Pierre Reverdy was a French poet whose works were inspired by and subsequently proceeded to influence the provocative art movements of the day, Surrealism and Cubism. The loneliness and spiritual apprehension that ran through his poetry appealed to the Surrealist credo. He, remained independent of the prevailing “isms,” searching for something beyond their definitions, his writing matured into a mystical mission seeking, as he wrote: “the sublime simplicity of reality." The son of a winegrower, Reverdy was born in Occitanie, in the region of Narbonne, grew up near the Montagne Noire. The Reverdy ancestors were sculptors associated with work commissioned for churches; the extant facts of his childhood and early years obscured. Some source material indicates that at the time of Reverdy’s birth, his mother was a married woman whose husband was at the time living in Argentina. Further, it is believed that Reverdy’s father and mother were not able to marry each other until 1897, his father schooled him at home, teaching him to write.
Reverdy arrived in Paris in October 1910. It was in Paris, at the artistic enclave centered around the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre that he met Guillaume Apollinaire, Max Jacob, Louis Aragon, André Breton, Philippe Soupault and Tristan Tzara. All champion Reverdy's poetry. Reverdy published a small volume of poetry in 1915. A second compilation of his work brought out in 1924, Les épaves du ciel, brought him greater recognition; these poems, fragmentary, the words an evocation of sharp visuals. In the first Surrealist Manifesto, André Breton hailed Reverdy as "the greatest poet of the time." Louis Aragon said that for Breton, Soupault, Éluard and himself, Reverdy was "our immediate elder, the exemplary poet." In 1917, together with Max Jacob, Vicente Huidobro and Guillaume Apollinaire, Reverdy founded the influential journal Nord-Sud which contained many Dadaist and Surrealist contributions. Sixteen issues of Nord-Sud were published, from 15 March 1917 to 15 October 1918, it is believed Reverdy took his inspiration for the title of his periodical from the subway line, the Paris Métro, which in 1910 instituted a route running from Montmartre to Montparnasse.
By nature, Reverdy was a somber man, whose strong spiritual inclinations led him over time to distance himself from the frenetic world of bohemian Paris. In 1926, in a ritualistic act signifying the renunciation of the material world, he burned many of his manuscripts in front of an assembly of friends, he converted to Catholicism and retreated with his wife, Henriette, to a small house located in proximity to a Benedictine abbey at Solesmes. Excluding intermittent periods when he visited Paris, Solesmes was his home for the next thirty years where he lived a “quasi-monastic life." During this time in Solesmes, Reverdy wrote several collections including Sources du vent, Ferraille and Le Chant des morts. Besides this, Reverdy published two volumes containing critical matter entitled En vrac and Le livre de mon bord. During the WWII German occupation of France, Reverdy became a partisan in the resistance movement. At the liberation of Paris from Nazi rule, his group of French Resistance fighters were responsible for the capture and arrest of French traitor and German espionage agent Baron Louis de Vaufreland.
One of Reverdy's most enduring and profound relationships was with Coco Chanel. The intense period of their romantic liaison lasted from 1921-1926, yet after the fire of this initial involvement cooled, they still maintained a deep bond, great friendship, which would continue for some forty years. He had always been both appalled and intrigued by the wealth and excess that comprised Chanel’s social circle. Reverdy had become enamored with American jazz, which had just become a popular craze in Paris, a type of nightlife for which Chanel expressed contempt. Chanel, however was a necessary component in his poetic output, she bolstered his confidence, supported his creative ability and further helped assuage his financial instability by secretly buying his manuscripts through his publisher. It is postulated that the legendary maxims attributed to Chanel and published in periodicals were crafted under the mentorship of Reverdy—a collaborative effort. “A review of her correspondence reveals a complete contradiction between the clumsiness of Chanel the letter writer and the talent of Chanel as a composer of maxims…After correcting the handful of aphorisms that Chanel wrote about her métier, Reverdy added to this collection of “Chanelisms” a series of thoughts of a more general nature, some touching on life and taste, others on allure and love.”Reverdy, purportedly was not aware of the extent of Chanel’s wartime collaboration with the Nazis.
However, as he was a man who subscribed to a belief that women were the weaker, more vulnerable sex, he rationalized that Chanel had been manipulated by men who convinced her to champion German interests. Further, as a staunch Catholic, Reverdy was able to absolve Chanel of her transgressions. Indeed, so strong was his tie to her that in 1960, sensing his death was imminent, he wrote a poem to the woman whom he had loved for the past forty years. Dear Coco, here it isThe best of my hand And the best of meI offer it thus to youWith my heartWith my handBefore heading towardThe dark road’s endIf condemnedIf pardonedKnow you are loved Reverdy died in 1960 at Solesmes. A glass of papaya juice
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role filled by Paris. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky. Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic, or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst, David Alfaro Siqueiros; the newer research tends to put the exile-surrealist Wolfgang Paalen in the position of the artist and theoretician who fostered the theory of the viewer-dependent possibility space through his paintings and his magazine DYN.
Paalen considered ideas of quantum mechanics, as well as idiosyncratic interpretations of the totemic vision and the spatial structure of native-Indian painting from British Columbia and prepared the ground for the new spatial vision of the young American abstracts. His long essay Totem Art had considerable influence on such artists as Martha Graham, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman. Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain America's newest art movement and included a list of "the men in the new movement." Paalen is mentioned twice. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey his "white writing" canvases, though not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings; the movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, Synthetic Cubism.
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working in New York who had quite different styles, to work, neither abstract nor expressionist. California abstract expressionist Jay Meuser, who painted in the non-objective style, wrote about his painting Mare Nostrum, "It is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples." Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning's figurative paintings and the rectangles of color in Mark Rothko's Color Field paintings. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists' works, most of these paintings involved careful planning since their large size demanded it.
With artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, on Rothko, Barnett Newman, Agnes Martin, abstract art implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious, the mind. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s, it had been influenced not only by the Great Depression, but by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York such as The Art of This Century Gallery; the McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were abstract it would be seen as apolitical, therefore safe. Or if the art was political, the message was for the insiders. While the movement is associated with painting, painters such as Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, Clyfford Still, Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, others, collagist Anne Ryan and certain sculptors in particular were integral to abstract expressionism.
David Smith, his wife Dorothy Dehner, Herbert Ferber, Isamu Noguchi, Ibram Lassaw, Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, Mary Callery, Richard Stankiewicz, Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, James Rosati, Mark di Suvero, sculptors Richard Lippold, Raoul Hague, George Rickey, Reuben Nakian, Tony Smith, Seymour Lipton, Joseph Cornell, several others were integral parts of the abstract expressionist movement. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show, a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the New York School of abstract expressionism generated a number of supportive poets, including Frank O'Hara and photographers such as Aaron Siskind and Fred McDarrah, (
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Fairfield Porter was an American painter and art critic. He was the fourth of five children of James Porter, an architect, Ruth Furness Porter, a poet from a literary family, he was the brother of photographer Eliot Porter and the brother-in-law of federal Reclamation Commissioner Michael W. Straus. While a student at Harvard, Porter majored in fine arts, his studies at the Art Students' League predisposed him to produce relevant art and, although the subjects would change, he continued to produce realist work for the rest of his career. He would be criticized and revered for continuing his representational style in the midst of the Abstract Expressionist movement, his subjects were landscapes, domestic interiors and portraits of family and fellow artists, many of them affiliated with the New York School of writers, including John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, James Schuyler. Many of his paintings were set in or around the family summer house on Great Spruce Head Island and the family home at 49 South Main Street, New York.
His painterly vision, which encompassed a fascination with nature and the ability to reveal extraordinariness in ordinary life, was indebted to the French painters Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard. John Ashbery wrote of him: "Characteristically, tended to prefer the late woolly Vuillards to the early ones everyone likes". Porter said once, "When I paint, I think that what would satisfy me is to express what Bonnard said Renoir told him:'make everything more beautiful.'" Porter bequeathed about 250 of his works to the Parrish Art Museum. Laurence at the Piano, New Britain Museum of American Art. Katie and Anne, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Still Life with Casserole, Smithsonian American Art Museum Elaine de Kooning, Metropolitan Museum of Art Frank O' Hara, Toledo Museum of Art Maine Coast, Metropolitan Museum of Art Chrysanthemums, Wadsworth Atheneum Schwenk, Museum of Modern Art Children in a Field, Whitney Museum of American Art Boathouses, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden The Garden Road, Whitney Museum of American Art Jerry at the Piano, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden Jimmy and Liz, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts The Screen Porch, Whitney Museum of American Art Flowers by the Sea, Museum of Modern Art Interior in Sunlight, Brooklyn Museum The Mirror, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art Anne in a Striped Dress, Parrish Art Museum Under the Elms, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts Sunrise on South Main Street, Metropolitan Museum of Art The Dock, Farnsworth Art Museum Near Union Square--Looking up Park Avenue, Metropolitan Museum of Art October Interior, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Apple Blossoms I, The Christmas Tree, Street Scene, Muscarelle Museum of Art Fairfield Porter Papers Online at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art Ken Moffatt, The Art of Fairfield Porter: An American Painter Celebrated a Sense of Place, 17 Feb 2010, Artes Magazine Alex Carnevale, In Which Fairfield Porter Looked So Young For His Age, January 13, 2011 David Herd, Waiting for the mailboat, The Guardian, 28 May 2005 Audio recording of Fairfield Porter, October 29, 1963, from Maryland Institute College of Art's Decker Library, Internet Archive
James Marcus Schuyler was an American poet. His awards include the Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his 1980 collection The Morning of the Poem, he was a central figure in the New York School and is associated with fellow New York School poets John Ashbery, Frank O'Hara, Kenneth Koch, Barbara Guest. James Marcus Schuyler was the son of Margaret Daisy Connor Schuyler. Born in Chicago, he spent his teen years in East Aurora, NY. After graduating high school, Schuyler attended Bethany College in West Virginia from 1941 to 1943, though he was not a successful student. In 1947, he moved to Ischia, where he lived in Auden's rented apartment and worked as his secretary. Between 1947 and 1948, Schuyler attended the University of Florence. After returning to the United States and settling in New York City, he roomed with John Ashbery and Frank O'Hara. In April 1991, at age sixty-seven, Schuyler died in Manhattan following a stroke, his ashes were interred at Mt. Sinai, Long Island, New York. Schuyler was not known for revealing much about his personal life.
It is known that he was gay, was manic depressive, underwent several years of psychoanalysis and withstood many traumatic experiences. One of these includes a "near death experience" in a fire. In a spring 1990 special issue of the Denver Quarterly, written by Barbara Guest in devotion to Schuyler's work, Guest refers to Schuyler as an "intimist," saying:... for me Jimmy is the Vuillard of us, he withholds his secret, the secret thing until the moment appears to reveal it. We wait for the name of a flower while we praise the careful cultivation. We wait for someone to speak. Schuyler's move to Italy, as Auden's typist, was accompanied by his intention of writing. In 1981 he was said to have recalled "that he found Auden's elaborate formalism'inhibiting.'" This was an influence to his own "conversational style and proselike line."While living in New York, Schuyler found inspiration in the art world. From 1955-1961, he was a "curator of circulating exhibitions at the Museum of Modern Art." He was an editorial associate and critic for Art News.
While working as an editorial associate, Schuyler wrote criticism about a large amount of art. In an interview, published in spring 2002, he said, "I did learn an awful lot during those years, went on in the 60s writing occasional articles about specific artists and their specific strategies, it was to make money, because I wanted to write about painting, about art." His time as an art critic became a major inspiration to his work. From 1961 to 1973 Schuyler lived with his family in Southampton, Long Island. Porter became an influence for Schuyler as well, he dedicated his first major collection, Freely Espousing, to Anne and Fairfield Porter. Schuyler is noted for his distinct ability to take things that are "normal," and bring out their greatness, he takes a look at things that many people may not see, or care to take note of, such as individual raindrops. He evaluates the ordinary and the way they work in relation to other things: "It's the water in the drinking glass the tulips are in./ It's a day like any other."Schuyler was responsible for writing Frank O'Hara's elegy, "Buried at Springs".
Schuyler recalls Ralph Waldo Emerson's transcendentalism, uses nature to express himself in the elegy. Schuyler has several works that are about, or that reference lists. In his Diary, Schuyler says that he is "more of a reader than a writer," and "everything happens as I write." Schuyler received the 1981 Pulitzer Prize for Poetry for his 1980 collection The Morning of the Poem. He coauthored a novel, A Nest of Ninnies, with John Ashbery in 1969. Schuyler received the Longview Foundation Award in 1961, the Frank O'Hara Prize for Poetry in 1969 for Freely Espousing. Schuyler was a Guggenheim Fellow, a fellow of the American Academy of Poets, a 1985 recipient of the Whiting Award, his poem The Morning of the Poem is considered to be among the best long poems of the postmodern era. Numerous works by Schuyler, including books, plays and other pieces have been published throughout the years; the following is a list of items. Alfred and Guinevere. Salute. May 24 or So. Espousing. A Nest of Ninnies, by Schuyler and John Ashbery.
The Crystal Lithium. A Sun Cab. Hymn to Life; the Fireproof Floors of Witley Court. Song; the Home Book: Prose and Poems, 1951-1970, edited by Trevor Winkfield. What's For Dinner?. The Morning of the Poem. Collabs, by Schuyler and Helena Hughes. Early in'71. A Few Days. For Joe Brainard. Selected Poems. Collected Poems. Two Journals: James Schuyler, Dar
Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement. Rauschenberg is well known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. Rauschenberg was both a painter and a sculptor and the Combines are a combination of both, but he worked with photography, printmaking and performance. Robert Rauschenberg was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1993, he became the recipient of the Leonardo da Vinci World Award of Arts in 1995 in recognition of his more than 40 years of fruitful artmaking. Rauschenberg lived and worked in New York City as well as on Captiva Island, Florida until his death from heart failure on May 12, 2008. Rauschenberg was born as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, the son of Dora Carolina and Ernest R. Rauschenberg, his father was of his mother of Anglo-Saxon descent. His parents were Fundamentalist Christians. Rauschenberg was dyslexic.
At 16, Rauschenberg was admitted to the University of Texas. He was drafted into the United States Navy in 1943. Based in California, he served as a mental hospital technician until his discharge in 1945. Rauschenberg subsequently studied at the Kansas City Art Institute and the Académie Julian in Paris, where he met the painter Susan Weil. In 1948 Rauschenberg and Weil decided to attend Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Josef Albers, a founder of the Bauhaus, became Rauschenberg's painting instructor at Black Mountain. Albers' preliminary courses relied on strict discipline that did not allow for any "uninfluenced experimentation". Rauschenberg described Albers as influencing him to do "exactly the reverse" of what he was being taught. From 1949 to 1952 Rauschenberg studied with Vaclav Vytlacil and Morris Kantor at the Art Students League of New York, where he met fellow artists Knox Martin and Cy Twombly. Rauschenberg married Susan Weil in the summer of 1950 at the Weil family home in Outer Island, Connecticut.
Their only child, was born July 16, 1951. The two separated in June 1952 and divorced in 1953. According to a 1987 oral history by the composer Morton Feldman, after the end of his marriage, Rauschenberg had romantic relationships with fellow artists Cy Twombly and Jasper Johns. An article by Jonathan D. Katz states that Rauschenberg's affair with Twombly began during his marriage to Susan Weil. Rauschenberg died on May 2008, on Captiva Island, Florida, he died of heart failure at the age of 82 after a personal decision to go off life support. Rauschenberg is survived by his partner of 25 years, artist Darryl Pottorf, his former assistant. Rauschenberg is survived by his son, photographer Christopher Rauschenberg, his sister, Janet Begneaud. Rauschenberg's approach was sometimes called "Neo Dadaist," a label he shared with the painter Jasper Johns. Rauschenberg was quoted as saying that he wanted to work "in the gap between art and life" suggesting he questioned the distinction between art objects and everyday objects, reminiscent of the issues raised by the Fountain, by Dada pioneer, Marcel Duchamp.
At the same time, Johns' paintings of numerals and the like, were reprising Duchamp's message of the role of the observer in creating art's meaning. Alternatively, in 1961, Rauschenberg took a step in what could be considered the opposite direction by championing the role of creator in creating art's meaning. Rauschenberg was invited to participate in an exhibition at the Galerie Iris Clert, where artists were to create and display a portrait of the owner, Iris Clert. Rauschenberg's submission consisted of a telegram sent to the gallery declaring "This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so." From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953 Rauschenberg traveled through Europe and North Africa with his fellow artist and partner Cy Twombly. In Morocco, he created boxes out of trash, he exhibited them at galleries in Rome and Florence. A lot of them sold. From his stay, 38 collages survived. In a famously cited incident of 1953, Rauschenberg erased a drawing by de Kooning, which he obtained from his colleague for the express purpose of erasing it as an artistic statement.
The result is titled Erased de Kooning Drawing. By 1962, Rauschenberg's paintings were beginning to incorporate not only found objects but found images as well - photographs transferred to the canvas by means of the silkscreen process. Used only in commercial applications, silkscreen allowed Rauschenberg to address the multiple reproducibility of images, the consequent flattening of experience that implies. In this respect, his work is contemporaneous with that of Andy Warhol, both Rauschenberg and Johns are cited as important forerunners of American Pop Art. In 1966, Billy Klüver and Rauschenberg launched Experiments in Art and Technology a non-profit organization established to promote collaborations between artists and engineers. In 1969, NASA invited Rauschenberg to witness the launch of Apollo 11. In response to this landmark event, Rauschenberg created his Stoned Moon Series of lithographs; this involved combining diagrams and other images from NASA's archives with photographs from various media outlets, as well as with his own work.
From 1970 he worked from his studio in Captiva, Florida. His first project on Captiva Island was a 16.5-meter-long silkscreen print called Currents, made with newspapers from the first two months of the year, followed by Cardboards and Early Egyptians, the latter of, a series of wall reliefs and sculptures constructed from u
Francis Russell "Frank" O'Hara was an American writer and art critic. Because of his employment as a curator at the Museum of Modern Art, O'Hara became prominent in New York City's art world. O'Hara is regarded as a leading figure in the New York School—an informal group of artists and musicians who drew inspiration from jazz, abstract expressionism, action painting and contemporary avant-garde art movements. O'Hara's poetry is personal in tone and content, has been described as sounding "like entries in a diary". Poet and critic Mark Doty has said O'Hara's poetry is "urbane, sometimes genuinely celebratory and wildly funny" containing "material and associations alien to academic verse" such as "the camp icons of movie stars of the twenties and thirties, the daily landscape of social activity in Manhattan, jazz music, telephone calls from friends". O'Hara's writing sought to capture in his poetry the immediacy of life, feeling that poetry should be "between two persons instead of two pages."The Collected Poems of Frank O'Hara edited by Donald Allen, the first of several posthumous collections, shared the 1972 National Book Award for Poetry.
Frank O'Hara, the son of Russell Joseph O'Hara and Katherine, was born on March 27, 1926, at Maryland General Hospital and grew up in Grafton, Massachusetts. He attended St. John's High School, he grew up believing he had been born in June, but in fact had been born in March, his parents disguised his true date of birth because he was conceived out of wedlock. He studied piano at the New England Conservatory in Boston from 1941 to 1944 and served in the South Pacific and Japan as a sonarman on the destroyer USS Nicholas during World War II. With the funding made available to veterans he attended Harvard University, where artist and writer Edward Gorey was his roommate. O'Hara was influenced by visual art and by contemporary music, his first love, his favorite poets were Pierre Reverdy, Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, Boris Pasternak, Vladimir Mayakovsky. While at Harvard, O'Hara began publishing poems in the Harvard Advocate. Despite his love of music, O'Hara changed his major and graduated from Harvard in 1950 with a degree in English.
He attended graduate school at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. While at Michigan, he won a Hopwood Award and received his M. A. in English literature in 1951. That autumn O'Hara moved into an apartment in New York City with Joe LeSueur, his roommate and sometimes lover for the next 11 years, it was during this time. Known throughout his life for his extreme sociability and warmth, O'Hara had hundreds of friends and lovers throughout his life, many from the New York art and poetry worlds. Soon after arriving in New York, he was employed at the Museum of Modern Art, selling postcards at the admissions desk, began to write seriously. O'Hara was active in the art world, working as a reviewer for Artnews, in 1960 was Assistant Curator of Painting and Sculpture Exhibitions for the Museum of Modern Art, he was a friend of the artists Norman Bluhm, Mike Goldberg, Grace Hartigan, Willem de Kooning, Joan Mitchell and Larry Rivers. In the early morning hours of July 24, 1966, O'Hara was struck by a jeep on the Fire Island beach, after the beach taxi in which he had been riding with a group of friends broke down in the dark.
He died the next day of a ruptured liver. Attempts to bring negligent homicide charges against 23-year-old driver Kenneth L. Ruzicka were unsuccessful. O'Hara was buried in Green River Cemetery on Long Island; the painter Larry Rivers, a longtime friend and lover of O'Hara's, delivered one of the eulogies, along with Bill Berkson, Edwin Denby and René d'Harnoncourt. While O'Hara's poetry is autobiographical, it tends to be based on his observations of New York life rather than exploring his past. In his introduction to The Collected Poems of Frank O'Hara, Donald Allen says "that Frank O'Hara tended to think of his poems as a record of his life is apparent in much of his work." O'Hara discussed this aspect of his poetry in a statement for Donald Allen's New American Poetry: What is happening to me, allowing for lies and exaggerations which I try to avoid, goes into my poems. I don't think my experiences are clarified or made beautiful for myself or anyone else, they are just there in whatever form I can find them...
My formal "stance" is found at the crossroads where what I know and can't get meets what is left of that I know and can bear without hatred... It may be that poetry restores their detail. Or each on specific occasions, or both all the time, his initial time in the Navy, during his basic training at Sampson Naval Training Center in upstate New York, along with earlier years spent at St. John's High School began to shape a distinguished style of solitary observation that would inform his poems. Immersed in regimented daily routine, first Catholic school the Navy, he was able to separate himself from the situation and make witty and singular studies. Sometimes these were cataloged for use in writing, or more put into letters; this skill of scrutinizing and recording during the bustle and churn of daily life would be one of the important aspects that shaped O'Hara as an u