New York Supreme Court
The Supreme Court of the State of New York is the trial-level court of general jurisdiction in the New York State Unified Court System. It is vested with unlimited civil and criminal jurisdiction, although outside New York City it acts as a court of civil jurisdiction, with most criminal matters handled in County Court; the Court is radically different from its counterparts in nearly all other states in two important ways. First, the Supreme Court is not the highest court in the state; the highest court of the State of New York is the Court of Appeals. Second, although it is a trial court, the Supreme Court sits as a "single great tribunal of general state-wide jurisdiction, rather than an aggregation of separate courts sitting in the several counties or judicial districts of the state." There is a branch of the Supreme Court in each of New York's 62 counties. Under the New York State Constitution, the New York State Supreme Court has unlimited jurisdiction in both civil and criminal cases, with the exception of certain monetary claims against the State of New York itself.
In practice, the Supreme Court hears civil actions involving claims above a certain monetary amount that puts the claim beyond the jurisdiction of lower courts. Civil actions about lesser sums are heard by courts of limited jurisdiction, such as the New York City Civil Court, or the County Court, District Court, city courts, or justice courts outside New York City; the Supreme Court hears civil cases involving claims for equitable relief, such as injunctions, specific performance, or rescission of a contract, as well as actions for a declaratory judgment. The Supreme Court has exclusive jurisdiction of matrimonial actions, such as either contested or uncontested actions for a divorce or annulment; the court has exclusive jurisdiction over "Article 78 proceedings" against a body or officer seeking to overturn an official determination on the grounds that it was arbitrary and unreasonable or contrary to law. In 1995, the New York Supreme Court established a trial level Commercial Division, beginning in New York County and Monroe County.
The Commercial Division has expanded to the 8th District, the Albany, Nassau, Queens and Westchester County Supreme Courts. These are specialized Business Courts, with a defined jurisdiction focusing on business and commercial litigation; the jurisdictional amount in controversy required to have a case heard in the Commercial Division varies among these Commercial Division courts, ranging from $50,000 in Albany and Onandaga Counties to $500,000 in New York County, but the Commercial Division rules are otherwise uniform. With respect to criminal cases, the Criminal Branch of Supreme Court tries felony cases in the five counties of New York City, whereas they are heard by the County Court elsewhere. Misdemeanor cases, arraignments in all cases, are handled by lower courts: the New York City Criminal Court. Appeals from Supreme Court decisions, as well as from the Surrogate's Court, Family Court, Court of Claims, are heard by the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division; this court is intermediate between the New York Court of Appeals.
There is one Appellate Division, which for administrative purposes comprises four judicial departments. Decisions of the Appellate Division department panels are binding on the lower courts in that department, on lower courts in other departments unless there is contrary authority from the Appellate Division of that department; the Appellate Division of the Supreme Court in each judicial department is authorized to establish "appellate terms". An appellate term is an intermediate appellate court that hears appeals from the inferior courts within their designated counties or judicial districts, are intended to ease the workload on the Appellate Division and provide a less expensive forum closer to the people. Appellate terms are located in the Second Judicial Departments only. In New York City, the Appellate Term hears appeals from the New York City Civil Court and Criminal Court. In the Second Department outside New York City, it hears appeals from the Nassau and Suffolk County District Courts, city courts, justice courts.
Appellate terms consist of between three and five justices of the Supreme Court, appointed by the Chief Administrative Judge with the approval of presiding justice of the appropriate appellate division. The court sits in three-judge panels, with two justices constituting a quorum and being necessary for a decision. Decisions by the Appellate Term must be followed by courts. In New York City, all felony cases are heard in criminal terms; the Criminal Term of the Supreme Court, New York County is divided into 1 all purpose part, 15 conference and trial parts, 1 youth part, 1 narcotics/sci part, 1 felony waiver/sci part, 1 integrated domestic violence part, 16 trial parts, which include 3 Judicial Diversion Parts and 1 Mental Health Part. In New York City, all major civil cases are heard in civil terms; the court system is divided into thirteen judicial districts: seven upstate districts each comprising between five and eleven counties, five districts corresponding to the boroughs of New York City, one district on Long Island.
In each judicial district outside New York
Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
Modern liberalism in the United States
Modern liberalism in the United States is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States. It combines ideas of civil equality with support for social justice and a mixed economy. According to Ian Adams, all American parties always have been, they espouse classical liberalism—that is, a form of democratized Whig constitutionalism, plus the free market. The point of difference comes with the influence of social liberalism". Economically, modern American liberalism opposes cuts to the social safety net and supports a role for government in reducing inequality, providing education, ensuring access to healthcare, regulating economic activity and protecting the natural environment; this form of liberalism took shape in the 20th century United States as the franchise and other civil rights were extended to a larger class of citizens. Major examples include Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism, Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal, John F. Kennedy's New Frontier and Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society.
In the first half of the 20th century, both major American parties had a conservative wing and a liberal wing. The conservative Northern Republicans and the conservative Southern Democrats formed the conservative coalition which dominated the Congress in the pre-Civil Rights era; as the Democratic Party under President Johnson began to support civil rights, the Solid South, meaning solidly Democratic, became solidly Republican, except in districts with a large number of African-American voters. Starting in the 20th century, there has been a sharp division between liberals who tend to live in denser, more heterogeneous communities and conservatives who tend to live in less dense, more homogeneous communities. Thus, liberals as a group are referred to conservatives the right. Since the 1960s, the Democratic Party is considered liberal and the Republican Party is considered conservative; the American modern liberal philosophy endorses public spending on programs such as education, health care and welfare.
Important social issues during the first part of the 21st century include economic inequality, voting rights for minorities, affirmative action and other women's rights, support for LGBT rights and immigration reform. Modern liberalism took shape during the 20th century, with roots in Theodore Roosevelt's New Nationalism, Woodrow Wilson's New Freedom, Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal, Harry S. Truman's Fair Deal, John F. Kennedy's New Frontier, Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society. American liberals oppose conservatives on most issues, but not all. Modern liberalism is related to social liberalism and progressivism, although the current relationship between liberal and progressive viewpoints is debated. John F. Kennedy defined a liberal as follows: If by a "Liberal" they mean someone who looks ahead and not behind, someone who welcomes new ideas without rigid reactions, someone who cares about the welfare of the people—their health, their housing, their schools, their jobs, their civil rights, their civil liberties—someone who believes we can break through the stalemate and suspicions that grip us in our policies abroad, if, what they mean by a "Liberal" I'm proud to say I'm a "Liberal".
In 1941, Franklin D. Roosevelt defined a liberal party as such: The liberal party believes that, as new conditions and problems arise beyond the power of men and women to meet as individuals, it becomes the duty of Government itself to find new remedies with which to meet them; the liberal party insists that the Government has the definite duty to use all its power and resources to meet new social problems with new social controls—to ensure to the average person the right to his own economic and political life and the pursuit of happiness. Keynesian economic theory has played an important role in the economic philosophy of modern American liberals. Modern American liberals believe that national prosperity requires government management of the macroeconomy, in order to keep unemployment low, inflation in check, growth high, they value institutions that defend against economic inequality. In The Conscience of a Liberal, Paul Krugman writes: "I believe in a equal society, supported by institutions that limit extremes of wealth and poverty.
I believe in democracy, civil liberties, the rule of law. That makes me a liberal, I'm proud of it". Liberals point to the widespread prosperity enjoyed under a mixed economy in the years since World War II, they believe liberty exists when access to necessities like health care and economic opportunity are available to all, they champion the protection of the environment. Modern American liberalism is associated with the Democratic Party as modern American conservatism is associated with the Republican Party. Today, the word liberalism is used differently in different countries. One of the greatest contrasts is between usage in Europe. According to Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. "iberalism in the American usage has little in common with the word as used in the politics of any European country, save Britain". In Europe, liberalism means what is sometimes called classical liberalism, a commitment to limited government, laissez-faire economics and unalienable individual rights; this classical liberalism sometimes more corresponds to the American defination of libertarianism, although some may distinguish between classical liberalism and libertarianism.
In the United States, the general term liberalism always refer to modern liberalism, a more social variant of classical liberalism. In Europe, this social liberalism is closer
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime. It proscribes conduct perceived as threatening, harmful, or otherwise endangering to the property, health and moral welfare of people inclusive of one's self. Most criminal law is established by statute, to say that the laws are enacted by a legislature. Criminal law includes the rehabilitation of people who violate such laws. Criminal law varies according to jurisdiction, differs from civil law, where emphasis is more on dispute resolution and victim compensation, rather than on punishment or rehabilitation. Criminal procedure is a formalized official activity that authenticates the fact of commission of a crime and authorizes punitive or rehabilitative treatment of the offender; the first civilizations did not distinguish between civil law and criminal law. The first written codes of law were designed by the Sumerians. Around 2100–2050 BC Ur-Nammu, the Neo-Sumerian king of Ur, enacted the oldest written legal code whose text has been discovered: the Code of Ur-Nammu although an earlier code of Urukagina of Lagash is known to have existed.
Another important early code was the Code of Hammurabi. Only fragments of the early criminal laws of Ancient Greece have survived, e.g. those of Solon and Draco. In Roman law, Gaius's Commentaries on the Twelve Tables conflated the civil and criminal aspects, treating theft as a tort. Assault and violent robbery were analogized to trespass as to property. Breach of such laws created an obligation of law or vinculum juris discharged by payment of monetary compensation or damages; the criminal law of imperial Rome is collected in Books 47–48 of the Digest. After the revival of Roman law in the 12th century, sixth-century Roman classifications and jurisprudence provided the foundations of the distinction between criminal and civil law in European law from until the present time; the first signs of the modern distinction between crimes and civil matters emerged during the Norman Invasion of England. The special notion of criminal penalty, at least concerning Europe, arose in Spanish Late Scholasticism, when the theological notion of God's penalty, inflicted for a guilty mind, became transfused into canon law first and to secular criminal law.
The development of the state dispensing justice in a court emerged in the eighteenth century when European countries began maintaining police services. From this point, criminal law formalized the mechanisms for enforcement, which allowed for its development as a discernible entity. Criminal law is distinctive for the uniquely serious, potential consequences or sanctions for failure to abide by its rules; every crime is composed of criminal elements. Capital punishment may be imposed in some jurisdictions for the most serious crimes. Physical or corporal punishment may be imposed such as whipping or caning, although these punishments are prohibited in much of the world. Individuals may be incarcerated in prison or jail in a variety of conditions depending on the jurisdiction. Confinement may be solitary. Length of incarceration may vary from a day to life. Government supervision may be imposed, including house arrest, convicts may be required to conform to particularized guidelines as part of a parole or probation regimen.
Fines may be imposed, seizing money or property from a person convicted of a crime. Five objectives are accepted for enforcement of the criminal law by punishments: retribution, incapacitation and restoration. Jurisdictions differ on the value to be placed on each. Retribution – Criminals ought to Be Punished in some way; this is the most seen goal. Criminals have taken improper advantage, or inflicted unfair detriment, upon others and the criminal law will put criminals at some unpleasant disadvantage to "balance the scales." People submit to the law to receive the right not to be murdered and if people contravene these laws, they surrender the rights granted to them by the law. Thus, one who murders may be executed himself. A related theory includes the idea of "righting the balance." Deterrence – Individual deterrence is aimed toward the specific offender. The aim is to impose a sufficient penalty to discourage the offender from criminal behavior. General deterrence aims at society at large. By imposing a penalty on those who commit offenses, other individuals are discouraged from committing those offenses.
Incapacitation – Designed to keep criminals away from society so that the public is protected from their misconduct. This is achieved through prison sentences today; the death penalty or banishment have served the same purpose. Rehabilitation – Aims at transforming an offender into a valuable member of society, its primary goal is to prevent further offense by convincing the offender that their conduct was wrong. Restoration – This is a victim-oriented theory of punishment; the goal is to repair, through state authority, any injury inflicted upon the victim by the offender. For example, one who embezzles will be required to repay the amount improperly acquired. Restoration is combined with other main goals of criminal justice and is related to concepts in the civil law, i.e. returning the victim to his or her original position before the injury. Many laws are enforced by threat of criminal punishment, the range of the punishment varies with the jurisdiction; the scope of criminal law is too vast to catalog intelligently.
The following are some of the more typical aspects of criminal law. The criminal law prohibits undesirable acts. Thus, proof of a crime requires proof of some act. Scholars label this the requir
David Alexander Paterson is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of New York, succeeding Eliot Spitzer and serving out the final three years of Spitzer's term from March 2008 to the end of 2010. He is the first African American to hold that position and the second blind U. S. Governor of any state after Bob C. Riley, Acting Governor of Arkansas for 11 days in January 1975. After graduating from Hofstra Law School, Paterson worked in the district attorney's office of Queens County, New York, on the staff of Manhattan borough president David Dinkins. In 1985, he was elected to the New York state senate to a seat, once held by his father, former New York secretary of state Basil Paterson. In 2003, he rose to the position of Senate minority leader. Paterson was selected as running mate by then-New York attorney general and Democratic Party gubernatorial nominee Eliot Spitzer in the 2006 New York gubernatorial election. Spitzer and Paterson were elected in November 2006 with 69 percent of the vote, Paterson took office as lieutenant governor on January 1, 2007.
When Spitzer resigned in the wake of a prostitution scandal, Paterson was sworn in as Governor of New York on March 17, 2008. Paterson launched a brief campaign for a full term as governor in the 2010 gubernatorial election, but announced on February 26, 2010 that he would not be a candidate in the Democratic primary. Since leaving office, Paterson has been a radio talk show host on station WOR in New York City, was in 2014 appointed chairman of the New York Democratic Party by his successor as governor, Andrew Cuomo. Paterson was born in Brooklyn to Portia Paterson, a homemaker, Basil Paterson, a labor law attorney. Basil Paterson was a New York state senator and secretary of state, served as deputy mayor of New York City. According to a New York Now interview, Paterson traces his roots on his mother's side of the family to pre-Civil War African American slaves in the states of North Carolina and South Carolina, his father is half Afro-Jamaican. His paternal grandmother, a Jamaican, Evangeline Rondon Paterson was secretary to Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey.
His paternal grandfather was Leonard James Paterson, a native of Carriacou who arrived in the United States aboard the S. S. Vestris on May 16, 1917, it was reported by The Genetic Genealogist in March 2008 that Paterson had undergone genetic genealogy testing. Part of his father's ancestry consists of immigrants from England and Scotland, while his mother's side includes Eastern European Jewish ancestry, as well as ancestors from the Guinea-Bissau region of West Africa. At the age of three months, Paterson contracted an ear infection that spread to his optic nerve, leaving him sightless in his left eye and with limited vision in his right. Since New York City public schools would not guarantee him an education without placing him in special education classes, his family bought a home in the Long Island suburb of South Hempstead so that he could attend mainstream classes there. Paterson was the first disabled student in the Hempstead public schools, graduating from Hempstead High School in 1971.
Paterson received a B. A. degree in history from Columbia College of Columbia University in 1977 and a J. D. degree from Hofstra Law School in 1983. After law school, he went to work for the Queens District Attorney's Office, but did not pass the New York bar examination, which prevented him from becoming an attorney at law, he claimed that his failing the New York bar was the result of insufficient accommodation for his visual impairment, has since advocated for changes in bar exam procedures. While he was governor, Paterson's staff read documents to him over voice mail, he was the first governor of New York to be blind. Paterson and his wife, Michelle Paige Paterson, separated after 19 years of marriage in September 2012, their divorce was finalized in July, 2014. In 1985, Paterson resigned from the Queens District Attorney's office so he could join the campaign of city clerk David Dinkins to win the Democratic nomination for Manhattan Borough President; that summer, on August 6, state senator Leon Bogues died, Paterson sought and obtained the Democratic party nomination for the seat.
In mid-September, a meeting of 648 Democratic committee members on the first ballot gave Paterson 58% of the vote, giving him the party nomination. That October, Paterson won the uncontested special State Senate election. At the time, the 29th Senate district covered the Manhattan neighborhoods of Harlem, Manhattan Valley and the Upper West Side, the same district that Paterson's father had represented, he was re-elected ten times, remained in the state senate until 2006, sitting in the 186th, 187th, 188th, 189th, 190th, 191st, 192nd, 193rd, 194th, 195th and 196th New York State Legislatures. In November 2006, he was elected lieutenant governor. Paterson ran in the Democratic primary for the office of New York City Public Advocate in 1993, but was defeated by Mark J. Green. Paterson was elected by the Democratic caucus of the Senate as Minority Leader on November 20, 2002, becoming both the first non-white state legislative leader and the highest-ranking black elected official in the history of New York State, unseating the incumbent Minority Leader, Martin Connor.
Paterson became known for his consensus-building style coupled with sharp political skills. In 2006, Paterson sponsored a controversial bill to limit the use of deadly force by the police, but changed that position, he supported non-citizen voting in New York local elections. According to the New York Post, he "chalked up a liberal record". Describing Paterson's tenure in the senate, The New York Times cited his "wit, flurries of reform proposals and unusual bursts o
Adultery is extramarital sex, considered objectionable on social, moral, or legal grounds. Although what sexual activities constitute adultery varies, as well as the social and legal consequences, the concept exists in many cultures and is similar in Christianity and Judaism. A single act of sexual intercourse is sufficient to constitute adultery, a more long-term sexual relationship is sometimes referred to as an affair. Many cultures have considered adultery to be a serious crime. Adultery incurred severe punishment for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation, or torture; such punishments have fallen into disfavor in Western countries from the 19th century. In most Western countries, adultery itself is no longer a criminal offense, but may still have legal consequences in divorce cases. For example, in fault-based family law jurisdictions, adultery always constitutes a ground for divorce and may be a factor in property settlement, the custody of children, the denial of alimony, etc.
Adultery is not a ground for divorce in jurisdictions. In some societies and among certain religious adherents, adultery may affect the social status of those involved, may result in social ostracism. In countries where adultery is a criminal offense, punishments range from fines to caning and capital punishment. Since the 20th century, criminal laws against adultery have become controversial, with international organizations calling for their abolition in the light of several high-profile stoning cases that have occurred in some countries; the head of the United Nations expert body charged with identifying ways to eliminate laws that discriminate against women or are discriminatory to them in terms of implementation or impact, Kamala Chandrakirana, has stated that: "Adultery must not be classified as a criminal offence at all". A joint statement by the United Nations Working Group on discrimination against women in law and in practice states that: "Adultery as a criminal offence violates women’s human rights".
In Muslim countries that follow Sharia law for criminal justice, the punishment for adultery may be stoning. There are fifteen countries in which stoning is authorized as lawful punishment, though in recent times it has been carried out only in Iran and Somalia. Most countries that criminalize adultery are those where the dominant religion is Islam, several Sub-Saharan African Christian-majority countries, but there are some notable exceptions to this rule, namely Philippines and several U. S. states. In some jurisdictions, having sexual relations with the king's wife or the wife of his eldest son constitutes treason. By analogy, in cultures which value and practice exclusive interpersonal relationships, sexual relations with a person outside the relationship may be described as infidelity or cheating, is subject to sanction; the term adultery refers to sexual acts between a married person and someone, not that person's spouse. It may arise in family law. For instance, in the United Kingdom, adultery is not a criminal offense, but is a ground for divorce, with the legal definition of adultery being "physical contact with an alien and unlawful organ".
Extramarital sexual acts not fitting this definition are not "adultery" though they may constitute "unreasonable behavior" a ground of divorce. The application of the term to the act appears to arise from the idea that "criminal intercourse with a married woman... tended to adulterate the issue of an innocent husband... and to expose him to support and provide for another man's ". Thus, the "purity" of the children of a marriage is corrupted, the inheritance is altered; some adultery laws differentiate based on the sex of the participants, as a result such laws are seen as discriminatory, in some jurisdictions they have been struck down by courts on the basis that they discriminated against women. The term adultery, rather than extramarital sex, implies a moral condemnation of the act. Adultery refers to sexual relations which are not legitimized. In the traditional English common law, adultery was a felony. Although the legal definition of adultery differs in nearly every legal system, the common theme is sexual relations outside of marriage, in one form or another.
In archaic law, there was a tort of adultery, called criminal conversation, "conversation" being an old expression for sexual intercourse. This tort has been abolished in all jurisdictions. Traditionally, many cultures Latin American ones, had strong double standards regarding male and female adultery, with the latter being seen as a much more serious violation. Adultery involving a married woman and a man other than her husband was considered a serious crime. In 1707, English Lord Chief Justice John Holt stated that a man having sexual relations with another man's wife was "the highest invasion of property" and claimed, in regard to the aggrieved husband, that "a man cannot receive a higher provocation"; the Encyclopedia of Diderot & d'Alembert, Vol. 1 equated adultery to theft writing that, "adultery is, after homicide, the most punishable of all crimes, because it is
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai