Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol. Magnolia is an ancient genus. Appearing before bees did, the flowers are theorized to have evolved to encourage pollination by beetles. To avoid damage from pollinating beetles, the carpels of Magnolia flowers are tough. Fossilized specimens of M. acuminata have been found dating to 20 million years ago, of plants identifiably belonging to the Magnoliaceae date to 95 million years ago. Another aspect of Magnolia considered to represent an ancestral state is that the flower bud is enclosed in a bract rather than in sepals. Magnolia shares the tepal characteristic with several other flowering plants near the base of the flowering plant lineage such as Amborella and Nymphaea; the natural range of Magnolia species is a disjunct distribution, with a main center in east and southeast Asia and a secondary center in eastern North America, Central America, the West Indies, some species in South America.
As with all Magnoliaceae, the perianth is undifferentiated, with 9–15 tepals in 3 or more whorls. The flowers are bisexual with numerous adnate carpels and stamens are arranged in a spiral fashion on the elongated receptacle; the fruit dehisces along the dorsal sutures of the carpels. The pollen is monocolpate, the embryo development is of the Polygonum type; the name Magnolia first appeared in 1703 in the Genera of Charles Plumier, for a flowering tree from the island of Martinique. English botanist William Sherard, who studied botany in Paris under Joseph Pitton de Tournefort, a pupil of Magnol, was most the first after Plumier to adopt the genus name Magnolia, he was at least responsible for the taxonomic part of Johann Jacob Dillenius's Hortus Elthamensis and of Mark Catesby's Natural History of Carolina and the Bahama Islands. These were the first works after Plumier's Genera that used the name Magnolia, this time for some species of flowering trees from temperate North America; the species that Plumier named Magnolia was described as Annona dodecapetala by Lamarck, has since been named Magnolia plumieri and Talauma plumieri but is now known as Magnolia dodecapetala.
Carl Linnaeus, familiar with Plumier's Genera, adopted the genus name Magnolia in 1735 in his first edition of Systema Naturae, without a description, but with a reference to Plumier's work. In 1753, he took up Plumier's Magnolia in the first edition of Species Plantarum. There he described a monotypic genus, with the sole species being Magnolia virginiana. Since Linnaeus never saw a herbarium specimen of Plumier's Magnolia and had only his description and a rather poor picture at hand, he must have taken it for the same plant, described by Catesby in his 1730 Natural History of Carolina, he placed it in the synonymy of Magnolia virginiana var. fœtida, the taxon now known as Magnolia grandiflora. Under Magnolia virginiana Linnaeus described five varieties. In the tenth edition of Systema Naturae, he merged grisea with glauca, raised the four remaining varieties to species status. By the end of the 18th century and plant hunters exploring Asia began to name and describe the Magnolia species from China and Japan.
The first Asiatic species to be described by western botanists were Magnolia denudata and Magnolia liliiflora, Magnolia coco and Magnolia figo. Soon after that, in 1794, Carl Peter Thunberg collected and described Magnolia obovata from Japan and at the same time Magnolia kobus was first collected. With the number of species increasing, the genus was divided into the two subgenera Magnolia and Yulania. Magnolia contains the American evergreen species M. grandiflora, of horticultural importance in the southeastern United States, M. virginiana, the type species. Yulania contains several deciduous Asiatic species, such as M. denudata and M. kobus, which have become horticulturally important in their own right and as parents in hybrids. Classified in Yulania, is the American deciduous M. acuminata, which has attained greater status as the parent responsible for the yellow flower colour in many new hybrids. Relations in the family Magnoliaceae have been puzzling taxonomists for a long time; because the family is quite old and has survived many geological events, its distribution has become scattered.
Some species or groups of species have been isolated for a long time, while others could stay in close contact. To create divisions in the family based upon morphological characters, has proven to be a nearly impossible task. By the end of the 20th century, DNA sequencing had become available as a method of large-scale research on phylogenetic relationships. Several studies, including studies on many species in the family Magnoliaceae, were carried out to investigate relationships. What these studies all revealed was that genus Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania were far more allied to each other than either one of them was to Magnolia subgenus Magnolia; these phylogenetic studies were supported by morphological data. As nomenclature is supposed to reflect relationships, the situation with the species names in Michelia and Magnolia subgenus Yulania was undesirable. Taxonomically, three choices are available: 1 to join Michelia and Yulania species in a common genus, not being Magnolia (for
Flag football is a version of American football where the basic rules of the game are similar to those of the mainstream game, but instead of tackling players to the ground, the defensive team must remove a flag or flag belt from the ball carrier to end a down, contact is not permitted between players. Chiefly because there is no dominant sanctioning organization for the sport, the game has mutated into many variations: 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4-players on each side. An important distinction is whether linemen are allowed to catch passes or, as in the NFL / CFL, are not allowed to do so. Flag football may be divided into "contact" or "non-contact", depending on whether or not blocking is allowed; the ability or inability for the quarterback to advance the ball past the line of scrimmage by running is another rule subject to variation by league. The sport has a strong amateur following and several national and international competitions each year sponsored by various associations. On June 28, 2017 the inaugural game for the newly formed American Flag Football League was played.
The league plans to launch eight league-owned teams for 2018. The International Woman's Flag Football Association, otherwise known as the IWFFA, hosts 8 on 8 flag football tournaments and flag football trainings across the world with participants from the United States, Mexico, Norway, Denmark, Iceland and several other nations; the organization is the largest organization for girls in the sport of flag football. The most active tournament is held each February in Key West, called the Kelly McGillis Classic where over 90 women and girls teams participate in 8 on 8, semi - blocking contact flag football. There are no restrictions to for women to play; the International Flag Football Festival organizes the World Cup of Flag Football featuring teams from the United States and several other nations. The International Federation of American Football organizes the IFAF Flag Football World Championship every two years since 2002. Flag football competition in the United Kingdom is 5-a-side and organized by the BAFA National Leagues.
At a senior level as of 2011, it is played by fifteen teams divided into two regional conferences and South with the top teams qualifying for playoffs at the end of the season. The league organizes teams competing at youth and cadet levels. Flag matches in the UK are played with five players on each side with no contact, are officiated according to the IFAF flag football rules with a few minor variations; the specific rules of flag football vary by league, though all share in common their replication of the rules of traditional US-American football with tackling replaced by flag-pulling. Traditional American football rules are omitted, changed or simplified to reflect the more recreational nature of the game, desire to avoid physical contact and injury, the smaller number of participating players per side. American football strategy Rugby football Tag rugby USFTL.com United States Flag & Touch Football League
Jinqiao is a town of Pudong, China. It is located in the middle of Pudong, with Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park on its south, Huangpu River at its north, overlooking Lujiazui Financial and Trade Center to its west. On its north side, is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone and harbor. Jinqiao has a national development zone - Jinqiao Export Processing Zone; the area contains a high proportion of foreign nationals and is notable for its large number of International Schools and comfortable environment. Jinqiao covers an area of 28.47 square kilometres. It governs seven villages, seven residential areas, one international community; the registered population is over 28,000, while the floating population is over 87,000. More than 3,000 foreigners live in Jinqiao. In recent times, before massive reconstruction, the area was known for its prostitution circles which had stalled the economic development of the area, is something that still exists under cover in its numerous massage centres. Jinqiao has developed over the last few years.
It has a number of international schools including. It does not, contain the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum; as a part of Shanghai Free Trade Zone, the modern service industry has become the most important part in economic development. Many shopping centers have been built in Jinqiao, have become popular places for families to spend in weekends and holidays, such as Jinqiao International Commercial Center. There are many expat housing compounds in Jinqiao, including: Vizcaya - A Spanish style compound Green court - Large red brick apartments Old Green Villas - English style houses New Green Villas - This compound is divided into different style houses Shimao Lakeside - A compound of western style apartments and villas The Middle Ring of Shanghai passes through Jinqiao. Jinqiao Road Station of Shanghai Metro line 6 is near the Jinqiao International Commercial Center. Shezhuang Temple
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
East China Normal University
East China Normal University is a comprehensive public research university in Shanghai. It was formed in 1951 by the merger of the Great China University founded in 1924 and Kwang Hua University which had its ultimate origins in the St. John's College established in the city in 1879, its original role was to train teachers for secondary and higher education, as suggested in the name "Normal", but soon housed top-class researchers and evolved into an elite research-intensive university. ECNU is now organized into more than 22 schools and institutes, located in two campuses throughout Minhang and Putuo; the university comprises 2 affiliated schools across the Shanghai metropolitan area: NYU Shanghai in Pudong, Asia-Europe Business School in Zizhu International Education Park. ECNU maintains a National Forest Ecosystem Observation and Research Station in Tiantong National Forest Park, Zhejiang Province. ECNU is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University, it is considered to be one of the most prestigious universities in China and is internationally recognized, as evidenced by its partnerships with institutions around the world.
Sponsored by the national program "Project 211" and "Project 985", the university is a frontrunner in the nation's research and innovation, has been dubbed as the "Columbia of the East". The university has strong ties with the China Meteorological Administration, State Oceanic Administration and the Chinese Academy of Sciences. East China Normal University traces its roots to the formation of the St. John's College in 1879, its heritage has had a definite and deep influence in the development of Chinese modern higher education. In 1879, St. John's College was founded by William Jones Boone and Joseph Schereschewsky, Bishop of Shanghai, by combining two pre-existing Anglican colleges in Shanghai. In 1905, the College became St. John's University, became registered in Washington D. C. in the United States. It was the first institution to grant bachelor's degrees in China, starting in 1907. After the May Thirtieth Movement in 1925, some academics and students left from the St. John's University forming the private Kwang Hua University to support the labor and anti-imperialist movement during the middle-period of the Republic of China era.
In 1924, after a student protest at the Xiamen University in Fujian Province, some academics fled north to Shanghai where they established what became the Great China University. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, East China Normal University was formed in 1951 by the merger of the Great China University and the Kwang Hua University, was joined at the same time by a number of faculty members from Fudan University, Tongji University, University of Shanghai and East China PE Academy, making it the first national teacher training university of the People's Republic of China; this was done in part due to the government's desire to pool these institutions' resources into a single, stronger entity, cultivate talents with professional knowledge and promote the development of education in the country. In the 1950s, the Chinese government regrouped the country's higher education institutions in an attempt to build a Soviet-style system. Under this policy, most of faculties from Saint John's University, Zhejiang University, University of Shanghai, Utopia University, Aurora University were incorporated into ECNU to form a comprehensive multi-disciplinary university.
Some of the academics at the Tongji University and Jiaotong University were transferred to ECNU. In March 1959, ECNU was authenticated as one of the first 16 National Key Universities in China, this status was reaffirmed in 1978. From 1972 to 1980, it was known as Shanghai Normal University, in 1980 its original name was resumed. In June 1986, ECNU was selected to be one of the first 33 higher education institutions authorized, by the State Council, to establish their graduate schools. In 1996, ECNU passed the prerequisites appraisal and became one of universities sponsored by the major national program "Project 211". In 2006, the Ministry of Education and Shanghai Municipality signed into a partnership for co-sponsoring the development of the university, qualifying ECNU as a member of the "Project 985" and facilitating ECNU's efforts and progress toward a comprehensive, research-oriented and internationalized world-class university. ECNU is now a nationally renowned university under the direct auspices of the Ministry of Education, boasting one of the most beautiful university campuses in China, the university is reputed as the "garden university".
The University supervises publication of more than 20 academic journals and periodicals. The library collection exceeds 4,000,000 volumes. 25 primary or secondary schools are affiliated to the university. The development and transformation of China and the modernized international metropolis of Shanghai brings huge opportunities to the university for its progress. ECNU is working its way up steadfastly toward the goal of establishing itself as "an internationally renowned high-level research university". ECNU attaches great importance to the internationalization in its development and enjoys a wide influence and reputation in the world; the university has established strategic cooperative partnership with many world-renowned universities, such as École Normale Supérieure and its group in France, the University of Pennsylvania and Cornell University in USA, Tokyo University and Kobe University in Japan, the University of Melbourne in Australia, the University of Warwick in the UK, etc. It has been carrying out academic exchanges with over 150 universities an
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Paul Michael Romer is an American economist, a pioneer of endogenous growth theory, a co-recipient of the 2018 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He received the prize "for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis". Romer was Chief Economist and Senior Vice President of the World Bank until he resigned in January 2018 following a controversy arising from his claim of possible political manipulation of Chile's "ease of doing business" ranking, he had been on leave from his position as professor of economics at the Stern School of Business at New York University. Prior to New York University, Romer was a professor of economics at the University of Chicago, the University of California, the Stanford University's Graduate School of Business, the University of Rochester. In addition, he was a senior fellow at Stanford's Center for International Development, the Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research, the Hoover Institution, as well as a fellow at the Center for Global Development.
Romer was born to Beatrice "Bea" Miller. He has two sisters. One of his brothers, Chris Romer, is a former Colorado state senator, he graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy, earned a B. S. in mathematics in 1977 and a MA in economics in 1978 as well as a Ph. D. in economics in 1983, all from the University of Chicago, after graduate studies at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Queen's University. Romer's most important work is in the field of economic growth, he has made vital contributions in the development of endogenous growth theory, he was named one of America's 25 most influential people by Time magazine in 1997, he was awarded the Horst Claus Recktenwald Prize in Economics in 2002. Romer's research on economic growth followed extensive studies of long-run growth during the 1950s and 1960s; the Solow–Swan model, for example, established the primacy of technological progress in accounting for sustained increases in output per worker. His 1983 dissertation, supervised by José Scheinkman and Robert Lucas Jr. amounted to constructing mathematical representations of economies in which technological change is the result of the intentional actions of people, such as research and development.
It led to two Journal of Political Economy articles published in 1986 and 1990 which started endogenous growth theory. He taught at the University of Rochester, the University of Chicago, the University of California, Stanford University and New York University. Romer temporarily left academia in 2001 to found Aplia, a company which produces online problem sets for college students, he is credited with the quote "A crisis is a terrible thing to waste," which he said during a November 2004 venture-capitalist meeting in California. Although he was referring to the rising education levels in other countries compared to the United States, the quote became a rallying concept for economists and consultants looking for constructive opportunities amid the Great Recession. Romer has attempted to replicate the success of charter cities and make them an engine of economic growth in developing countries, he promoted this idea in a TED talk in 2009, he has argued that with better rules and institutions less developed nations can be set on a different and better trajectory for growth.
In his model, a host country would turn responsibility for a charter city over to a more developed trustee nation, which would allow for new rules of governance to emerge. People could "vote with their feet" for or against these rules; the government of Honduras considered creating charter cities, though without the oversight of a third-party government, which some argue is neo-colonialism. Romer served as chair of a "transparency committee" but resigned in September 2012 when the Honduran government agency responsible for the project signed agreements with international developers without involvement of the committee, he became World Bank Chief Economist in October 2016. He resigned on 24 January 2018, following a controversy in which he stated in an interview with The Wall Street Journal on January 12, that during the tenure of Chile's socialist President Michelle Bachelet from 2014 onwards, Chile's ranking for ease of doing business had been downgraded by the World Bank as a result of changes of methodology which he claimed may have been politically motivated, a claim denied by the former World Bank economist responsible for compiling Chile's ranking, Chilean economist Augusto Lopez-Claros.
Romer shared the 2018 Nobel Prize with William Nordhaus. In choosing Romer as one of the 2018 economics laureates, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences stated that he had shown "how knowledge can function as a driver of long-term economic growth.... Had not modelled how economic decisions and market conditions determine the creation of new technologies. Paul Romer solved this problem by demonstrating how economic forces govern the willingness of firms to produce new ideas and innovations."After receiving the prize, Romer described how he started thinking about the relationship between growth and innovation: "The question that I first asked was, why was progress... speeding up over time? It arises because of this special characteristic of an idea, if to discover something, if any one person finds it, everybody can use the idea."The same day he received the Nobel award, Romer married Caroline Weber, a professor of French Literature at Barnard College. "Growth Cycles", with George Evans and Seppo Honkapohja.
JSTOR 116846 "Preferences and the Politics of Entitlement" (Individual and Social Responsibility: Child Ca