New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Wyndham New Yorker Hotel
The Wyndham New Yorker Hotel is a historic hotel located at 481 Eighth Avenue in New York City, United States. The 43-story Art Deco hotel, opened 1930, is a mid-priced hotel, it is located in Manhattan's Garment District and Hell's Kitchen neighborhoods, near Pennsylvania Station, Madison Square Garden, Times Square. The 1-million-square-foot building offers two restaurants and 33,000 square feet of conference space. Since re-opening as a hotel in 1994, it has undergone $100 million in capital improvements, including lobby and room renovations and infrastructure modernization; the Unification Church purchased the building in 1975, since 2014, it has been part of the Wyndham Hotels & Resorts chain. Due to its noticeable marquee and proximity to the Empire State Building, it makes appearances in many films and is the backdrop for TV-studio reports and interviews broadcast worldwide from New York by BBC News; the New Yorker Hotel was built by Garment Center developer Mack Kanner. When the project was announced in 1928, the Sugarman and Berger designed building was planned to be 38 stories, at an estimated cost of $8 million.
However, when it was completed in 1929, the building had grown to 43 stories, at a final cost of $22.5 million and contained 2,500 rooms, making it the city's largest for many years. Hotel management pioneer Ralph Hitz was selected as its first manager becoming president of the National Hotel Management Company. An early ad for the building boasted that the hotel's "bell boys were'as snappy-looking as West Pointers'" and "that it had a radio in every room with a choice of four stations", it was a New Yorker bellboy, Johnny Roventini, who served as tobacco company Philip Morris' pitchman for twenty years, making famous their "Call for Philip Morris" advertising campaign. The hotel opened on January 2, 1930. Much like its contemporaries, the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building, the New Yorker was designed in the Art Deco style, popular in the 1920s and 1930s. In his book New York 1930 Robert A. M. Stern said the "New Yorker's unornamented facades consisted of alternating vertical bands of warm gray brick and windows, yielding an impression of boldly modeled masses.
This was furthered by the deep-cut light courts, which produced a powerful play of light and shade, enhanced by dramatic lighting at night". In addition to the ballrooms there were ten private dining "salons" and five restaurants employing 35 master cooks; the barber shop was one of the largest in the world with 20 manicurists. There were 150 laundry staff washing as many as 350,000 pieces daily. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, the hotel was among New York's most fashionable; the New York Observer noted that in the building's heyday, "actors, athletes, mobsters, the shady and the luminous—the entire Brooklyn Dodgers roster during the glory seasons—would stalk the bars and ballrooms, or romp upstairs". Inventor Nikola Tesla spent the last ten years of his life in near-seclusion in Suite 3327, where he died devoting his time to feeding pigeons while meeting dignitaries. In years, Muhammad Ali would recuperate there after his March 1971 fight against Joe Frazier at the Garden. Notwithstanding its early success, New York's changing economy and demographics caused the building to decline and, as a result, its ownership changed several times.
It was purchased by Hilton Hotels in 1953 for $12.5 million and following an antitrust suit by the federal government, was sold just three years in 1956, for $20 million to Massaglia Hotels. In 1959, Massaglia sold the hotel to an investment syndicate known as New York Towers Ltd. which went bankrupt, allowing Hilton to reacquire the building in 1967. By the time Hilton reacquired the hotel, the pronounced decline in New York's fortunes, coupled with the construction of new, more modern hotels, caused the New Yorker to become unprofitable; as a result, Hilton closed the hotel in April 1972. Left vacant, several proposals were made for the building, including redevelopment as a low-income housing development, a hospital. In 1975, it was purchased by the Unification Church of the United States for $5.6 million. The church converted much of the building for use by its members; when it was built, the New Yorker Hotel had coal-fired steam boilers and generators sufficient to produce more than 2,200 kilowatts of direct current electric power.
At the time, this was the largest private power plant in the United States. The hotel's own direct current generators were still in use during the Northeast Blackout of 1965, but by the late 1960s the hotel's power system had been modernized to alternating current. In a dedication ceremony held on September 25, 2008, The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers named the New Yorker Hotel's direct current power plant a Milestone in Electrical Engineering. A bronze plaque commemorating the achievement was presented to the hotel by IEEE. In 1994, the Unification Church elected to convert a portion of the building to use as a hotel again and the New Yorker Hotel Management Company took over operation of the building, it began the largest renovation project in the New Yorker's nearly 65-year history, completed in 1999, with $20 million in capital improvements. The hotel joined the Ramada chain in 2000. In 2005, the hotel's management began the process of replacing the New Yorker's famous sign, which hadn't been lit since 1967 and was in badly need of repair.
The sign was replaced by an e
Chrysler New Yorker
The Chrysler New Yorker is an automobile model, produced by Chrysler from 1940 to 1996, serving for several years as the brand's flagship model. A trim level named the "New York Special" first appeared in 1938 and the "New Yorker" name debuted in 1939; the New Yorker name helped define the Chrysler brand as a maker of upscale models and equipped above mainstream brands like Ford, Chevrolet/Pontiac, Dodge/Plymouth, but below full luxury brands like Cadillac and Packard. During the New Yorker's tenure, it competed against upper level models from Buick and Mercury; until its discontinuation in 1996, the New Yorker had made its mark as the longest-running American car nameplate. The New York Special model was introduced as a distinct sub-series of the 1938 Chrysler Imperial, it was available in 1938 as a four-door sedan with a 298.7 CID straight-eight engine and a generous amount of comfort and space for the passengers. For 1939 it was expanded with two more coupe versions and a two-door sedan and a larger, more powerful engine.
Now the C23 series, it took on the "New Yorker" name. The first convertibles were introduced with the all-new body-design of the 1940 models. This, the C26 series, was the first New Yorker to be considered a standalone model rather than as an Imperial version, it saw the introduction of Fluid Drive, a fluid coupling between the engine and the clutch. The only transmission available was the basic three-speed manual. There was the "New Yorker Highlander", a special version with tartan seats and other interior elements. Redesigned bodies were introduced for 1941, with the business coupe now being a three window design; the bodies were lower, with increased glass surface. Another new model was the Town Sedan with the rear doors having the hinges at the forward edge of the doors; this year, the Vacamatic was made available, although unlike the version sold on six-cylinder models, the Saratoga/New Yorker version was a three speed transmission with overdrive. With America entering World War II on 7 December 1941, all automobile production came to an end at the beginning of February, 1942.
Thus, the 1942 model year was half the normal length. Cars built after December 1941 had blackout trim; the 1942s were quite modern, of a design, heralding the post-war ponton style with fenders more incorporated into the bodywork. The grille consisted of five horizontal chrome bars which wrapped around the front, reaching all the way to the leading edge of the front wheelhouses; some 12,145 New Yorkers of the C36 series were built this year. Chrysler would produce and experiment with engines for tanks and aircraft during World War II. One post-war application of this would lead to the creation of the first generation Hemi of the 1950s. After the war, the New Yorker became a separate series. Unlike most car companies, Chrysler did not make major changes with each model year from 1946 through 1948, thus models for 1946 through 1948 Chryslers have the same basic appearance, noted for their'harmonica' grille, based on the body introduced with the 1941 models. 1947 saw a minor redesign in tires and instrument panel, while the first 1948s were just 1947s with no visible changes.
Postwar Chryslers continued to offer Fluid Drive, with the New Yorker now offering the true four speed semi-automatic transmission. The 1949 New Yorker used Chrysler Corporation's new postwar body shared by Dodge and DeSoto with ponton, three-box styling; the engine continued to be the 323.5-cid straight eight coupled to Fluid Drive and the Prestomatic four-speed semi-automatic. Body styles were reduced to four-door sedan and convertible. Wheelbase on the New Yorker was increased to 131.5 in from the 127.5 in frame introduced in 1941. The previous design had been carried through early 1949, with the new series having been delayed due to a strike in late 1948. A padded dash board was optional; the 1950 New Yorker was the more deluxe of the regular eight-cylinder Chryslers with cloth upholstery available in several colors, 135 hp Spitfire straight-eight engine and roomy interior featuring "chair height" seats. The "Prestomatic" fluid drive transmission had each with two speeds. In normal driving, high range was engaged using the clutch.
The car could be driven without using the clutch. When the car came to a stop, the lower gear was again engaged; the big news for 1950 was the two-door hardtop, or Special Club coupe as Chrysler called it, in the New Yorker series. The model was called the Newport in sales literature. Chrysler added foam rubber padding on the dashboard for safety. Chrysler introduces the 180 hp FirePower Hemi engine; the engine becomes a popular choice among hot rodders and racers alike, a trend that continues to thrive today with its namesake second generation model. The FirePower Hemi equipped cars could accelerate 0 to 60 mph in 10 seconds, faster than the Oldsmobile 88 Rocket engine of that time; the New Yorker offered Fluid Torque Drive, a true torque converter, in place of Fluid Drive. Cars with Fluid Torque Drive came only with Fluid Matic semi-automatic transmission and had a gear selector quadrant on the steering column. Power steering, an industry first, appeared as an option on Chrysler cars with the Hemi engine.
It was sold under the name Hydraguide. A station wagon was offered with only 251 built, its 131.5 in wheelbase is the longest used on
Robert W. Criswell
Robert Wesley Criswell was an American humorist and newspaper editor. He was known for his popular books under the pen name Grandfather Lickshingle. After working at newspapers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, he joined the New York World, became editor of the New Yorker newspaper. In 1905 he was arrested for criminal libel after publishing an article impugning Alice Roosevelt, daughter of U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt. While awaiting trial for libel, under suspicion of defrauding subscribers, he was struck by a New York City subway train in an apparent suicide. Robert Wesley Criswell was born in Clarion County, Pennsylvania, in 1850, his father named Robert Criswell, was a prominent man in Clarion County, who afterward found success in the oil business of Venango County. The younger Robert attended the Chickering Institute in Cincinnati and Moores Hill College and his brother David became a noted oil producer. Criswell's first newspaper work was writing occasional sketches for the Cincinnati Commercial.
He was employed as local editor of the Independent, published at East Brady, Pennsylvania. From East Brady he went to Cincinnati and worked a year for The Cincinnati Enquirer writing political letters from Indiana and reporting on the Indiana legislature. While at Indianapolis he accepted an offer to come to Oil City and edit the Oil City Derrick, assuming editorship in 1877 establishing the publishing firm Boyle & Criswell which published the Derrick until 1889. A feature of his work on the Derrick was a humor department, quoted internationally, he again returned to Cincinnati, to take a position on the staff of the Enquirer, afterward succeeding to the managing editorship of that paper, which position he held for five years. Criswell was editor of the Petroleum World at Titusville, his last newspaper connection in the oil country was as one of the proprietors of the Derrick under the firm name of Boyle & Criswell, he published two books of humor: The New Shakspeare, Grandfather Lickshingle and Other Sketches.
In 1878, he married Alice McCreary, a niece of former Kentucky Governor James B. McCreary, he worked for the New York Daily Graphic and by 1890, Criswell had joined the staff of the New York World. In 1904, Criswell became editor of a weekly newspaper established 3 years earlier. On June 21, 1905, Criswell published an article titled "An Insult to Alice Roosevelt" which alleged President Roosevelt's daughter Alice was being utilized by Ohio congressman Nicholas Longworth to advance his career, that Longworth introduced Roosevelt to unsavory persons, including racetrack bookmakers and Kentucky representative Joseph L. Rhinock, indicted for stealing $50 from a man. A criminal libel suit was filed by Rhinock against Criswell and The New Yorker, Criswell was arrested on July 11. Criswell claimed that the article was written by a trusted Cincinnati correspondent who had viewed Rhinock's indictment. Criswell was released with a trial set for September. On August 3, 1905, Criswell, "evidently under stress of great excitement", ran down the steps of the 72nd Street subway station, ran alongside a train, jumped in front of the cars, was killed instantly.
After his death, it was revealed Criswell and New Yorker publisher Robert A. Irving were suspected of engaging in fraud: Assistant District Attorney Paul Krotel stated Criswell and Irving had collected $6,500 from subscribers for a book to be called America's Foremost Families, but upon review of accounting, no money had been spent on production, no evidence was presented that any part of the book had been written. Krotel said Criswell "was nervous and scared the last time he was here, I am not surprised to hear of his death". After Criswell's death, Irving was jailed for the same libel suit. Criswell's death was formally declared a suicide by the coroner after two witnesses testified that Criswell flung himself in front of an approaching train and deliberately laid his head and hands on the rail; the libel suit resumed in October. The New Yorker was defunct by January, 1906, when all that remained "above ground or out of jail" was a desk and chair. Criswell's body was said to be taken to Aurora, for burial.
The New Shakspeare and Other Travesties. New York: American News Company. 1882. Grandfather Lickshingle and Other Sketches. J. W. Lovell. 1883. Anonymous. History of Venango County, Pennsylvania: Its Past and Present. Chicago: Brown, Runk & Company. McLaurin, John James. Sketches in Crude Oil. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania: J. J. McLaurin. Works by or about Robert W. Criswell at Internet Archive Robert W. Criswell at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
NewYorker NewYorker Group Services International GmbH & Co. KG, is a German clothing retailer headquartered in Braunschweig that addresses the target group of 12- to 39-year-olds. In 1971 the first NewYorker store was opened in Flensburg. In December 2006, the company won the first billion in sales. By March 2015, the company owned 1,001 branches in 40 countries: Armenia, Austria, Belgium and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Slovakia, Spain, Switzerland, the United Arab Emirates and the United States. In March 2012 Olly Murs became the face for NewYorker's men spring/summer range and customers were able to get their photos taken with a cardboard cut-out of Murs; the company has over 16,000 employees. NewYorker is naming sponsor of the Braunschweig-based German Football League team New Yorker Lions and the Basketball Bundesliga team New Yorker Phantoms Braunschweig; the company sponsors the international b-boy competition Battle of the Year.
Media related to New Yorker at Wikimedia Commons Official Site
In cricket, a yorker is a ball bowled which hits the cricket pitch around the batsman's feet. When a batsman assumes a normal stance, this means that the cricket ball bounces on the cricket pitch on or near the batsman's popping crease. A batsman who advances down the pitch to strike the ball may by so advancing cause the ball to pitch at or around his feet and may thus cause himself to be "yorked"; the Oxford English Dictionary gives the derivation of the term as originating in Yorkshire, a notable English cricketing county. However, other derivations have been suggested; the term may derive from the 18th and 19th century slang term "to pull Yorkshire" on a person meaning to trick or deceive them, although there is evidence to suggest that the Middle English word yuerke may have been the source. A batsman, beaten by a yorker is said to have been yorked. "Beaten" in this context does not mean that the batsman is bowled or given out lbw but can include the batsman missing the ball with the bat.
A delivery, intended to be a yorker but which does not york the batsman is known as an attempted yorker. A batsman in his normal stance will raise his bat as the bowler bowls which can make the yorker difficult to play when it arrives at the batsman's feet. A batsman may only realise late that the delivery is of yorker length and will jam his bat down to "dig out" the yorker. A yorker is a difficult delivery to bowl as a mistimed delivery can either result in a full toss or half-volley which can be played by the batsman. Bowling yorkers is a tactic used most by fast bowlers. A fast yorker is one of the most difficult types of delivery in cricket to play as the bat must be swung down right to the pitch to intercept the ball—if any gap remains between the bat and the pitch, the ball can squeeze through and go on to hit the wicket; the yorker might miss the bat but hit the pads in front of the wicket, resulting in the batsman getting out lbw. When the batsman blocks such a ball, it is referred to as "dug out".
A bowler who achieves swing when bowling yorkers can be more dangerous, as the ball will deviate sideways as it travels towards the batsman, making it harder to hit. Yorkers can be aimed directly at the batsman's feet, forcing the batsman to shift his feet while attempting to play the ball, or risk being hit. Inswinging yorkers have a reputation for being hard to defend and difficult to score runs off; such a delivery is colloquially known as a sandshoe crusher, toe crusher, cobbler's delight or nail breaker. A recent variation is the wide yorker, delivered wide of the batsman on the off side; this is useful in Twenty20 cricket as a ploy to restrict runs rather than to get the batsman out. Despite the effectiveness of yorkers, they are notoriously difficult to bowl and will be attempted only a handful of times during a sequence of several overs. Yorkers are best used to surprise a batsman who has become accustomed to hitting shorter-pitched balls and not with the bat speed necessary to defend against a yorker.
As such, a yorker is bowled to give the batsman less time to react and position his bat. The yorker is regarded as effective against weak tail-end batsmen, who lack the skill to defend a non-swinging yorker and who are sometimes less susceptible to other bowling tactics, it is particularly effective in the stages of an innings in one-day cricket, because it is the most difficult of all deliveries to score off if defended successfully. Runs will only be scored off edges or straight down the ground; the most notable bowlers in delivering yorkers are Pakistanis Waqar Younis, Wasim Akram, Shoaib Akhtar and Faran Muzaffar, Sri Lankan Lasith Malinga, Australians Brett Lee, Mitchell Starc and Mitchell Johnson, New Zealanders Trent Boult, Shane Bond and Tim Southee, South Africans Dale Steyn and Alan Donald, West Indians Patrick Patterson, Malcolm Marshall, Courtney Walsh, Curtly Ambrose and Jerome Taylor, Indians Jasprit Bumrah, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Zaheer Khan, Englishmen Andrew Flintoff and Steven Finn.
A yorker is delivered late in the bowling action with the hand pointing vertically. The aim is both to get more pace and to deliver it so as to deceive the batsman in flight, it is recommended to deliver the ball with some inswing but an away-swinging yorker aimed at the pads can be just as effective. Because yorkers are quite difficult to bowl they require substantial practice in order to achieve consistent success. How did the term'yorker' originate - ESPNcricinfo How to bowl a yorker in cricket - wisdomtalkes How to bowl a yorker - pitchvision
Manhattan referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U. S. state of New York. The borough consists of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson and Harlem rivers. S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial and entertainment capital of the world, the borough hosts the United Nations Headquarters. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, Manhattan is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization: the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.
Many multinational media conglomerates are based in Manhattan, the borough has been the setting for numerous books and television shows. Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island, including real estate, estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2013. Manhattan traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan. Manhattan is documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for 60 guilders, which equals $1038 in current terms; the territory and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York, based in present-day Manhattan, served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790; the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a world symbol of the United States and its ideals of liberty and peace.
Manhattan became a borough during the consolidation of New York City in 1898. New York County is the United States' second-smallest county by land area, is the most densely populated U. S. county. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 1,664,727 living in a land area of 22.83 square miles, or 72,918 residents per square mile, higher than the density of any individual U. S. city. On business days, the influx of commuters increases this number to over 3.9 million, or more than 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York City's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, is the smallest borough in terms of land area. Manhattan Island is informally divided into three areas, each aligned with its long axis: Lower and Upper Manhattan. Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan are well known, as New York City received a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017, Manhattan hosts three of the world's 10 most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Grand Central Terminal.
The borough hosts many prominent bridges, such as the Brooklyn Bridge. Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, part of the Stonewall National Monument, is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement; the City of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of the city's government. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, Cornell Tech, Weill Cornell Medical College, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the world; the name Manhattan derives from the Munsee dialect of the Lenape language'manaháhtaan'. The Lenape word has been translated as "the place where we get bows" or "place for gathering the bows". According to a Munsee tradition recorded in the 19th century, the island was named so for a grove of hickory trees at the lower end, considered ideal for the making of bows.
It was first recorded in writing as Manna-hata, in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen. A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River. Alternative folk etymologies include "island of many hills", "the island where we all became intoxicated" and "island", as well as a phrase descriptive of the whirlpool at Hell Gate; the area, now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of King Francis I of France – became the first documented European to visit the area that would become New York City, he entered the tidal strait now known as The Narrows and named the land around Upper New York