Atlantic Recording Corporation is an American record label founded in October 1947 by Ahmet Ertegün and Herb Abramson. Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American labels, specializing in jazz, R&B, soul by Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles, Wilson Pickett and Dave, Ruth Brown and Otis Redding, its position was improved by its distribution deal with Stax. In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, expanded into rock and pop music with releases by Led Zeppelin and Yes. In 2004, Atlantic and its sister label. Craig Kallman is the chairman of Atlantic. Ahmet Ertegün served as founding chairman until his death on December 14, 2006, at age 83. In 1944, brothers Nesuhi and Ahmet Ertegun remained in the United States when their mother and sister returned to Turkey after the death of their father Munir Ertegun, Turkey's first ambassador to the U. S; the brothers were fans of jazz and rhythm & blues, amassing a collection of over 15,000 78 RPM records.
Ahmet ostensibly stayed in Washington to undertake post-graduate music studies at Georgetown University but immersed himself in the Washington music scene and entered the record business, enjoying a resurgence after wartime restrictions on the shellac used in manufacture. He convinced the family dentist, Dr. Vahdi Sabit, to invest $10,000 and hired Herb Abramson, a dentistry student. Abramson had worked as a part-time A&R manager/producer for the jazz label National Records, signing Big Joe Turner and Billy Eckstine, he had no interest in its most successful musicians. In September 1947, he sold his share in Jubilee to his partner, Jerry Blaine, invested $2,500 in Atlantic. Atlantic was run by Abramson and Ertegun. Abramson's wife Miriam ran the label's publishing company, Progressive Music, did most office duties until 1949 when Atlantic hired its first employee, bookkeeper Francine Wakschal, who remained with the label for the next 49 years. Miriam gained a reputation for toughness. Staff engineer Tom Dowd recalled, "Tokyo Rose was the kindest name some people had for her" and Doc Pomus described her as "an extraordinarily vitriolic woman".
When interviewed in 2009, she attributed her reputation to the company's chronic cash-flow shortage: "... most of the problems we had with artists were that they wanted advances, and, difficult for us... we were undercapitalized for a long time." The label's office in the Ritz Hotel in Manhattan proved too expensive, so they moved to a room in the Hotel Jefferson. In the early fifties, Atlantic moved from the Hotel Jefferson to offices at 301 West 54th St and to 356 West 56th St. Atlantic's first recordings were issued in late January 1948 and included "That Old Black Magic" by Tiny Grimes and "The Spider" by Joe Morris. In its early years, Atlantic concentrated on modern jazz although it released some country and western and spoken word recordings. Abramson produced "Magic Records", children's records with four grooves on each side, each groove containing a different story, so the story played would be determined by the groove in which the stylus happened to land. In late 1947, James Petrillo, head of the American Federation of Musicians, announced an indefinite ban on all recording activities by union musicians, this came into effect on January 1, 1948.
The union action forced Atlantic to use all its capital to cut and stockpile enough recordings to last through the ban, expected to continue for at least a year. Ertegun and Abramson spent much of the late 1940s and early 1950s scouring nightclubs in search of talent. Ertegun composed songs under the alias "A. Nugetre", including Big Joe Turner's hit "Chains of Love", recording them in booths in Times Square giving them to an arranger or session musician. Early releases included music by Sidney Bechet, Barney Bigard, The Cardinals, The Clovers, Frank Culley, The Delta Rhythm Boys, Erroll Garner, Dizzy Gillespie, Tiny Grimes, Al Hibbler, Earl Hines, Johnny Hodges, Jackie & Roy, Lead Belly, Meade Lux Lewis, Professor Longhair, Shelly Manne, Howard McGhee, Mabel Mercer, James Moody, Joe Morris, Art Pepper, Django Reinhardt, Pete Rugolo, Pee Wee Russell, Bobby Short, Sylvia Syms, Billy Taylor, Sonny Terry, Big Joe Turner, Jimmy Yancey, Sarah Vaughan, Mal Waldron, Mary Lou Williams. In early 1949, a New Orleans distributor phoned Ertegun to obtain Stick McGhee's "Drinking Wine, Spo-Dee-O-Dee", unavailable due to the closing of McGhee's previous label.
Ertegun knew Stick's younger brother Brownie McGhee, with whom Stick happened to be staying, so he contacted the McGhee brothers and re-recorded the song. When released in February 1949, it became Atlantic's first hit, selling 400,000 copies, reached No. 2 after spending six months on the Billboard R&B chart – although McGhee himself earned just $10 for the session. Atlantic's fortunes rose rapidly: recorded 187 songs were recorded in 1949, more than three times the amount from the previous two years, received overtures for a manufacturing and distribution deal with Columbia, which would pay Atlantic a 3% royalty on every copy sold. Ertegun asked about artists' royalties, which he paid, this surprised Columbia executives, who did not, the deal was scuttled. On the recommendation of broadcaster Willis Conover and Abramson visited Ruth Brown at the Crystal Caverns club in Washington and invited her to audition for Atlantic, she was injured in a car accident en route to New York City, but Atlantic supported her for nine months and signed her.
Pink Floyd were an English rock band formed in London in 1965. They achieved international acclaim with their psychedelic music. Distinguished by their philosophical lyrics, sonic experimentation, extended compositions, elaborate live shows, they are one of the most commercially successful and influential groups in popular music history. Pink Floyd were founded by students Syd Barrett on guitar and lead vocals, Nick Mason on drums, Roger Waters on bass and vocals, Richard Wright on keyboards and vocals, they gained popularity performing in London's underground music scene during the late 1960s, under Barrett's leadership released two charting singles and a successful debut album, The Piper at the Gates of Dawn. Guitarist and vocalist David Gilmour joined in December 1967. Waters became the band's primary lyricist and conceptual leader, devising the concepts behind their albums The Dark Side of the Moon, Wish You Were Here, The Wall and The Final Cut; the Dark Side of the Moon and The Wall became two of the best-selling albums of all time.
Following creative tensions, Wright left Pink Floyd in 1979, followed by Waters in 1985. Gilmour and Mason continued as Pink Floyd; the three produced two more albums—A Momentary Lapse of Reason and The Division Bell —and toured through 1994. After nearly two decades of enmity, Gilmour and Mason reunited with Waters in 2005 to perform as Pink Floyd in London as part of the global awareness event Live 8. Barrett died in 2006, Wright in 2008; the last Pink Floyd studio album, The Endless River, was recorded without Waters and based entirely on unreleased material from The Division Bell recording sessions. Pink Floyd were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1996 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005. By 2013, they had sold more than 250 million records worldwide. Roger Waters and Nick Mason met while studying architecture at the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, they first played music together in a group formed by Keith Noble and Clive Metcalfe with Noble's sister Sheilagh.
Richard Wright, a fellow architecture student, joined that year, the group became a sextet, Sigma 6. Waters played lead guitar, Mason drums, Wright rhythm guitar; the band performed at private functions and rehearsed in a tearoom in the basement of the Regent Street Polytechnic. They performed songs by the Searchers and material written by their manager and songwriter, fellow student Ken Chapman. In September 1963, Waters and Mason moved into a flat at 39 Stanhope Gardens near Crouch End in London, owned by Mike Leonard, a part-time tutor at the nearby Hornsey College of Art and the Regent Street Polytechnic. Mason moved out after the 1964 academic year, guitarist Bob Klose moved in during September 1964, prompting Waters' switch to bass. Sigma 6 went through several names, including the Meggadeaths, the Abdabs and the Screaming Abdabs, Leonard's Lodgers, the Spectrum Five, before settling on the Tea Set. In 1964, as Metcalfe and Noble left to form their own band, guitarist Syd Barrett joined Klose and Waters at Stanhope Gardens.
Barrett, two years younger, had moved to London in 1962 to study at the Camberwell College of Arts. Waters and Barrett were childhood friends. Mason said about Barrett: "In a period when everyone was being cool in a adolescent, self-conscious way, Syd was unfashionably outgoing. In December 1964, they secured their first recording time, at a studio in West Hampstead, through one of Wright's friends, who let them use some down time free. Wright, taking a break from his studies, did not participate in the session; when the RAF assigned Dennis a post in Bahrain in early 1965, Barrett became the band's frontman. That year, they became the resident band at the Countdown Club near Kensington High Street in London, where from late night until early morning they played three sets of 90 minutes each. During this period, spurred by the group's need to extend their sets to minimise song repetition, the band realised that "songs could be extended with lengthy solos", wrote Mason. After pressure from his parents and advice from his college tutors, Klose quit the band in mid-1965 and Barrett took over lead guitar.
The group first referred to themselves as the Pink Floyd Sound in late 1965. Barrett created the name on the spur of the moment when he discovered that another band called the Tea Set, were to perform at one of their gigs; the name is derived from the given names of two blues musicians whose Piedmont blues records Barrett had in his collection, Pink Anderson and Floyd Council. By 1966, the group's repertoire consisted of rhythm and blues songs and they had begun to receive paid bookings, including a performance at the Marquee Club in March 1966, where Peter Jenner, a lecturer at the London School of Economics, noticed them. Jenner was impressed by the sonic effects Barrett and Wright created, with his business partner and friend Andrew King became their manager; the pair had little experience in the music industry and used King's inheritance to set up Blackhill Enterprises, purchasing about £1,000 worth of new instruments and equipment for the band
The Goldberg Variations, BWV 988, is a musical composition for harpsichord by Johann Sebastian Bach, consisting of an aria and a set of 30 variations. First published in 1741, the work is one of the most important examples of the variation form, it is named after Johann Gottlieb Goldberg, who may have been the first performer of the work. The tale of how the variations came to be composed comes from an early biography of Bach by Johann Nikolaus Forkel: we have to thank the instigation of the former Russian ambassador to the electoral court of Saxony, Count Kaiserling, who stopped in Leipzig and brought there with him the aforementioned Goldberg, in order to have him given musical instruction by Bach; the Count was ill and had sleepless nights. At such times, who lived in his house, had to spend the night in an antechamber, so as to play for him during his insomnia.... Once the Count mentioned in Bach's presence that he would like to have some clavier pieces for Goldberg, which should be of such a smooth and somewhat lively character that he might be a little cheered up by them in his sleepless nights.
Bach thought himself best able to fulfill this wish by means of Variations, the writing of which he had until considered an ungrateful task on account of the similar harmonic foundation. But since at this time all his works were models of art, such these variations became under his hand, yet he produced only a single work of this kind. Thereafter the Count always called them his variations, he never tired of them, for a long time sleepless nights meant:'Dear Goldberg, do play me one of my variations.' Bach was never so rewarded for one of his works as for this. The Count presented him with a golden goblet filled with 100 louis-d'or. Had the gift been a thousand times larger, their artistic value would not yet have been paid for. Forkel wrote his biography in 1802, more than 60 years after the events related, its accuracy has been questioned; the lack of dedication on the title page makes the tale of the commission unlikely. Goldberg's age at the time of publication has been cited as grounds for doubting Forkel's tale, although it must be said that he was known to be an accomplished keyboardist and sight-reader.
Williams contends that the Forkel story is spurious. Arnold Schering has suggested that the aria on which the variations are based was not written by Bach. More recent scholarly literature suggests. Rather unusually for Bach's works, the Goldberg Variations were published in his own lifetime, in 1741; the publisher was Bach's friend Balthasar Schmid of Nuremberg. Schmid printed the work by making engraved copper plates; the edition contains various printing errors. The title page, shown in the figure above, reads in German: Clavier Ubung / bestehend / in einer ARIA / mit verschiedenen Verænderungen / vors Clavicimbal / mit 2 Manualen. / Denen Liebhabern zur Gemüths- / Ergeizung verfertiget von / Johann Sebastian Bach / Königl. Pohl. U. Churfl. Sæchs. Hoff- / Compositeur, Capellmeister, u. Directore / Chori Musici in Leipzig. / Nürnberg in Verlegung / Balthasar Schmids Keyboard exercise, consisting of an ARIA with diverse variations for harpsichord with two manuals. Composed for connoisseurs, for the refreshment of their spirits, by Johann Sebastian Bach, composer for the royal court of Poland and the Electoral court of Saxony and Director of Choral Music in Leipzig.
Nuremberg, Balthasar Schmid, publisher. The term "Clavier Ubung" had been assigned by Bach to some of his previous keyboard works. Klavierübung part 1 was the six partitas, part 2 the Italian Concerto and French Overture, part 3 a series of chorale preludes for organ framed by a prelude and fugue in E♭ major. Although Bach called his variations "Klavierübung", he did not designate them as the fourth in this series. Nineteen copies of the first edition survive today. Of these, the most valuable is the "Handexemplar", discovered in 1974 in Strasbourg by the French musicologist Olivier Alain and now kept in the Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris; this copy includes printing corrections made by the composer, additional music in the form of fourteen canons on the Goldberg ground. The nineteen printed copies provide the only information available to modern editors trying to reconstruct Bach's intent, as the autograph score has not survived. A handwritten copy of just the aria is found in the 1725 Notebook for Anna Magdalena Bach.
Christoph Wolff suggests on the basis of handwriting evidence that Anna Magdalena copied the aria from the autograph score around 1740. On the title page, Bach specified, it is performed on this instrument today, though there are a great number of performances on the piano. The piano was rare in Bach's day and there is no indication that Bach would either have approved or disapproved of performing the variations on this instrument. Bach's specification is, more a two-manual harpsichord, he indicated in the score which variations ought to be played using one hand on each manual: Variations 8, 11, 13, 14, 17, 20, 23, 25, 26, 27 and 28 are specified for two manuals, while variations 5, 7 and 29 are specified as playable with either one or two. With greater difficulty, the work can be played on a single-manual harpsichord or piano. After a statement of the aria at the beginning of the piece, there are thirty variations. T
Paul Vaughn Butterfield was an American blues harmonica player and singer. After early training as a classical flautist, he developed an interest in blues harmonica, he explored the blues scene in his native Chicago, where he met Muddy Waters and other blues greats, who provided encouragement and opportunities for him to join in jam sessions. He soon began performing with fellow blues enthusiasts Nick Gravenites and Elvin Bishop. In 1963, he formed the Paul Butterfield Blues Band, which recorded several successful albums and was popular on the late-1960s concert and festival circuit, with performances at the Fillmore West, in San Francisco; the band was known for combining electric Chicago blues with a rock urgency and for their pioneering jazz fusion performances and recordings. After the breakup of the group in 1971, Butterfield continued to tour and record with the band Paul Butterfield's Better Days, with his mentor Muddy Waters, with members of the roots-rock group the Band. While still recording and performing, Butterfield died in 1987 at age 44 of a heroin overdose.
Music critics have acknowledged his development of an original approach that places him among the best-known blues harp players. In 2006, he was inducted into the Blues Hall of Fame. Butterfield and the early members of the Paul Butterfield Blues Band were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2015. Both panels noted his harmonica skills and his contributions to bringing blues music to a younger and broader audience, he was just the second person after Little Walter to be inducted as a harmonica player. Butterfield was raised in the city's Hyde Park neighborhood; the son of a lawyer and a painter, he attended the University of Chicago Laboratory Schools, a private school associated with the University of Chicago. Exposed to music at an early age, he studied classical flute with Walfrid Kujala, of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. Butterfield was athletic and was offered a track scholarship to Brown University. However, a knee injury and a growing interest in blues music sent him in a different direction.
He met guitarist and singer songwriter Nick Gravenites, who shared an interest in authentic blues music. By the late 1950s, they were visiting blues clubs in Chicago, where musicians such as Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Little Walter, Otis Rush, encouraged them and let them sit in on jam sessions; the pair were soon performing as Paul in college-area coffee houses. In the early 1960s, Butterfield met aspiring blues guitarist Elvin Bishop. Bishop recalled: He was playing more guitar than harp when I first met him, but in about six months he became serious about the harp, he seemed to get about as good as he got in that six months. He was just a natural genius; this was in 1960 or 1961. By this time Butter had been hanging out in the ghetto for a couple of years, he was part of the scene and getting accepted. Butterfield, on vocals and harmonica, Bishop, accompanying him on guitar, were offered a regular gig at Big John's, a folk club in the Old Town district on Chicago's near North Side. With this booking, they persuaded bassist Jerome Arnold and drummer Sam Lay to form a group with them in 1963.
Their engagement at the club was successful and brought the group to the attention of record producer Paul A. Rothchild. During their engagement at Big John's, Butterfield met and sat in with guitarist Mike Bloomfield, playing at the club. By chance, producer Rothchild witnessed one of their performances and was impressed by the chemistry between the two, he persuaded Butterfield to bring Bloomfield into the band, they were signed to Elektra Records. Their first attempt to record an album, in December 1964, did not meet Rothchild's expectations, although an early version of "Born in Chicago", written by Gravenites, was included on the 1965 Elektra sampler Folksong'65 and created interest in the band. To better capture their sound, Rothchild convinced Elektra president Jac Holzman to record a live album. In the spring of 1965, the Butterfield Blues Band was recorded at the Cafe Au Go Go in New York City; these recordings failed to satisfy Rothchild, but the group's appearances at the club brought them to the attention of the East Coast music community.
Rothchild persuaded Holzman to agree to a third attempt at recording an album. In these recording sessions, Rothchild had assumed the role of group manager and used his folk contacts to secure the band more engagements outside of Chicago. At the last minute, the band was booked to perform at the Newport Folk Festival in July 1965, they were scheduled as the opening act the first night when the gates opened and again the next afternoon in an urban blues workshop at the festival. Despite limited exposure on the first night and a dismissive introduction the following day by the folklorist and blues researcher Alan Lomax, the band was able to attract an unusually large audience for a workshop performance. Maria Muldaur, with her husband Geoff, who toured and recorded with Butterfield, recalled the group's performance as stunning – it was the first time that many of the folk-music fans had heard a high-powered electric blues combo. Among those who took notice was festival regular Bob Dylan, who invited the band to back him for his first live electric performance.
With little rehearsal, Dylan performed a short, four-song set the next day with Bloomfield and Lay. The performan
A tailcoat is a knee-length coat with the front of the skirt cut away, so as to leave only the rear section of the skirt, known as the tails. The tailcoat shares its historical origins in clothes cut for convenient horse riding in the Early Modern era. Since 18th century, tailcoats evolved into general forms of day and evening formal wear, in parallell to how the lounge suit succeeded the frock coat and the justacorps. Thus, in 21st century Western dress codes for men two types of tailcoats has survived: Dress coat, an evening wear with a squarely cut away front, worn for formal white tie Morning coat, a day wear with a tapered front cut away, worn for formal morning dressIn colloquial language without further specification, "tailcoat" designates the former, the evening dress coat for white tie. In equestrianism, a variant called a shadbelly] is still worn in certain disciplines in its eighteenth century role as daytime formalwear, it is a form of dress coat, closer in cut to the early nineteenth century style worn by Beau Brummel than to the modern version worn with evening formal dress.
The male version of the shadbelly is called a "weaselbelly". This is a type of dress coat traditionally worn until the mid twentieth century, it was made of black velvet and traditionally worn at court, levées, evening state parties by those who did not wear uniforms. A version made of black barathea was worn as diplomatic dress, it was single breasted with a stand up collar, with plain gauntlet cuffs, two three-pointed flap pockets on the waist seam. It had six metal buttons at the front, two decorative buttons at the back; the body of the coat was lined with black silk, skirts with white silk. It was worn with breeches, black silk hose, white bow tie, white gloves, court shoes with steel buckles; the front of the coat was cut away squarely like a standard dress coat. From c.1790 until after the Crimean War a red tail coat with short tails, known as a coatee, was part of the infantry uniform of the British army. The collar and cuffs were in the regimental colors and the coats had white braid on the front.
Elite light infantry units like the 95th Rifles were issued short green coats to provide camouflage and ease of movement. The Americans issued a similar uniform in dark blue to enlisted men during the War of 1812; this remained in service until 1833. Officers continued to wear tail coats until after the Mexican War when frock coats became the standard field wear. By the time the M1858 uniform was introduced; the Royal Navy had an elaborate hierarchy of tailcoats for the officers, allowing further buttons and gilding according to rank and seniority. These were single-breasted for junior officers and double-breasted for those with the rank of lieutenant and above; this is worn with Highland dress, has a square cut away front like a dress coat, but the tails are cut shorter. This was worn as a servant's uniform, it was knee length with a sloped cut away front like a morning coat. It was single breasted with a stand up collar and gilt buttons. There were three pronged side pockets similar in style to the levée dress coat.
A dress coat, sometimes called a swallow-tail or claw-hammer coat, is the coat that has, since the 1850s, come to be worn only in the evening by men as part of the white tie dress code known as evening full dress, for formal evening occasions. It is referred to as just a tailcoat, but amongst tailors and dress historians it is traditionally called a dress coat to differentiate it from other types of tailcoats; the modern dress coat is an evolution of the coat, once both day and evening dress. It became popular from around the late 1790s and was widespread during the British Regency, in America in the 1830s to 1850s; the eighteenth century dress coat was supplanted in the 1850s as formal day wear by the frock coat, in turn replaced in the twentieth century by the morning coat. In the Regency period, the dress coat with gilt buttons was always worn with non-matching trousers, pantaloons or breeches. Since the Victorian era, the modern dress coat for evening wear has been worn with matching trousers of the same cloth with two stripes of braiding down the side.
The resulting suit is traditionally referred to by tailors as a dress suit. A dress coat is waist length in the front and sides, has two long tails reaching to the knees in back. Sometimes there is a pocket on the inside to hold gloves. Since around the 1840s the dress coat has lacked outside side pockets, but prior to this it took flapped side pockets. Since the early twentieth century it has become acceptable to have a welted pocket on the outside of the chest to hold a pocket square, but prior to this dress coats lacked any outer pockets; the front of the skirt is squarely cut away. Since around the 1830s the coat has been constructed with a waist seam that allows greater waist suppression. From the Victorian era, the revers has taken facings in silk on the lapels. Although it is double-breasted, since the 1870s, the dress coat no longer fastens in the front; as a result, although there are two rows of buttons, these are all non-functional, serving only a decorative function. As part of modern white tie, either a black or midnight blue dress coat is worn with a stiff detachable white wing-collar dress shirt, with a plain starched pique bib, single cuffs fastened with cufflinks.
Additionally, a t
Manos Hatzidakis was a Greek composer and theorist of Greek music. He was one of the main proponents of the "Éntekhno" form of music. In 1960 he received an Academy Award for Best Original Song for his song Never on Sunday from the film of the same name. Manos Hatzidakis was born on 23 October 1925 in Xanthi, Greece to lawyer Georgios Hatzidakis, who came from the village of Mirthios, Agios Vasileios in the Rethymno prefecture in Crete, his musical education began at the age of four and consisted of piano lessons from the Armenian pianist Altunian. At the same time, he learned to play the accordion. After the separation of his parents, Hatzidakis moved permanently to Athens in 1932 with his mother. A few years in 1938, his father died in an aircraft accident; this event, in combination with the beginning of World War II, brought the family into a difficult financial situation. The young Hatzidakis earned his livelihood as a docker at the port, an ice seller at the Fix factory, an employee in Megalokonomou's photography shop and as an assistant nurse at the 401 Military Hospital.
At the same time, he expanded his musical knowledge by studying advanced music theory with Menelaos Pallandios, in the period 1940-1943. At the same time, he studied philosophy at the University of Athens. However, he never completed this course. During this period, he met and connected with other musicians and intellectuals. Among these were Nikos Gatsos, George Seferis, Odysseas Elytis, Angelos Sikelianos and the artist Yannis Tsarouchis. During the last period of the Axis occupation of Greece, he was an active participant in the Greek Resistance through membership of the United Panhellenic Organization of Youth, the youth branch of the major resistance organisation EAM, where he met Mikis Theodorakis with whom he soon developed a strong friendship, his first work was the tune for the song "Paper Moon", from Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire staged by Karolos Koun's Art Theatre of Athens, a collaboration which continued for 15 years. His first piano piece, "For a Small White Seashell", came out in 1947 and in 1948 he shook the musical establishment by delivering his legendary lecture on rembetika, the urban folk songs that flourished in Greek cities Piraeus, after the Asia Minor refugee influx in 1922 and until had heavy underworld and cannabis use connections and were looked down upon.
Hatzidakis focused on the economy of expression, the deep traditional roots and the genuineness of emotion displayed in rembetika, exalted the likes of composers like Markos Vamvakaris and Vassilis Tsitsanis. Putting theory to practice, he adapted classic rembetika in his 1951 piano work, Six Folk Paintings, also presented as a folk ballet. In 1949 he co-founded the Greek Dance Theatre Company with the choreographer Rallou Manou. At this point he began writing immensely popular "pop" songs and movie soundtracks alongside more serious works, such as 1954's The C. N. S. Cycle, a song cycle for piano and voice recalling the German lied in its form, if not in style. In 1955 he wrote the score for Michael Cacoyannis' film Stella, with actress Melina Mercouri, singing the movie's trademark song "Love that became a double-edged knife". Hatzidakis always maintained that he wrote his serious pieces for himself and his less serious ones to make a living. In 1958, Hatzidakis met Nana Mouskouri, his first "ideal interpreter", a skilled vocalist who shaped the sounds of his music.
It was 1960 that brought him international success, as his song "Never on Sunday", from Jules Dassin's film Never on Sunday, won him an Academy Award and became a worldwide hit. In 1962, he produced the musical Street of Dreams and completed his score for Aristophanes' Birds, another Art Theater production which caused an uproar over Karolos Koun's revolutionary direction; the score was used by Maurice Béjart's 20th Century Ballets. He wrote the music for a song which Arthur Altman added English lyrics to and gave to Brenda Lee; the song was "All Alone Am I". In 1964 he released the album 15 Vespers with the famous song "Mr Antonis. In 1965, his LP Gioconda's Smile was released on Minos-EMI. In 2004, it was re-released, digitally remastered as an audiophile LP and a CD in the EMI Classics collection. In 1966 he travelled to New York City for the premiere of Illya Darling, a Broadway musical based on Never on Sunday, which starred Mercouri, he did not return to Greece until 1972 due to his opposition to Greece's military dictatorship.
While in the United States he completed several more major compositions, including Rhythmology for solo piano, his compilation, Gioconda's Smile, the song cycle, Magnus Eroticus, in which he used ancient and modern Greek poems, as well as an excerpt from the Old Testament book "Song of Songs". His LP Reflections with the New York Rock & Roll Ensemble contained several of his most beautiful songs, either in orchestral form or with English lyrics written by the band – a record that preceded fusion trends by several decades. Hatzidakis returned to Greece in 1972 and recorded Magnus Eroticus with opera-trained alto Fleury Dantonaki and singer Dimitris Psarianos. Follo
The Steve Allen Show
The Steve Allen Show was an American variety show hosted by Steve Allen from June 1956 to June 1960 on NBC, from September 1961 to December 1961 on ABC, in first-run syndication from 1962 to 1964. The first three seasons aired on Sunday nights at 8:00pm Eastern Time on Mondays at 10:00pm Eastern in the 1959-60 season. After a season's absence, the series returned on Wednesdays at 7:30pm Eastern; the syndicated version aired in late nights. The program, between September 1957 and June 1960, became one of the first programs to be telecast in "compatible color". Kinescopes of the NBC version were edited into 104 half-hour episodes and rerun on the short-lived'"HA!'" Channel and Comedy Central in the early 1990s, with new introductions by Allen. The show was the first in a series of prime time spin-offs from The Tonight Show, all of which were named after the host: Jack Paar and Jay Leno would follow in Allen's footsteps; the show launched the careers of cast members Don Knotts, Tom Poston, Louis Nye, Pat Harrington, Jr. Bill Dana, near the end of its run, Jim Nabors.
The show's most popular sketch was the "Man on the street" which featured Knotts as the nervous Mr. Morrison, Poston as the man who could not remember his own name, Harrington as Italian golf player Guido Panzini, Nye as the smug Gordon Hathaway, Dana as José Jiménez. Hathaway's greeting of "Hi Ho Steverino!" became a catchphrase as did Jimenez's "My name José Jiménez." Dayton Allen appeared in the sketch and spawned the catchphrase "Whyyyyy not?" Gabe Dell a member of The Bowery Boys, was a cast member. Gene Rayburn was the show's announcer and Skitch Henderson was the bandleader; the show helped foster the careers of many musicians. Although Allen himself did not have much affection for rock and roll, the show featured numerous rock and roll artists in their earliest TV appearances; the show presented Elvis Presley, Fats Domino, Jerry Lee Lewis, Louis Jordan & The Tympany Five, The Treniers, The Collins Kids. However, the rock'n' roll stars did not appear on the show as most fans would have desired.
For instance, Allen presented Elvis Presley with a top hat and the white tie and tails of a "high class" musician while singing "Hound Dog" to an actual Basset Hound, attired. Some have erroneously suggested that the "Hound Dog" performance was intentionally disrespectful, emblematic of Allen's disdain for rock'n' roll. In reality, Allen took a risk booking the controversial Presley, the bit was orchestrated both for comedic effect, to mitigate potential controversy. Indeed, Presley's label, RCA Records, chose an image from this performance to adorn the picture sleeve of the 45 rpm single of "Hound Dog", which hadn't yet been released at the time of the Allen appearance. After the 1960 cancellation by NBC, the show returned in the fall of 1961 on ABC. Nye, Harrington and Dayton Allen returned. New cast members were Joey Forman, Buck Henry, newcomers Tim Conway known as Tom Conway and The Smothers Brothers. Allen's wife, Jayne Meadows joined the cast; the new version was cancelled after fourteen episodes.
In 1967, after trying his hand at a syndicated talk show several years earlier, Allen returned on CBS with most of his old regulars for The Steve Allen Comedy Hour, an eight-week summer replacement series on Wednesdays at 10:00pm Eastern. Twenty-one minutes of the premiere episode featured one of Allen's favorite sketches, "The Prickly Heat Telethon", which Allen ran on film in its entirety at his 1973 Carnegie Hall concert; the short-lived series featured the debuts of Rob Reiner, Richard Dreyfuss and John Byner, featured Ruth Buzzi, who would become famous soon after as a regular on Laugh-In. The show won a Peabody Award in 1958 for its "genuine humor and frank experiments" during a year when most shows were "conspicuously lacking" such elements. A syndicated version of The Steve Allen Show, known informally as the "Westinghouse Show," ran, through Westinghouse Broadcasting, from June 1962 to October 1964, it was taped at what would become known as The Steve Allen Playhouse in Hollywood and followed Allen's original 90-minute Tonight format.
Why Allen decided not to return to Tonight himself was not clear considering Jack Paar had just left the show and the position was open. He instead ended up competing against new Tonight host Johnny Carson. Original announcer Gene Rayburn and bandleader Skitch Henderson did not return to this version, instead being replaced by Johnny Jacobs as announcer and Donn Trenner as bandleader, respectively. Allen left the show in 1964 to take over hosting duties on I've Got a Secret, a young Regis Philbin took over the reins in its final weeks; the Trenner orchestra included some of the finest West Coast jazz musicians, among them guitarist Herb Ellis, trombonist-scat vocalist Frank Rosolino and saxophonist-trombonist Bob Enevoldsen. The Allen Westinghouse Show is considered a classic of American late-night talk shows today, given its professed influence on a number of comedy greats including David Letterman, Robin Williams, Steve Martin, Harry Shearer and others impressed by its wild, anarchic style, complete with outdoor stunts staged near the Hollywood Ranch Market, not far from the studio.
The show's guests included such Southern California eccentrics as health food enthusiast Gypsy Boots, popul