Looting referred to as sacking, plundering, despoiling and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster, or rioting. The proceeds of all these activities can be described as booty, plunder, spoils, or pillage. In armed conflict, pillage is prohibited by international law, constitutes a war crime. Looting by a victorious army during war has been common practice throughout recorded history. Foot soldiers viewed plunder as a way to supplement an meagre income and transferred wealth became part of the celebration of victory. On higher levels, the proud exhibition of loot formed an integral part of the typical Roman triumph, Genghis Khan was not unusual in proclaiming that the greatest happiness was "to vanquish your enemies... to rob them of their wealth". In warfare in ancient times, the spoils of war included the defeated populations, which were enslaved. Women and children might become absorbed into the victorious country's population.
In other pre-modern societies, objects made of precious metals were the preferred target of war looting because of their easy portability. In many cases looting offered an opportunity to obtain treasures that otherwise would not have been obtainable. Since the 18th century, works of art have become a popular target. In the 1930s, more so during World War II, Nazi Germany engaged in large-scale and organized looting of art and property. Looting, combined with poor military discipline, has been an army's downfall - troops who have dispersed to ransack an area may become vulnerable to counter-attack. In other cases, for example the Wahhabi sack of Karbala in 1801 or 1802, loot has financed further victories. Not all looters in wartime are conquerors. Local civilians can take advantage of a breakdown of order to loot public and private property, as in events which took place at the National Museum of Iraq in the course of the Iraq War in 2003. Tolstoy's novel War and Peace describes widespread looting by Moscow's citizens before Napoleon's troops entered the city in 1812, by French troops elsewhere.
Both customary international law and international treaties prohibit pillage in armed conflict. The Lieber Code, Brussels Declaration, Oxford Manual recognized the prohibition against pillage; the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 obliges military forces not only to avoid the destruction of enemy property, but to provide protection to it. Article 8 of the Statute of the International Criminal Court provides that in international warfare, the "pillaging a town or place when taken by assault" counts as a war crime. In the aftermath of World War II, a number of war criminals were prosecuted for pillage; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia brought several prosecutions for pillage. The Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 explicitly prohibits the looting of civilian property during wartime. Theoretically, to prevent such looting, unclaimed property is moved to the custody of the Custodian of Enemy Property, to be handled until returned to its owners; the term "looting" is sometimes used to refer to antiquities being removed from countries by unauthorized people, either domestic people breaking the law seeking monetary gain, or by foreign nations, which are more interested in prestige or "scientific discovery".
An example of this might be the removal of the contents of Egyptian tombs which were transported to museums in Europe. Other examples include the obelisks of Pharaoh Amenhotep II, in the, Pharaoh Ptolemy IX. Whether this constitutes "looting" is a debated point, with other parties pointing out that the Europeans were given permission of some sort, that many of the treasures wouldn't have been discovered at all if the Europeans hadn't funded and organized the expeditions or digs that located them. Many of these antiquities have been returned to their country of origin voluntarily. In the aftermath of the Second World War, Soviet forces systematically plundered the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, including the Recovered Territories which were to be transferred to Poland, they sent valuable industrial equipment and whole factories to the Soviet Union. During a disaster and military are sometimes unable to prevent looting when they are overwhelmed by humanitarian or combat concerns, or cannot be summoned due to damaged communications infrastructure.
During natural disasters, some people find themselves forced to take what is not theirs in order to survive. How to respond to this, where the line between unnecessary "looting" and necessary "scavenging" lies, is a dilemma for governments. In other cases, looting may be tolerated or encouraged by governments for political or other reasons. Around the same time of the Hyksos invasion and occupation of Egypt, Hebrew tradition has it that both Abraham and Moses were given property of Egypt by God. "In Genesis 15:14, the despoliation is an act of justifiable vengeance upon the oppressors of Israel. Yet in Exodus, God uses the plagues as an act of mercy to bring a knowledge of himself to Israel, the Egyptians, to the ends of the earth." See Hyksos Iconoclasm and Genesis 13:2 and Genesis 15:14 and Exodus 12:36. Following the death of Valentinian III in 455, the Vand
Pontiac was a car brand, owned and sold by General Motors. Introduced as a companion make for GM's more expensive line of Oakland automobiles, Pontiac overtook Oakland in popularity and supplanted its parent brand by 1933. Sold in the United States and Mexico by GM, Pontiac was advertised as the performance division of General Motors from the 1960s onward. In the hierarchy of GM's five divisions, it slotted above Chevrolet, but below Oldsmobile and Cadillac. Amid late 2000s financial problems and restructuring efforts, GM announced in 2008 it would follow the same path with Pontiac as it had with Oldsmobile in 2004 and discontinued manufacturing and marketing vehicles under that brand by the end of 2010; the last Pontiac badged cars were built in December 2009, with one final vehicle in January 2010. Franchise agreements for Pontiac dealers expired October 31, 2010, leaving GM to focus on its four remaining North American brands: Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC; the Pontiac brand was introduced by General Motors in 1926 as the companion marque to GM's Oakland division, shared the GM A platform.
Purchased by General Motors in 1909, Oakland continued to produce modestly priced automobiles until 1931 when it was renamed Pontiac. It was named after the famous Ottawa chief who had given his name to the city of Pontiac, Michigan where the car was produced. Within months of its introduction, Pontiac was outselling Oakland, a 1920s Chevrolet with a six-cylinder engine installed. Body styles offered included a sedan with both two and four doors, Landau Coupe, with the Sport Phaeton, Sport Landau Sedan, Sport Cabriolet and Sport Roadster; as a result of Pontiac's rising sales, versus Oakland's declining sales, Pontiac became the only companion marque to survive its parent, with Oakland ceasing production in 1932. Pontiacs were manufactured from knock-down kits at GM's short-lived Japanese factory at Osaka Assembly in Osaka, Japan from 1927-1941. Pontiac produced cars offering 40 hp 186.7 cu in L-head straight 6-cylinder engines in the Pontiac Chief of 1927. The Chief sold 39,000 units within six months of its appearance at the 1926 New York Auto Salon, hitting 76,742 at twelve months.
The next year, it became the top-selling six in the U. S. ranking seventh in overall sales. By 1933, it had moved up to producing the least expensive cars available with straight eight engines; this was done by using many components from the 6-cylinder Chevrolet Master, such as the body, but installing a large chrome strip on the top and center of the front hood Pontiac called the "Silver Streak". Only eight cylinder engines were offered in 1933 and 1934, displacing 223.4 cubic inches for 77 HP. In the late 1930s, Pontiac used a Buick "torpedo" body for one of its models, just prior to its being used by Chevrolet, earning some media attention for the marque. An unusual feature of the "torpedo"-bodied exhibition car was that, with push of a button, the front half of the body would open showing the engine and the car's front seat interior. 1937 was a year of major change for Pontiac, all models except the new station wagon now using the all steel B-body shared with Oldsmobile, LaSalle and small Buicks.
New stronger X frame had Hotchkiss drive using a two part drive shaft. The eight-cylinder had a 122-inch wheelbase. Both engines had increased displacements, the six going to 222.7 cubic inches for 85 HP, the eight to 248.9 for 100 HP. In 1940 & 42, Pontiac was built on three different bodies; the "A" body with Chevrolet, the "B" body shared with Oldsmobile and Buick and the "C" body shared with the large Oldsmobile and the small Cadillac. The "C" body for 1940 was called the Torpedo. In 1941 all Pontiac's were called Torpedoes. On 2 February 1942, a Pontiac was the last civilian automobile manufactured in the United States during World War II, as all automobile factories converted to military production. For an extended period of time—prewar through the early 1950s—the Pontiac was a quiet, solid car, but not powerful, it came with a flathead straight eight. Straight 8s were less expensive to produce than the popular V8s, but they were heavier and longer. Additionally, the long crankshaft suffered from excessive flex, restricting straight 8s to a low compression ratio with a modest redline.
However, in this application, inexpensive flatheads were not a liability. From 1946 to 1948, all Pontiac models were 1942 models with minor changes; the Hydra-matic automatic transmission was introduced in 1948 and helped Pontiac sales grow though their cars and Streamliners, were becoming out of date. The first all-new Pontiac models appeared in 1949, they incorporated styling cues such as lower body lines and rear fenders that were integrated in the rear-end styling of the car. Along with new styling came a new model. Continuing the Native American theme of Pontiac, the Chieftain line was introduced to replace the Torpedo; these were built on the GM B-Body platform and featured different styling than the more conservative Streamliner. In 1950, the Catalina pillarless hardtop coupe was introduced as a "halo" model, much like the Chevrolet Bel Air of the same year. In 1952, Pontiac discontinued the Streamliner and replaced it with additional models in the Chieftain line built on the GM A-body platform.
This single model line continued until 1954. The Star Chief was created by adding an 11-inch extension to the A-body platform creating a 124-inch wheelbase; the 1953 models were the first to have one-p
The Chicago Cubs are an American professional baseball team based in Chicago, Illinois. The Cubs compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the National League Central division; the team plays its home games at Wrigley Field, located on the city's North Side. The Cubs are one of two major league teams in Chicago; the Cubs, first known as the White Stockings, were a founding member of the NL in 1876, becoming the Chicago Cubs in 1903. The Cubs have appeared in a total of eleven World Series; the 1906 Cubs won 116 games, finishing 116–36 and posting a modern-era record winning percentage of.763, before losing the World Series to the Chicago White Sox by four games to two. The Cubs won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first major league team to play in three consecutive World Series, the first to win it twice. Most the Cubs won the 2016 National League Championship Series and 2016 World Series, which ended a 71-year National League pennant drought and a 108-year World Series championship drought, both of which are record droughts in Major League Baseball.
The 108-year drought was the longest such occurrence in all major North American sports. Since the start of divisional play in 1969, the Cubs have appeared in the postseason nine times through the 2017 season; the Cubs are known as "the North Siders", a reference to the location of Wrigley Field within the city of Chicago, in contrast to the White Sox, whose home field is located on the South Side. The Cubs have multiple rivalries. There is a divisional rivalry with the St. Louis Cardinals, a newer rivalry with the Milwaukee Brewers and an interleague rivalry with the Chicago White Sox; the Cubs began playing in 1870 as the Chicago White Stockings, joining the National League in 1876 as a charter member. Owner William Hulbert signed multiple star players, such as pitcher Albert Spalding and infielders Ross Barnes, Deacon White, Adrian "Cap" Anson, to join the team prior to the N. L.'s first season. The White Stockings played their home games at West Side Grounds and established themselves as one of the new league's top teams.
Spalding won forty-seven games and Barnes led the league in hitting at.429 as Chicago won the first National League pennant, which at the time was the game's top prize. After back-to-back pennants in 1880 and 1881, Hulbert died, Spalding, who had retired to start Spalding sporting goods, assumed ownership of the club; the White Stockings, with Anson acting as player-manager, captured their third consecutive pennant in 1882, Anson established himself as the game's first true superstar. In 1885 and'86, after winning N. L. pennants, the White Stockings met the champions of the short-lived American Association in that era's version of a World Series. Both seasons resulted in matchups with the St. Louis Brown Stockings, with the clubs tying in 1885 and with St. Louis winning in 1886; this was the genesis of what would become one of the greatest rivalries in sports. In all, the Anson-led Chicago Base Ball Club won six National League pennants between 1876 and 1886; as a result, Chicago's club nickname transitioned, by 1890 they had become known as the Chicago Colts, or sometimes "Anson's Colts", referring to Cap's influence within the club.
Anson was the first player in history credited with collecting 3,000 career hits. After a disappointing record of 59–73 and a ninth-place finish in 1897, Anson was released by the Cubs as both a player and manager. Due to Anson's absence from the club after 22 years, local newspaper reporters started to refer to the Colts as the "Orphans". After the 1900 season, the American Base-Ball League formed as a rival professional league, incidentally the club's old White Stockings nickname would be adopted by a new American League neighbor to the south. In 1902, who by this time had revamped the roster to boast what would soon be one of the best teams of the early century, sold the club to Jim Hart; the franchise was nicknamed the Cubs by the Chicago Daily News in 1902, although not becoming the Chicago Cubs until the 1907 season. During this period, which has become known as baseball's dead-ball era, Cub infielders Joe Tinker, Johnny Evers, Frank Chance were made famous as a double-play combination by Franklin P. Adams' poem Baseball's Sad Lexicon.
The poem first appeared in the July 1910 edition of the New York Evening Mail. Mordecai "Three-Finger" Brown, Jack Taylor, Ed Reulbach, Jack Pfiester, Orval Overall were several key pitchers for the Cubs during this time period. With Chance acting as player-manager from 1905 to 1912, the Cubs won four pennants and two World Series titles over a five-year span. Although they fell to the "Hitless Wonders" White Sox in the 1906 World Series, the Cubs recorded a record 116 victories and the best winning percentage in Major League history. With the same roster, Chicago won back-to-back World Series championships in 1907 and 1908, becoming the first Major League club to play three times in the Fall Classic and the first to win it twice. However, the Cubs would not win another World Series until 2016; the next season, veteran catcher Johnny Kling left the team to become a professional pocket billiards player. Some historians think Kling's absence was significant enough to prevent the Cubs from winning a third straight title in 1909, as they finished 6 games out of first place.
When Kling returned the next year, the Cubs won the pennant again, but lost to the Philadelphia Athletics in the 1910 World Series. In 1914, adver
Crown Heights, Brooklyn
Crown Heights is a neighborhood in the central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. The main thoroughfare through this neighborhood is Eastern Parkway, a tree-lined boulevard designed by Frederick Law Olmsted extending 2 miles east–west; the area was known as Crow Hill. It was a succession of hills running east and west from Utica Avenue to Washington Avenue, south to Empire Boulevard and East New York Avenue; the name was changed when Crown Street was cut through in 1916. Crown Heights is bounded by Washington Avenue to the west, Atlantic Avenue to the north, Ralph Avenue to the east, Empire Boulevard/East New York Avenue to the south, it is 2 miles long. Neighborhoods bordering Crown Heights include Prospect Heights to the west and Prospect Lefferts Gardens to the south, Brownsville to the east, Bedford-Stuyvesant to the north; the northern half of Crown Heights is part of Brooklyn Community District 8 and is patrolled by the 77th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.
The southern half is part of Brooklyn Community District 9 and is patrolled by the 71st Precinct of the NYPD. Crown Heights's primary ZIP Codes are 11213, 11216, 11233, 11238, 11225. Politically, it is represented by the New York City Council's 35th, 36th, 41st Districts. Although no known physical evidence remains in the Crown Heights vicinity, large portions of what is now called Long Island including present-day Brooklyn were occupied by the Lenape; the Lenape lived in communities of bark- or grass-covered wigwams, in their larger settlements—typically located on high ground adjacent to fresh water, occupied in the fall and spring—they fished, harvested shellfish, trapped animals, gathered wild fruits and vegetables, cultivated corn, tobacco and other crops. The first recorded contact between the indigenous people of the New York City region and Europeans was with the Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524 in the service of France when he anchored at the approximate location where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge touches down in Brooklyn today.
There he was visited by a canoe party of Lenape. The next contact was in 1609 when the explorer Henry Hudson arrived in what is now New York Harbor aboard a Dutch East India Company ship, the Halve Maen commissioned by the Dutch Republic. European habitation in the New York City area began in earnest with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement called "Nieuw Amsterdam", on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. By 1630, Dutch and English colonists started moving into the western end of Long Island. In 1637, Joris Jansen de Rapalje purchased about 335 acres around Wallabout Bay and over the following two years, director Kieft of the Dutch West India Company purchased title to nearly all the land in what is now Kings County and Queens County from the indigenous inhabitants; the areas around present-day Crown Heights saw its first European settlements starting in about 1661/1662 when several men each received, from Governor Peter Stuyvesant and the directors of the Dutch West India Company what was described as “a parcel of free woodland there” on the condition that they situate their houses “within one of the other concentration, which would suit them best, but not to make a hamlet.”
Crown Heights had begun as a fashionable residential neighborhood, a place for secondary homes in which Manhattan's growing bourgeois class could reside. The area benefited by having its rapid transit in a subway configuration, the IRT Eastern Parkway Line, in contrast to many other Brooklyn neighborhoods, which had elevated lines. Conversion to a commuter town included tearing down the 19th century Kings County Penitentiary at Carroll Street and Nostrand Avenue. Beginning in the early 1900s, many upper-class residences, including characteristic brownstone buildings, were erected along Eastern Parkway. Away from the parkway were a mixture of lower middle-class residences; this development peaked in the 1920s. Before World War II Crown Heights was among New York City's premier neighborhoods, with tree-lined streets, an array of cultural institutions and parks, numerous fraternal and community organizations. From the early 1920s through the 1960s, Crown Heights was an overwhelmingly white neighborhood and predominantly Jewish.
Population changes began in the 1920s with newcomers from Jamaica and the West Indies, as well as African Americans from the South. In 1950, the neighborhood was 89 percent white, with some 50 to 60 percent of the white population, or about 75,000 people, being Jewish, a small, growing black population. By 1957, there were about 25,000 blacks in Crown Heights, making up about one-fourth of the population. Following the end of World War II, suburbanization began to affect Crown Heights and Brooklyn. Robert Moses expanded the borough’s access to Long Island through expressway construction, by way of the G. I. Bill, many families moved east. Most of these opportunities were limited to whites. Levittown in Long Island, for example, forbid applications from black families; as the Jewish and Italian populations of Crown Heights moved out of Brooklyn, black people from the south and immigrants from the Caribbean continued to move there. The 1957 departure of the Brooklyn Dodgers and the destruction of Ebbets Field for public housing for its black population symbolically served as the end of the old white ethnic Crown Heights and in the 1960s the neighborhood experienced mass white flight.
The demographic change was astounding. The one exception to this pattern was
Leonard Shenoff Randle is a former Major League Baseball player. He was the first-round pick of the Washington Senators in the secondary phase of the June 1970 Major League Baseball draft, tenth overall. Born in Long Beach, Randle was captain of both the baseball and football teams at Centennial High School in Los Angeles, he was drafted by the St. Louis Cardinals in the 1967 Major League Baseball draft, but chose instead to attend Arizona State University. Along with playing football and second base for the 1969 NCAA championship Arizona State University Sun Devils baseball team, Randle graduated with a Bachelor of Science degree. After a little more than one season in the minors, Randle debuted as a second baseman with the Washington Senators in 1971, he split time between the minors and with the newly renamed and relocated Texas Rangers his first three season, spending most of 1973 in triple A with the Spokane Indians. He had a breakthrough 1974 season, when he batted.302 with 26 stolen bases and 65 runs scored splitting time at second base, third base and in the outfield.
He split time in all three positions in 1975 as well before being returned to second base in 1976. During Spring training 1977, first round draft choice Bump Wills earned the starting second base job. On March 28, the Rangers were in Florida for an exhibition game with the Minnesota Twins. An hour before the first pitch, Randle walked up to Rangers manager Frank Lucchesi during batting practice and said he wanted to talk to him. Words were exchanged, Randle punched Lucchesi, still in street clothes, in the face three times, it was reported that Frank Lucchesi took a left and another left to the face before the altercation was stopped by bystanders. Lucchesi was hospitalized for a week, needing plastic surgery to repair his fractured cheekbone which Randle had broken in three places, he received bruises to his kidney and back. The Rangers suspended Randle for 30 days without pay and fined him $10,000. On April 26, before the suspension was complete, Texas traded him to the New York Mets for cash and a player to be named, to be Rick Auerbach.
Randle was charged with assault, would plead no contest to battery charges in a Florida court, getting slapped with a $1,050 fine. The Texas Rangers fired Lucchesi on June 21. Lucchesi blamed Randle for the firing, sued him for $200,000. Randle began his tenure with the Mets playing second base. With opening day third baseman Roy Staiger batting only.236 with one home run and eight runs batted in, Randle was shifted to third base by Joe Torre when he replaced Joe Frazier as manager of the team. Randle ended an extra innings marathon with the Montreal Expos on July 9 at Shea Stadium in the seventeenth inning with a walk off home run off Will McEnaney. Four days he was at bat for the Mets when the power went out at Shea Stadium during the New York City blackout of 1977. For the season, Randle stole 33 bases and scored 78 runs for the last place Mets, his stats fell off in 1978, when he batted.233 with fourteen stolen bases and 53 runs. The Mets released Randle during Spring training 1979. Shortly afterwards, he signed with the San Francisco Giants and was assigned to their triple A Pacific Coast League affiliate in Phoenix.
On June 28, he was traded with Bill Madlock and Dave Roberts to the Pittsburgh Pirates for Fred Breining, Al Holland and Ed Whitson, but again was assigned to their triple A affiliate. After 24 games with the Portland Beavers, he saw his first major league experience of the season when his contract was purchased by the New York Yankees, he batted.179 in twenty games as an outfielder with the Yankees. Randle signed with the Seattle Mariners during Spring training 1980. By the end of Spring training, he was dealt to the Chicago Cubs, he enjoyed something of a renaissance with the Cubs, batting.276 and tying his career high five home runs as the Cubs' regular third baseman. Following the season, he returned to the M's as a free agent. In two seasons with the Mariners, he batted.223 with four home runs backing up second and third base. With the Kansas City Royals visiting the Seattle Kingdome on May 27, 1981, Royals centerfielder Amos Otis hit a slow roller down the third base line in the sixth inning.
Randle got on his hands and knees and blew the ball foul. The Royals protested the game. Afterwards, Randle said, he jokingly said, "They won the game, we won the protest." In 1983, he became the first American major league player to play baseball in Italy. He holds the record for the longest home run in the Italian Serie-A1 league, most home runs and singles hit in a three-game series and the most hits in a three-game series, he won a batting title in Italy with a.477 batting average. Following his stint in Italy, he played with the St. Petersburg Pelicans in the Senior Professional Baseball Association, he signed a minor league contract with the California Angels during Spring training 1995, but was unsuccessful in his comeback bid. List of Major League Baseball career stolen bases leaders Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or The Baseball Cube, or Baseball-Reference, or Baseball Almanac, or Ultimate Mets Database, or Baseball Gauge, or Pura Pelota: VPBL batting statistics, or Retrosheet
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric