Gladys Maria Knight, known as the "Empress of Soul", is an American singer, actress and author. A seven-time Grammy Award-winner, Knight is known for the hits she recorded during the 1960s, 1970s, 1980s with her group Gladys Knight & the Pips, which included her brother Merald "Bubba" Knight and cousins Edward Patten and William Guest. Knight has recorded two number-one Billboard Hot 100 singles, eleven number-one R&B singles, six number-one R&B albums, she has won seven Grammy Awards and is an inductee into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame along with The Pips. She recorded the theme song for the 1989 James Bond film Licence to Kill. Knight is listed as one of Rolling Stone magazine's 100 Greatest Singers of All Time. Knight was born in Atlanta, the daughter of Merald Woodlow Knight Sr. a postal worker, Sarah Elizabeth. She has a sister, one living brother, Merald Jr. and one deceased brother, David. She first achieved minor fame by winning Ted Mack's The Original Amateur Hour TV show contest at the age of seven in 1952.
That same year, her brother Merald, sister Brenda, cousins William and Elenor Guest formed a musical group called the Pips. By the end of the decade, the act had begun to tour, had replaced Brenda Knight and Eleanor Guest with Gladys Knight's cousin Edward Patten and friend Langston George. In 1961, Knight and her group recorded the single, "Every Beat of My Heart", written for Knight by R&B producer Johnny Otis, it was released on the tiny Atlanta Huntom label, picked up by Vee Jay Records. At the same time, they were signed with Bobby Robinson's label, Fury Records. Both labels issued different versions of the song, with the Vee Jay/Huntom version becoming a hit and outselling the Fury remake. After the success of their follow-up, "Letter Full of Tears", Fury released their first full-length album, they stayed with Fury through 1962 until signing with Larry Maxwell's Maxx label in 1964, releasing several modest hits produced by Van McCoy, including the original version of "Giving Up" and "Lovers Always Forgive".
Gladys Knight & the Pips joined the Motown Records roster in 1966, although regarded as a second-string act, scored several major hit singles, including "I Heard It Through the Grapevine", "Take Me in Your Arms and Love Me", "Friendship Train", "If I Were Your Woman", "I Don't Want To Do Wrong", the Grammy Award-winning "Neither One of Us", "Daddy Could Swear". In their early Motown career, Gladys Knight and the Pips toured as the opening act for Diana Ross and The Supremes. Gladys Knight stated in her memoirs that Ross kicked her off the tour because the audience's reception to Knight's soulful performance overshadowed her. Berry Gordy told Knight that she was giving his act a hard time; the act left Motown for a better deal with Buddah Records in 1973, achieved full-fledged success that year with hits such as the Grammy-winning "Midnight Train to Georgia", "I've Got to Use My Imagination," "The Way We Were/Try To Remember" and "Best Thing That Ever Happened to Me". In the summer of 1974, Knight and the Pips recorded the soundtrack to the successful film Claudine with producer Curtis Mayfield.
The act was successful in Europe, the United Kingdom. However, a number of the Buddah singles became hits in the UK long after their success in the US. For example, "Midnight Train to Georgia" hit the UK pop charts Top 5 in the summer of 1976, a full three years after its success in the U. S. During this period of greater recognition, Knight made her motion picture acting debut in the film, Pipe Dreams, a romantic drama set in Alaska; the film failed at the box-office, but Knight did receive a Golden Globe Best New Actress nomination. Knight and the Pips continued to have hits until the late 1970s, when they were forced to record separately due to legal issues, resulting in Knight's first solo LP recordings—Miss Gladys Knight on Buddah and Gladys Knight on Columbia Records. Having divorced James Newman II in 1973, Knight married Barry Hankerson Detroit mayor Coleman Young's executive aide. Knight and Hankerson remained married for four years, during which time they had Shanga Ali. Upon their divorce and Knight were embroiled in a heated custody battle over Shanga Ali.
In the early 1980s, Johnny Mathis invited Knight to record two duets—"When A Child Is Born" and "The Lord's Prayer". Signing with Columbia Records in 1980 and restored to its familiar quartet form, Gladys Knight & the Pips began releasing new material; the act enlisted former Motown producers Nickolas Ashford and Valerie Simpson for their first two albums: About Love and Touch. During this period, Knight kicked a gambling addiction to the game baccarat. In 1983 Gladys Knight and the Pips scored again with the hit "Save The Overtime For Me"; the song, under the artistic direction of Leon Sylvers III, was done in a soulful boogie style. The single was released from their LP "Visions" and reached number sixty-six on the Hot 100, but was more successful on the R&B where it hit number one for a single week in mid 1983; the single was the first time the group hit number one on the R&B chart since 1974. In 1987 Knight decided to pursue a solo career and
Kennedy Center Honors
The Kennedy Center Honors is an annual honor given to those in the performing arts for their lifetime of contributions to American culture. The honors have been presented annually since 1978, culminating each December in a star-studded gala celebrating the honorees in the Kennedy Center Opera House. George Stevens Jr. created the Kennedy Center Honors with the late Nick Vanoff, produced the first gala in 1978. He was the producer and co-writer through the 2014 awards, after which he sold the production rights to the Kennedy Center; the Kennedy Center Honors started in 1977, after that year's 10th-anniversary White House reception and Kennedy Center program for the American Film Institute. Roger L. Stevens, the founding chairman of the Kennedy Center, asked George Stevens, Jr. the founding director of the AFI, to hold an event for the Center. George Stevens asked Isaac Stern to become involved, "pitched" the idea to the television network CBS, who "bought it." With the announcement of the first honors event and honorees, CBS vice president for specials Bernie Sofronski stated: George came to us with this.
What turned us on is that this is the only show of its kind. In Europe and most countries, they have ways of honoring their athletes. England has its command performances for the queen. We see this as a national honoring of people who have contributed to society, not someone who happens to have a pop record hit at the moment... Our intention is not to do just another award show. We're going to make an effort in terms of a real special; the first host was Leonard Bernstein in 1978, followed by Eric Sevareid in 1979 and Beverly Sills in 1980. Walter Cronkite hosted from 1981 to 2002 and Caroline Kennedy hosted from 2003 until 2012. Glenn Close hosted in 2013 and Stephen Colbert hosted from 2014 to 2016. There was no formal host in 2017. In 2018, Gloria Estefan hosted. Ricky Kirshner and Glenn Weiss of White Cherry Entertainment were selected as Executive Producers of the 38th annual Kennedy Center Honors after George Stevens, Jr. stepped down. This is one of the few awards shows that does not air live, but a re-edited version lasting two hours is televised on CBS after Christmas.
Honoree recommendations are accepted from the general public, the Kennedy Center initiated a Special Honors Advisory Committee, which comprises two members of the Board of Trustees as well as past Honorees and distinguished artists. The Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees selects the Honoree recipients based on excellence in music, theater, motion pictures or television; the selections are announced sometime between July and September. The invitation-only weekend-long ceremony includes the Chairman's Luncheon, State Department dinner, White House reception, the Honors gala performances and supper. Surrounded by the Honorees, the luncheon is held on Saturday at the Kennedy Center, with a welcoming speech by the Chairman of the Board of Trustees. At that evening's reception and dinner at the State Department, presided over by the Secretary of State, the Honorees are introduced and the Honors medallions are presented by the Chairman of the Board; the wide rainbow-colored ribbon hung around the necks of the recipients, prominently noticeable when the events are televised, symbolizes "a spectrum of many skills within the performing arts" according to creator Ivan Chermayeff.
On Sunday, there is an early-evening White House reception hosted by the President of the United States and the First Lady, followed by the Honors gala performance at the Kennedy Center and supper. For the 2015 gala performance, President Barack Obama did attend, after addressing the nation in a live telecast. There have been four occasions where the President did not attend the gala performances: President Jimmy Carter did not attend the December 1979 gala performance during the hostage crisis, President George H. W. Bush did not attend in December 1989 and President Bill Clinton did not attend in 1994. On August 19, 2017, the White House announced that President Donald Trump and the first lady, Melania Trump, had decided not to participate in events honoring recipients of the 2017 Kennedy Center Honors awards to "allow the honorees to celebrate without any political distraction." President and Mrs. Trump did not attend the 2017 ceremony, held on December 3, 2017. Caroline Kennedy presented the honorees.
The traditional dinner at the State Department on the Saturday evening before the ceremony was hosted by Secretary of State Rex Tillerson and the White House reception was canceled. There have been 217 recipients to date of the Kennedy Center Honors Awards during the Honor's 40 years, although the one given to Bill Cosby in 1998 was rescinded in 2018, following his sexual assault conviction; the vast majority have been bestowed on individuals. On ten occasions since 1985, awards have been presented to duos or groups, including three married couples who were actors: Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy, Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward, Ossie Davis and Ruby Dee; the dancers Fayard Nicholas and Harold Nicholas of the Nicholas Brothers were honored, along with three musical theater songwriting duos: Alan Jay Lerner and Frederick Loewe, Betty Comden and Adolph Green, John Kander and Fred Ebb. The musicians of three rock groups were awarded: Pete Townshend and Roger Daltrey of The Who, John Paul Jones, Jimmy Page and Robert Plant of Led Zeppelin, Don Henley, Timothy B.
Schmit, Joe Walsh and Glenn Frey of the Eagles. The 2018 award ceremony will present the honor, for the first time, to the creators of the musical Hamilton: Lin-Man
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Katherine Mary Dunham was an African-American dancer, author, educator and social activist. Dunham had one of the most successful dance careers in African-American and European theater of the 20th century, directed her own dance company for many years, she has been called the "matriarch and queen mother of black dance."While a student at the University of Chicago, Dunham took leave and went to the Caribbean to study dance and ethnography. She returned to graduate and submitted a master's thesis in anthropology, she did not complete the other requirements for the degree, however. She realized. At the height of her career in the 1940s and 1950s, Dunham was renowned throughout Europe and Latin America and was popular in the United States; the Washington Post called her "dancer Katherine the Great". For 30 years she maintained the Katherine Dunham Dance Company, the only self-supported American black dance troupe at that time. Over her long career, she choreographed more than ninety individual dances.
Dunham was an innovator in African-American modern dance as well as a leader in the field of dance anthropology, or ethnochoreology. She developed the Dunham Technique, a method of movement to support her dance works. Katherine Mary Dunham was born on June 22, 1909, in a Chicago hospital and taken as an infant to her parents' home in Glen Ellyn, about 25 miles west of Chicago, her father, Albert Millard Dunham, was a descendant of slaves from West Madagascar. Her mother, Fanny June Dunham, of mixed French-Canadian and Native American heritage, died when Dunham was three years old, she had Albert Jr. with whom she had a close relationship. After her father married again a few years the family moved to a predominantly white neighborhood in Joliet, Illinois. There her father ran a dry-cleaning business. Dunham became interested in both dance at a young age. In 1921, a short story she wrote when she was 12 years old, called "Come Back to Arizona", was published in volume 2 of The Brownies' Book, she graduated from Joliet Central High School in 1928, where she played baseball, tennis and track.
In high school she joined the Terpsichorean Club and began to learn a kind of modern dance based on the ideas of Europeans Émile Jaques-Dalcroze and Rudolf von Laban. At the age of 15, she organized "The Blue Moon Café", a fundraising cabaret to raise money for Brown's Methodist Church in Joliet, where she gave her first public performance. While still a high school student, she opened a private dance school for young black children. After completing her studies at Joliet Junior College, Dunham moved to Chicago to join her brother Albert, attending the University of Chicago as a student of philosophy. In a lecture by Robert Redfield, a professor of anthropology, she learned that much of black culture in modern America had begun in Africa, she decided to study dances of the African diaspora. Besides Redfield, she studied under anthropologists such as A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, Edward Sapir, Bronisław Malinowski. Under their tutelage, she showed great promise in her ethnographic studies of dance. In 1935, Dunham was awarded travel fellowships from the Julius Rosenwald and Guggenheim foundations to conduct ethnographic study of the dance forms of the Caribbean as manifested in Vodun practice of Haiti.
Fellow anthropology student Zora Neale Hurston did field work in the Caribbean. Dunham received a grant to work with Professor Melville Herskovits of Northwestern University, whose ideas about retention of African culture among African Americans served as a base for her research in the Caribbean, her field work in the Caribbean began in Jamaica, where she lived for several months in the remote Maroon village of Accompong, deep in the mountains of Cockpit Country. She traveled to Martinique and to Trinidad and Tobago for short stays to do an investigation of Shango, the African god, still considered an important presence in West Indian religious culture. Early in 1936, she arrived in Haiti, where she remained for several months, the first of her many extended stays in that country through her life. While in Haiti, Dunham investigated Vodun rituals and made extensive research notes on the dance movements of the participants. Years after extensive studies and initiations, she became a mambo in the Vodun religion.
She became friends with, among others, Dumarsais Estimé a high-level politician, who became president of Haiti in 1949. Somewhat she assisted him, at considerable risk to her life, when he was persecuted for his progressive policies and sent in exile to Jamaica after a coup d'état. Dunham returned to Chicago in the late spring of 1936. In August she was awarded a bachelor's degree, a Ph. B. Bachelor of philosophy, with her principal area of study named as social anthropology, she was one of the first African-American women to earn these degrees. In 1938, using materials collected during her research tour of the Caribbean, Dunham submitted a thesis, The Dances of Haiti: A Study of Their Material Aspect, Organization and Function, to the Department of Anthropology at the University of Chicago in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master's degree, but she never completed her course work or took required examinations to complete the degree. Devoted to dance performance, as well as to anthropological research, she realized that she had to choose be
Good Morning America
Good Morning America is an American morning television show, broadcast on ABC. It debuted on November 3, 1975, first expanded to weekends with the debut of a Sunday edition on January 3, 1993; the Sunday edition was canceled in 1999. The weekday program airs from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in all U. S. time zones. The Saturday and Sunday editions are one hour long and are transmitted to ABC's stations live at 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time, although stations in some markets air them at different times. Viewers in the Pacific Time Zone receive an updated feed with a specialized opening and updated live reports. A third hour of the weekday broadcast aired from 2007 to 2008 on ABC News Now; the program features news, weather forecasts, special-interest stories, feature segments such as "Pop News", the "GMA Heat Index" and "Play of the Day". It is produced by ABC News and broadcasts from the Times Square Studios in New York City's Times Square district; the primary anchors are Robin Roberts, George Stephanopoulos, Michael Strahan alongside breaking news anchor Amy Robach, entertainment anchor Lara Spencer and weather anchor Ginger Zee.
Good Morning America has been the most watched morning show in total viewers and key demos each year since Summer 2012. GMA placed second in the ratings, behind NBC's Today from 1995 to 2012, it overtook its rival for a period from the early to mid-1980s with anchors David Hartman and Joan Lunden, from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s with Charles Gibson and Lunden, in April 2012 with Roberts and Stephanopoulos. Good Morning America won the first three Daytime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Morning Program", sharing the inaugural 2007 award with Today and winning the 2008 and 2009 awards outright. On January 6, 1975, ABC launched AM America in an attempt to compete with NBC's Today; the program was hosted by Bill Beutel and Stephanie Edwards, with Peter Jennings and Robert Kennedy reading the news. Because the show could not find an audience against Today, ABC sought a new approach; the network found that one of its affiliates, WEWS in Cleveland, had been pre-empting AM America in favor of airing a locally produced show called The Morning Exchange.
Unlike AM America and Today, The Morning Exchange featured an easygoing and less dramatic approach by offering news and weather updates only at the top and bottom of every hour and used the rest of the time to discuss general-interest/entertainment topics. The Morning Exchange established a group of regular guests who were experts in certain fields, including health, consumer affairs and travel. Unlike both the NBC and ABC shows, The Morning Exchange was not broadcast from a newsroom set but instead one that resembled a suburban living room. In the process of screening the Cleveland morning program as a creative source, ABC began looking at another local show, Good Morning!, produced by Boston ABC affiliate WCVB-TV. Good Morning! was similar in format to The Morning Exchange, but with a lesser emphasis on news and weather. In fact, once the revamped ABC morning show took to the air late in 1975 under the title Good Morning America, WCVB station manager Bob Bennett accused ABC entertainment president Fred Silverman of deliberately stealing the title of Good Morning!.
The launch of Good Morning America did result in the Boston morning show changing its name—to Good Day!. ABC used it as a pilot episode. After positive reviews for the pilot, the format replaced AM America on Monday, November 3, as Good Morning America; the first host was actor David Hartman, with actress Nancy Dussault as co-host. For the first seven years, weather forecasts were presented by John Coleman, former chief meteorologist for ABC owned-and-operated station WLS-TV in Chicago, who left GMA in 1982 to start The Weather Channel with Landmark Communications CEO Frank Batten. Dave Murray provided the forecasts for both Good Morning America and ABC's early morning news program ABC News This Morning from 1983 to 1986. In August 1986, he was replaced by Spencer Christian, who worked at WABC-TV in New York City and served as fill-in meteorologist for both Coleman and Murray whenever they were away on vacation or assignment; the program's ratings climbed but throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s while Today experienced a slight slump in viewership with Walters' decision to leave NBC for a job at ABC News.
On August 30, 1976, Tom Brokaw began anchoring Today while the program began a search for a female co-host. Within a year, Today managed to beat back the Good Morning America ratings threat with Brokaw and new co-host Jane Pauley, featuring art and entertainment contributor Gene Shalit. Good Morning America continued to threaten Today's ratings dominance into the 1980s after Brokaw left the latter program to become co-anchor of NBC Nightly News with Roger Mudd for 17 months before being named sole anchor of that program. For the first time, Good Morning America became the highest-rated morning news program in the United States as Today fell to second place. At the outset, Good Morning America was a talk program with a main host, joined by a side
Soul Train is an American music-dance television program which aired in syndication from October 2, 1971 to March 27, 2006. In its 35-year history, the show featured performances by R&B, dance/pop, hip hop artists, although funk, jazz and gospel artists appeared; the series was created by Don Cornelius, who served as its first host and executive producer. Production was suspended following the 2005–2006 season, with a rerun package airing for two years subsequently; as a nod to Soul Train's longevity, the show's opening sequence during seasons contained a claim that it was the "longest-running first-run, nationally syndicated program in American television history," with over 1,100 episodes produced from the show's debut through the 2005–2006 season. Despite the production hiatus, Soul Train held that superlative until 2016, when Entertainment Tonight surpassed it completing its 35th season. Among non-news programs, Wheel of Fortune surpassed that mark in 2018; the origins of Soul Train can be traced to 1965 when WCIU-TV, an upstart UHF station in Chicago, began airing two youth-oriented dance programs: Kiddie-a-Go-Go and Red Hot and Blues.
These programs—specifically the latter, which featured a predominantly African-American group of in-studio dancers—would set the stage for what was to come to the station several years later. Don Cornelius, a news reader and backup disc jockey at Chicago radio station WVON, was hired by WCIU in 1967 as a news and sports reporter. Cornelius was promoting and emceeing a touring series of concerts featuring local talent at Chicago-area high schools, calling his traveling caravan of shows "The Soul Train". WCIU-TV took notice of Cornelius's outside work and in 1970, allowed him the opportunity to bring his road show to television. After securing a sponsorship deal with the Chicago-based retailer Sears, Roebuck & Co. Soul Train premiered on WCIU-TV as a live show airing weekday afternoons. Beginning as a low-budget affair, in black and white, the first episode of the program featured Jerry Butler, the Chi-Lites, the Emotions as guests. Cornelius was assisted by Clinton Ghent, a local professional dancer who appeared on early episodes before moving behind the scenes as a producer and secondary host.
The program's immediate success attracted the attention of another locally based firm—the Johnson Products Company —and they agreed to co-sponsor the program's expansion into national syndication. Cornelius and Soul Train's syndicator targeted 25 markets outside of Chicago to carry the show, but stations in only seven other cities—Atlanta, Cleveland, Houston, Los Angeles, Philadelphia—purchased the program, which began airing on a weekly basis on October 2, 1971. By the end of the first season, Soul Train was on in the other eighteen markets; when the program moved into syndication, its home base was shifted to Los Angeles, where it remained for the duration of its run. Soul Train was part of a national trend toward syndicated music-oriented programs targeted at niche audiences. Though Don Cornelius moved his operations west, a local version of Soul Train continued in Chicago, he continued to oversee production in Chicago, where Clinton Ghent hosted episodes on WCIU-TV until 1976, followed by three years of once-weekly reruns.
The syndicated version was picked up in the Chicago market by CBS-owned WBBM-TV at its launch. Don Cornelius hosted every national episode of Soul Train during this era except for one: comedian Richard Pryor guest hosted the final episode of the 1974-75 season. In 1985, Chicago-based Tribune Entertainment took over Soul Train's syndication contract. Most of the stations that aired Soul Train during the final 13 years were either Fox affiliates or independent stations that would become WB or UPN affiliates. Don Cornelius ended his run as host at the end of the show's 22nd season in 1993, though he remained the show's main creative force from behind the scenes; the following fall, Soul Train began using guest hosts weekly until comedian Mystro Clark began a two-year stint as permanent host in 1997. Clark was replaced by actor Shemar Moore in 2000. In 2003, Moore was succeeded by actor Dorian Gregory, who hosted through 2006. Soul Train pulled into its last stop when production of first-run episodes was suspended at the conclusion of the 2005–06 season, the show's 35th.
Instead, for two seasons starting in 2006–07, the program aired archived episodes under the title The Best of Soul Train. This was because in years, Nielsen ratings dropped to below 1.0. The future of Soul Train was uncertain with the announced closing of Tribune Entertainment in December 2007, which left Don Cornelius Productions to seek a new distributor for the program. Cornelius soon secured a deal with Trifecta Media; when Don Cornelius Productions still owned the program, clips of the show's performances and interviews were kept away from online video sites such as YouTube owing to copyright infringement claims. C
Power moves are moves loosely defined as relying on speed and acrobatic elements for performance. They are prominent in B-boying the centerpieces of routines featuring the other elements that make up breaking. Power moves are closer to gymnastics than dancing. B-boys who focus on power moves and execute them as a main part of their routines are called "power heads". B-boy Powerful Pex and the New York City Breakers credited in 1983 for Bboy style combining 2 or 3 difficult moves together this includes floats, Headmills aka Power windmills and incorporated flares suicides into breaking B-boys cut the phrase down from powerful moves to power moves in the 90's with poetic rhythm linguistics Syllable Syllable to make it sound more flashy. Nowadays B-boys are executing more acrobatics now which are the new power moves of the day it has evolved with the new generation to a higher level. Back spin: One of the first and most famous spinning power moves, the dancer is balled up and spinning on his or her back.
In some variations, the dancer may choose to hop while spinning. Shoulder spin Air chair spin The headspin is an athletic move in which a person spins on their head from a headstand position; these may be done continuously through proper balance. The 1990 is a breakdance move which resembles a spinning one-handed handstand. Created Spinner of the Dynamic Rockers referred to as a "Hand Spin"*2000s are similar to 1990s, but with both hands. Airflare is a breakdance move that requires the dancer to revolve hand to hand while keeping their legs in the air in a V-Formation. Floats were one of the first power moves in the 80's; the body is in a fixed position while the arms move. Crickets and variants: Hydro, Lotus Jackhammer, Super Jackhammer, Hopping Turtles/Scratching Turtles, etc. UFO, Inside Boomerangs, Gremlin Spins/Buddha spins Swipes are one of the most recognizable power moves; the b-boy or b-girl leans back, whips his or her arms to one side to touch the ground, his or her legs follow behind, twisting 360 degrees to land on the ground once again.
A variant is the master swipe known as a superman swipe or one-footed swipeShadow Swipes is a variation of the swipe that incorporates the chair freeze to start the swipe. Created by Bboy Kid Shade of Hong Kong, it is one of his signature moves; the headmill is a windmill variant performed without the use of hands for stability, rotating with the head and shoulders as the pivot point. As headmills free the hands, there are many further variations defined by the positioning of the hands. Major windmill variants: Mummies/Coffin Nutcrackers Eggbeaters HandCuffs Bellymills/superman Confusions Barrels/headmills Forearms Airplane/Highrisers/Highrises Munchmills/Babymills Tombstone Flares are a recognized power move borrowed from gymnastics. Major variants: King Flares/Hopping Flare Crossed-legged Flare Chair Flare Double Chair Flare Sandwich Flare Lotus Flare Thread Flare One-legged Flare Virgin/Double Leg Circles - flares done with closed, straight legs