aldiss said in Trillion Year Spree: The History of Science Fiction that "the props of SF are few: rocket ships, robots, time coins, they become debased by over-circulation." Harry Harrison summarised the period by saying "old barriers were coming down, pulp taboos were being forgotten, new themes and new manners of writing were being explored". New Wave writers began to look outside the traditional scope of science fiction for influence. Burroughs' use of experimentation such as the cut-up technique and his appropriation of science fiction tropes in radical ways proved the extent to which prose fiction could prove revolutionary, some New Wave writers sought to emulate this style.

Ursula K. Le Guin, one of the writers to emerge in the 1960s, describes the transition to the New Wave era thus: Without in the least dismissing or belittling earlier writers and work, I think it is fair to say that science fiction changed around 1960, that the change tended toward an increase in the number of writers and readers, the breadth of subject, the depth of treatment, the sophistication of language and technique, the political and literary consciousness of the writing; the sixties in science fiction were an exciting period for both established and new writers and readers. All the doors seemed to be opening. Critic Rob Latham identifies three trends that linked the advent of the New Wave in the 1960s to the emergence of cyberpunk in the 1980s, he said that changes in technology as well as an economic recession constricted the


Banū or Bannu is a city located in Bannu District in southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Founded by Sir Herbert Benjamin Edwardes in 1848 during the British colonial era, Bannu was once a British military base used for action against the Pashtun border tribes of the Tochi Valley and Waziristan. Bannu’s residents are members of the Banuchi tribe and speak a dialect of Pashto, similar to the distinct Wazir dialect; the major industries of Bannu are cloth weaving, sugar mills and the manufacturing of cotton fabrics and equipment. It is famous for its weekly Jumma fair; the district forms a basin drained by the Kurram and Gambila rivers, which originate in the hills of Waziristan. Although Bannu is surrounded by rugged and dry mountains, it is a fertile place, early English visitors had been known to refer to it as a "paradise" – see the beautiful description by Edwardes quoted by Thornton; the town was founded in 1848 by Herbert Benjamin Edwardes, a lieutenant in the 1st Bengal European Fusiliers Regiment of the East India Company's private army.

He ordered the construction of the fort – named Dhulipgarh in honour of the Maharajah of Lahore – at the same time. At the time of its founding, the town was named Dhulipnagar, its name was changed to Edwardesabad in 1869. In 1903, it received Bannu. Bannu was used as the base of operations for all punitive expeditions undertaken by troops of the British empire to the Tochi Valley and the Waziristan frontier. A military road led from the town of Bannu toward Dera Ismail Khan; this road was built by military engineers under the supervision of Ram N. Mullick. Mullick graduated from Banaras Engineering College and had served in Iraq and Lahore as an expert in heavy earth-moving equipment before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. According to the Imperial British Gazetteer, Bannu was described by the following: 14,291, including cantonment and civil lines, it was founded in 1848 by Lieutenant Edwardes. The fort, erected at the same time, bore the name of Dhulipgarh, in honour of the Maharaja of Lahore.

A town grew up around the bazar, many Hindko speaking Hindu traders moved there from Bazar Ahmad Khan, which had formed the commercial center of the Bannu valley prior to annexation. The Church Missionary Society supports a small church and a high school founded in 1865; the cantonment centers in the fort of Dhulipgarh. Its garrison consists of a mountain battery, a regiment of native cavalry, two regiments of infantry; the municipality was constituted in 1867. The municipal receipts and expenditure during the ten years ending 1903–1904 averaged Rs. 46,000. In 1903–1904 the income was Rs. 47,000 chiefly derived from octroi. The receipts and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years ending 1902–3 averaged Rs. 4,200 and Rs. 3,700. The profuse irrigation and insufficient drainage of the surrounding fields render Bannu an unhealthy station; the town has a considerable trade, including fish butts. Embracing the whole traffic in local produce of the Bannu valley; the nearest railway station is at Kohat on the Khushalgarh-Thal branch of the North-Western Railway, 79 miles distant by road.

A weekly fair collects an average number of sellers. The chief articles of trade are cloth, live-stock, cotton and grain. Bannu possesses a dispensary and two high schools, a public library and a town hall known as the Nicholson Memorial; the first public sector university, University of Science and Technology, opened in 2005. Bannu has a medical college, Bannu Medical College, a campus of University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar; the oldest and most renowned public sector institution is Government Post-Graduate College Bannu, which started operating in 1951. Ghulam Ishaq Khan Mirzali Khan Waziristan Bannu Resolution Official website

Trailblazer (video game)

Trailblazer is a video game that requires the player to direct a ball along a series of suspended passages. Released by Gremlin Graphics for the ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Atari 8-bit family, Amstrad CPC and C16/plus/4 in 1986, it was ported to the Amiga and Atari ST. In 2005 a port to the Gizmondo handheld games console was released; the game can be played either in arcade mode. The music in the background matches the gameplay with its electronica genre. Races are quite brief and last between 15 and 45 seconds. Special fields on the track let the ball jump, slow down, speed up or warp speed the ball, invert the controls or are holes; the game was reviewed in 1990 in Dragon #158 by Hartley and Kirk Lesser in "The Role of Computers" column, as part of the Mastertronic MEGA Pack of 10 games released in Europe. The reviewers gave the game 5 out of 5 stars; this one was fun". Zzap!64's reviewers enjoyed the game which they thought was "an excellent variation on the race game theme". The overall rating given was 93%.

Steve Panak, reviewing the Atari 8-bit version for ANALOG Computing, concluded "the game is the most original arcade action wristbuster to come down the pike in a long time, one of the best two-player competition games I've seen." Trailblazer Hands-On at GameSpot Trailblazer at Trailblazer at Lemon 64 Trailblazer on Trailblazer game on M-Fórum

Southern Cross Hotel

The Southern Cross Hotel was a hotel in Melbourne, Australia. It opened in 1962 as Australia's first modern'International' hotel, heralding the arrival of American-style glamour, the jet-set and international tourism, it occupied a large site on Bourke Street in central Melbourne occupied by the grand Eastern Market, was the premier hotel in the city into the early 1980s. The Southern Cross was the preferred hotel for celebrities in this period, most famously The Beatles in 1964, the ballroom was the preferred location for locally and nationally important events. Closed in 1995 and demolished, the hotel tower remained standing and vacant until its demolition in 2003; the half a city block site was occupied by the grand 1879 Eastern Market, was owned by the City of Melbourne. Never having been successful as a food market, the structure had instead been the home of a variety of shops and entertainments, by the 1950s it was seen as tawdry and outdated, the Council began discussing what to do with the site.

In the 1950s, US based hotels such as Hilton and the Pan Am owned InterContinental created the first international hotel chains, bringing US-style modernity to cities around the world. With the increasing use of faster jet planes, the concept of international travel as a glamorous activity for both tourism and business purposes developed through the late 50s and early 60s. In 1956, a vice-president of Pan Am visited Melbourne to explore the prospect of opening an hotel, began negotiations with the Council over the Eastern Market site. A deal was arranged in which a local consortium in partnership with InterContinental would build the hotel, leasing the land from the Council for 99 years, while InterContinental would provide management. In 1960, the Los Angeles architects Welton Becket & Associates, in partnership with local architects Leslie M. Perrot & Partners, were chosen, demolition of the market commenced that year. Billed as luxury hotel costing £5,250,000, that provided "comfort and service without equal", the completed building was opened by the Australian Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 14 August 1962, live on television.

The Southern Cross was an immediate success, attracting the growing international'jet set', hosting most world-famous visitors to Melbourne in the following decades such as the Beatles, Judy Garland, Rock Hudson, John Wayne and Marlene Dietrich. The hotel is best known for hosting The Beatles on the Melbourne leg of their Australian tour in 1964.'Beatlemania' reached a fever pitch in Melbourne, huge crowds blocked traffic outside the hotel, fainting girls had to be treated on the street. When they left, their bed sheets were sold for charity. In Beatle lore, their stay is important since it was the only hotel to host five of the Beatles at one time.. The Southern Cross remained the most glamorous place to stay through the 60s and 70s, the large ballroom hosted many important events, including such nationally significant events as the Logies, the Brownlows, Liberal Party Federal election-night functions. In 1977, with Pam Am in debt, Intercontinental sold their stake to Australian owners, ceased to manage the hotel.

With the opening of more, large luxury hotels beginning with the Hilton in East Melbourne in 1974 the Grand Hyatt in nearby Collins Street in 1988, the Langham in Southbank in 1992, the Southern Cross lost its premier position. The attached shopping court had never been popular and by the 1980s was considered a planning failure. In the early 1990s, having lost many of the'themed' rooms, another refurbishment removed more of its remaining original character, the most dramatic change being beige paint over the blue tiled exterior, it was sold to the Republic of Nauru in 1994, who closed it on 1 April 1995 pending a large scale redevelopment that would have retained but reclad the hotel tower. After a failed appeal for State heritage listing by the National Trust of Victoria, the shopping court was demolished. However, this project never proceeded any further, the abandoned tower stood derelict until being demolished in 2003, to make way for a new office development, it has been replaced by the large Southern Cross Tower designed by Woods Bagot.

Located on a two-and-a-quarter-acre site, the Southern Cross Hotel was a large project that included not just the hotel itself but a shopping plaza adjacent along Bourke Street, in an attempt to provide all the facilities a hotel guest might require in a single development. The 11 level tower of the 435-room hotel faced Exhibition Street, above a lobby and bars and restaurants in the glazed ground and first floors; the double level plaza behind covered a larger area, had a long front along Bourke Street, was wrapped around an internal square courtyard, with a central fountain. The plaza contained more associated bars and restaurants, another 40 or so shops, as well a bowling alley on the upper level; the Southern Cross Ballroom, with a seating capacity of 500, sat on top of the south side of the plaza building, was accessed from the main lobby. There were a total of ten bars and function rooms within the hotel and the plaza, the range of shops included such necessities as a pharmacy, beauty parlour, car rental, travel agents, banks, as well as fashion boutiques and gift shops.

A large 350 space carpark in the basement served both public. The shopping plaza was designed on a broad horizontal base, setback from the marked slope of Bourke and Little Collins Streets (this created a break in the continuity of the shopfronts along Bourke Street affecting its p

Washington Referendum 74

Referendum 74 was a Washington state referendum to approve or reject the February 2012 bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state. On June 12, 2012, state officials announced that enough signatures in favor of the referendum had been submitted and scheduled the referendum to appear on the ballot in the November 6 general election; the law was upheld by voters in the November 6, 2012 election by a final margin of 7.4% and the result was certified on December 5. The ballot title read as follows: The legislature passed Engrossed Substitute Senate Bill 6239 concerning marriage for same-sex couples, modified domestic-partnership law, religious freedom, voters have filed a sufficient referendum petition on this bill; this bill would allow same-sex couples to marry, preserve domestic partnerships only for seniors, preserve the right of clergy or religious organizations to refuse to perform, recognize, or accommodate any marriage ceremony. Should this bill be: Approved Rejected The ballot measure was accompanied by the following summary: This bill allows same-sex couples to marry, applies marriage laws without regard to gender, specifies that laws using gender-specific terms like husband and wife include same-sex spouses.

After 2014, existing domestic partnerships are converted except for seniors. It preserves the right of clergy or religious organizations to refuse to perform or recognize any marriage or accommodate wedding ceremonies; the bill does not affect licensing of religious organizations providing adoption, foster-care, or child-placement. Title 26 of the Revised Code of Washington, entitled "domestic relations", governs marriage in Washington state. A 2012 bill, Senate Bill 6239, would legalize same-sex marriage and convert into a marriage on June 30, 2014, any undissolved state registered domestic partnership that does not involve at least one party aged 62 years or older, it would add language at Section 26.04.010 exempting religious organizations from any requirement to "provide accommodations, advantages, services, or goods related to the solemnization or celebration of a marriage". Governor Christine Gregoire signed the engrossed bill on February 13; the bill was scheduled to take effect June 7 – 90 days after the end of the legislative session — but opponents submitted on June 6 the necessary signatures to suspend the bill and require a statewide voter referendum.

On June 12, the Washington secretary of state announced that enough signatures had been submitted to place the referendum on the ballot for the November general election. Statements for and against the bill are available online as part of the official online voter's guide for the referendum. Per Section 42.17A on "campaign disclosure and contribution", the Washington state Public Disclosure Commission posted campaign information online, including information for referenda and initiatives, showing seven groups registered for approval of the bill and one against. Of these, Washington United for Marriage and Preserve Marriage Washington were the most active and against the bill respectively. WUM lists "a coalition of businesses" on its website. Amazon's Jeff Bezos and his wife pledged $2.5 million in support of the same-sex marriage law. Steve Ballmer of Microsoft and co-founder Bill Gates each donated $100,000 to the campaign in support as well. Starbucks, Inc. REI, Expedia, Inc. T-Mobile, the Seattle Metropolitan Chamber of Commerce, dozens of other businesses supported the bill.

United States President Barack Obama encouraged support as well. Opposition to the bill was coordinated by the National Organization for Marriage and the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Seattle, which encouraged support for rejecting the bill among all parishes. Parishes planned "in-pew donations as part of what it is calling Preserve Marriage month" and NOM was expected to bring in additional money from outside the state. Several newspapers in Washington state supported the bill, with the Seattle Times launching an interactive social media campaign to encourage readers to support the bill publicly. Other endorsements included the Tacoma News-Tribune, Spokane's The Spokesman-Review, Vancouver's The Columbian, Yakima Herald-Republic, Tri-City Herald, Everett's The Herald, The Olympian, The Wenatchee World, the Walla Walla Union-Bulletin. Referendum 74 generated a large number of individual donations which may have surpassed the 2008 record of 13,500 for the Washington Death with Dignity Act; as of July 3, 2012, Referendum 74 sponsor Preserve Marriage Washington had raised $132,000, while Washington United for Marriage raised $1.9 million.

As of August, campaign-financing proponents showed a 13-to-1 fundraising advantage for same-sex marriage, but a National Organization for Marriage campaign director was confident that $4 million would appear as needed. A Public Disclosure Commission complaint has been filed, accusing both Preserve Marriage Washington and the National Organization for Marriage of having failed to report donations as required by law; as of October 5, 2012, proponents of Referendum 74 Washington United for Marriage have raised $9.4 million in donations and opponents Preserve Marriage Washington have raised about $1 million. Various public opinion surveys of Washington residents asked questions regarding same-sex marriage; the questions vary, with some surveys referring directly to Referendum 74 and others asking more general questions. A post-election poll indicated much stronger support for such marriage among women than men across several categories. Upon certification, Secretary of State Sam Reed credited the referendum for encouragi

The Tudors

The Tudors is a historical fiction television series set in 16th-century England and written by Michael Hirst and produced for the American premium cable television channel Showtime. The series was a collaboration among American and Canadian producers, was filmed in Ireland, it is named after the Tudor dynasty as a whole, although it is based upon the reign of King Henry VIII. The series was produced by Peace Arch Entertainment for Showtime in association with Reveille Productions, Working Title Television, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, was filmed in Ireland; the first two episodes debuted on DirecTV, Time Warner Cable OnDemand, Verizon FiOS On Demand, Internet Movie Database and on the website of the series before the official premiere on Showtime. The Tudors premiered on 1 April 2007. In April 2007, the show was renewed for a second season, in that month the BBC announced it had acquired exclusive United Kingdom broadcast rights for the series, which it started to broadcast on 5 October 2007.

The CBC began broadcasting the show on 2 October 2007. Season Two debuted on Showtime on 30 March 2008, on BBC 2 on 1 August 2008. Production on Season Three began on 16 June 2008 in Bray, County Wicklow Ireland, that season premiered on Showtime on 5 April 2009, debuted in Canada on CBC on 30 September 2009; the day after broadcast, downloadable episodes debuted in Canada on MoboVivo. Showtime announced 13 April 2009, that it had renewed the show for a final season; the network ordered 10 episodes that were first broadcast on 11 April 2010. The series finale was broadcast on 20 June 2010; the final season was shown in Canada on CBC starting 22 September 2010, ending on 23 November 2010. International distribution rights are owned by Sony Pictures Television. Season 1 chronicles the period of Henry VIII's reign in which his effectiveness as king is tested by international conflicts and political intrigue in his own court. Cardinal Thomas Wolsey plays a major part. In Episode 1, Wolsey persuades Henry to keep the peace with France, the two kings meet at Calais to sign pact of friendship.

The pressure of wanting a male heir compels Henry to question his marriage to Queen Katherine of Aragon. He has a string of affairs and fathers an illegitimate son in episode 2 with his mistress Elizabeth Blount, one of Queen Katherine's ladies-in-waiting. Anne Boleyn returns from attending the French court, she catches Henry's eye, her father and uncle encourage her to seduce the King, though she falls in love with Henry as the season unfolds. She refuses to become his mistress but insists that he marry her, which pushes him to use Cardinal Wolsey to take action against the Queen; the King instructs him to get papal dispensation for his divorce, on the grounds that his wife did indeed consummate her marriage to his brother Arthur. In Episode 6, Wolsey makes desperate efforts to persuade the Catholic Church to grant a royal divorce as a result of Emperor Charles V's influence over the Pope as Katherine's nephew—but this starts to weaken his position. In episode 7, the mysterious sweating sickness arrives in England, killing both the high-born and low-born, Henry is terrified of catching it.

Anne Boleyn recovers. A papal envoy arrives in England to decide on the annulment; the court convenes a special session at which both Henry and Katherine are present, it decides in favor of Katherine. Cardinal Wolsey is stripped of his office in episode 9 and banished to York, where he pleads with the King to restore him to office. Henry chooses his loyal friend Sir Thomas More as Wolsey's successor. In the final episode, Wolsey makes one last desperate attempt to save himself by allying himself with his former enemy Queen Katherine, but their plot is discovered and Wolsey kills himself during his internment in the Tower of London after saying a brief prayer apologizing for his sins. Henry will do whatever it takes to marry Anne Boleyn defying Pope Paul III, he prepares to take Anne on a royal visit to France, having demanded loyalty from the English clergy. The papacy in Rome organises an assassination plot against Anne but the assassins' attempts fail. In Episode 3 the newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury annuls Henry's marriage, clearing the way for Henry to marry a by now pregnant Anne, which increases the growing rift between England and Rome.

Bishop Fisher refuses to recognise the validity of Henry's marriage — after Henry issues a decree ordering all his subjects to recognise their new Queen — and is joined by Sir Thomas More, granted permission by Henry to retire from his public office. In Episode 5, Fisher and More's refusal to sign an oath of allegiance recognising Henry's supreme authority as head of the English church leads to their executions. In Episode 6, Thomas Cromwell, who has assumed More's office as Chancellor of England, announces his plans to cleanse England of dissenters to the New Monarchy. England's relationship with France is complicated by King Francis's refusal to unite their kingdoms in marriage, thus causing Henry to question his decision to have married Anne. Episode 7 sees an ill and disillusioned Katherine, forbidden to see her daughter, Lady Mary, Cromwell has legislation approved by Parliament agreeing to the dissolution of first the smaller and the larger abbeys and monasteries. In Episode 8, Henry has Cromwell initiate overtures to the Emperor to make peace with Rome as a bulwark against a hostile France, the King starts to pa