Edward Gibbon Wakefield
Edward Gibbon Wakefield is considered a key figure in the early colonisation of South Australia and New Zealand. Despite being imprisoned for three years in 1827 for kidnapping a fifteen-year-old girl, he enjoyed a distinguished political career. Wakefield was born in London in 1796, the eldest son of Edward Wakefield, a distinguished surveyor and land agent, Susanna Crush, his grandmother, Priscilla Wakefield, was a popular author for the young, one of the introducers of savings banks. He was the brother of William Hayward Wakefield, Arthur Wakefield, Felix Wakefield, Daniel Bell Wakefield, John Howard, Priscilla Susannah, Percy. Wakefield was educated at Westminster School in London, Edinburgh, he served as a King's Messenger, carrying diplomatic mail all about Europe during the stages of the Napoleonic Wars, both before and after the decisive Battle of Waterloo. In 1816, he eloped with a Miss Eliza Pattle and they were subsequently married in Edinburgh, it appears to have been a "love match," but no doubt the fact that she was a wealthy heiress did "sweeten the pot," with Edward receiving a marriage settlement of £70,000, with the prospect of more when Eliza turned twenty-nine.
The now married couple, accompanied by the bride's mother and various servants, moved to Genoa where Wakefield was again employed in a diplomatic capacity. Here, his first child, Susan Priscilla Wakefield known as Nina, was born in 1817; the household returned to London in 1820 and a second child, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, was born. Four days Eliza died, Edward resigned his post; the two children were brought up by Wakefield's older sister, Catherine. Nina was suffering from tuberculosis, Wakefield took his daughter to Lisbon in Portugal in the hope of recovery, he employed a young peasant girl, Leocadia de Oliveira, whom he fostered, to help care for Nina, after Nina's death in 1835, sent Leocadia on to Wellington, NZ where she met John Taine and had 13 children. Although wealthy by contemporary standards, Wakefield was not satisfied, he wished to enter Parliament, for this he needed more capital. He managed to wed yet another wealthy heiress in 1826 when he abducted 15-year-old Ellen Turner, after luring her from school with a false message about her mother's health.
Wakefield was brought to trial for the case known as the Shrigley abduction in 1827 and, along with his brother William, sentenced to three years in Newgate prison. He attempted to overturn his father-in-law's will and gain control of the remainder of his dead wife's money; this did not work either, in fact, the entire affair did a lot to tarnish his reputation—there were strong suspicions that in order to strengthen his case he had resorted to forgery and perjury, although he was never tried for these. Considering emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, considered the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour, he proposed to remedy this state of things by the sale of land in small quantities at a sufficient price, the employment of the proceeds as a fund for promoting immigration.
These views were expressed in his Letter from Sydney, published while he was still in prison, but quoted as if written on the spot. After his release Wakefield turned his attention to social questions at home, produced a tract on the Punishment of Death, with a graphic picture of the condemned sermon in Newgate, another on the rural districts, with an powerful exhibition of the degraded condition of the agricultural labourer, he soon, became engrossed with colonial affairs. In 1831, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Robert Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, Wakefield became involved in various schemes to promote the colonisation of South Australia, he believed that many of the social problems in Britain were caused by overcrowding and overpopulation and he saw emigration to the colonies as a useful safety valve. He set out to design a good colonisation scheme, one with a workable combination of labourers and capital; the scheme was to be financed by the sale of land to the capitalists who would thereby support the other classes of emigrants.
It took several attempts to get the South Australia colony going. Although Wakefield was a driving force, he found that as it came closer to reality he was allowed less and less influence, he was frozen out completely whereupon he took offence and severed his connections with the scheme. It was during this period that his daughter, Nina and their time in Lisbon meant that he was away from the scene of negotiations for several months. Nonetheless, in 1839 John Hill named the Wakefield River, a river north of Adelaide in South Australia after Edward Gibbon Wakefield; this led to the naming of Port Wakefield. However, he did not lose interest in colonisation as a tool for social engineering. In 1833 he published anonymously England and America, a work intended to develop his own colonial theory, done in the appendix entitled "The Art of Colonization." The body of the work, contains many new ideas, some of them reaching extreme conclusions. It contains the distinct proposal that the transport of letters should be wholly free, the prediction that, under given
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary was a New Zealand mountaineer and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed to have reached the summit of Mount Everest, they were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. From 1985 to 1988 he served as New Zealand's High Commissioner to India and Bangladesh and concurrently as Ambassador to Nepal. Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school, he made his first major climb in 1939. He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II. Prior to the Everest expedition, Hillary had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951 as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952; as part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. He subsequently reached the North Pole, making him the first person to reach both poles and summit Everest.
Following his ascent of Everest, Hillary devoted himself to assisting the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he established. His efforts are credited with the construction of many hospitals in Nepal. Hillary had numerous honours conferred upon him, including the Order of the Garter in 1995. Upon his death in 2008, he was given a state funeral in New Zealand. Hillary was born to Percival Augustus and Gertrude Hillary in Auckland, New Zealand, on 20 July 1919, his father Percy had served at Gallipoli with the 15th Regiment, was discharged "medically unfit" from the Army in 1916. His grandparents had emigrated from Yorkshire to northern Wairoa in the mid-19th century, his family moved to Tuakau, south of Auckland, in 1920, after Percy was allocated eight acres of land there as a returned soldier. Percy had been a journalist prewar, soon became founding editor of the weekly Tuakau District News as well as an apiarist. Ed had a brother Rex. Hillary was educated at Tuakau Primary School and Auckland Grammar School.
He finished primary school aged 11 or two years early, at "Grammar" achieved average marks. His mother wanted him to go to a "good school" and he commuted by train, cycling to Tuakau station before 7 am and returning after 6 pm for 3½ years until the family moved to Remuera, Auckland in 1935, his last of four years at "Grammar", he was smaller than his peers and shy, did not enjoy "Grammar", where commuting barred him from after-school activities. He gained confidence after taking up boxing, he became interested in climbing when he was 16 following a 1935 school trip to Mount Ruapehu, after which he showed more interest in tramping than in studying and said he "wanted to see the world". He attended Auckland University College, joined the Tramping Club there, but in 1938 "after two notably unsuccessful years studying mathematics and science" he gave up on formal education. He became an apiarist with his father and brother Rex. So he kept bees in summer, concentrated on climbing in winter, his father edited the journal "The N.
Z. Honeybee" and his mother Gertrude was famous for selling queen bees. In 1938 he went to hear Herbert Sutcliffe, the proponent of a life philosophy called "Radiant Living", with his family; the family all became foundation members, his mother became its secretary in 1939. He went to Gisborne as Sutcliff’s assistant, in 1941 sat examinations to become a teacher of Radiant Living, getting a 100% pass mark, his test lecture was on "Inferiority – cause and cure". He said of his five year association with the movement that "I learned to speak confidently from the platform. Tenets included healthy pacificism, he joined the Radiant Living Tramping Club, further developed his love of the outdoors in the Waitakere Ranges. In 1939 he completed his first major climb, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier, near Aoraki / Mount Cook in the Southern Alps. Climbing brought new friends. At the outbreak of World War II, Hillary applied to join the Royal New Zealand Air Force but withdrew the application writing that he was "harassed by my religious conscience".
In 1943, with the Japanese threat in the Pacific and the arrival of conscription, he joined the RNZAF as a navigator in No. 6 Squadron RNZAF and No. 5 Squadron RNZAF on Catalina flying boats. In 1945, he was sent to the Solomon Islands, where he was badly burnt in an accident. In January 1948, Hillary and others ascended the south ridge of Aoraki / Mount Cook, New Zealand's highest peak. In 1951 he was part of a British reconnaissance expedition to Everest led by Eric Shipton, before joining the successful British attempt of 1953. In 1952, Hillary and George Lowe were part of the British team led by Shipton, that attempted Cho Oyu. After that attempt failed due to the lack of route from the Nepal side and Lowe crossed the Nup La pass into Tibet and reached the old Camp II, on the northern side, where all the previous expeditions had camped. In 1949, the long-standing climbing route to the summit of Everest was closed by Chinese-controlled Tibet. For the next several years, Nepal allowed only one or two expeditions p
Te Rauparaha was a Māori rangatira and war leader of the Ngāti Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. He was influential in the original sale of land to the New Zealand Company and was a participant in the Wairau Affray in Marlborough. From 1807, muskets became the weapon of choice and changed the character of tribal warfare. In 1819 Te Rauparaha joined with a large war party of Ngāpuhi led by Tāmati Wāka Nene. Over the next few years the intertribal fighting intensified, by 1822 Ngāti Toa and related tribes were being forced out of their land around Kāwhia after years of fighting with various Waikato tribes led by Te Wherowhero. Led by Te Rauparaha they began a fighting retreat or migration southwards, conquering hapu and iwi as they went south; this campaign ended with Ngāti Toa controlling the southern part of the North Island and the strategically placed Kapiti Island, which became the tribal stronghold for a period. In 1824 an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 warriors comprising a coalition of tribes from the East Coast, the Horowhenua, southern Taranaki and Te Wai Pounamu assembled at Waikanae, with the object of taking Kapiti Island.
Crossing in a flotilla of war canoes under cover of darkness, they were met as they disembarked by a force of Ngāti Toa fighters led or reinforced by Te Rauparaha. The ensuing Battle of Waiorua, at the northern end of the island, ended with the rout and slaughter of the landing attackers who were disadvantaged by difficult terrain and weather plus divided leadership; this decisive victory left Te Rauparaha and the Ngāti Toa able to dominate Kapiti and the adjacent mainland. Following the Battle of Waiorua, Te Rauparaha began a series of annual campaigns into the South Island with the object in part of seizing the sources of the valuable mineral greenstone. Between 1827 and 1831 he was able to extend the control of Ngati Toa and their allies over the northern part of the Southern Island, his base for these sea-based raids remained Kapiti. During this period Pākehā whaling stations became established in the region with Te Rauparaha's encouragement and the participation of many Māori; some Māori women married Pākehā whalers and a lucrative two-way trade of supplies for muskets was established, thereby increasing Te Rauparaha's mana and military strength.
By the early 1830s Te Rauparaha had defeated a branch of the Rangitane iwi in the Wairau Valley and gained control over that area. Te Rauparaha married his daughter Te Rongo to an influential whaling captain Captain John William Dundas Blenkinsop to whom he sold land in the Wairau Valley for a whaling station, it is uncertain if Te Rauparaha understood the full implications of the deed of sale that he signed and gave to the captain. Te Rauparaha hired the brig Elizabeth, captained by John Stewart, to transport himself and 100 warriors to Akaroa Harbour with the aim of attacking the local tribe, the Ngai Tahu. Hidden below deck Te Rauparaha and his men captured the Ngai Tahu chieftain Tamaiharanui, his wife and daughter when they boarded the brig at Stewart's invitation. Several hundred of the Ngai Tahu were killed both on the Elizabeth and during a surprise landing the next morning. During the voyage back to Kapiti the chief strangled his own daughter Nga Roimata to save her from expected abuse.
Te Rauparaha was incensed and following their arrival at Kapiti the parents and other prisoners were killed, Tamaiharanui after prolonged torture. In 1831 he took the major Ngāi Tahu pā at Kaiapoi after a three-month siege, shortly after took Onawe Pā in the Akaroa harbour, but these and other battles in the south were in the nature of revenge raids rather than for control of territory. Further conquests to the south were brought to a halt by a severe outbreak of measles and the growing strength of the southern hapu who worked with the growing European whaling community in coastal Otago and at Bluff; the last years of Te Rauparaha's life saw the most dramatic changes. On 16 October 1839 the New Zealand Company expedition commanded by Col William Wakefield arrived at Kapiti, they were seeking to buy vast areas of land with a view to forming a permanent European settlement. Te Rauparaha sold them some land in the area that became known as Nelson and Golden Bay. Te Rauparaha had requested that Rev. Henry Williams send a missionary and in November 1839 Octavius Hadfield travelled with Henry Williams, Hadfield establish an Anglican mission on the Kapiti Coast.
On 14 May 1840 Te Rauparaha signed a copy of the Treaty of Waitangi, believing that the treaty would guarantee him and his allies the possession of territories gained by conquest over the previous 18 years. On 19 June of that year, he signed another copy of the treaty, when Major Thomas Bunbury insisted that he do so. Te Rauparaha soon became alarmed at the flood of British settlers and refused to sell any more of his land; this led to tension and the upshot was the Wairau Affray when a party from Nelson tried to arrest Te Rauparaha, 22 of them were killed when they fired upon Te Rauparaha and his people out of fear. The subsequent government enquiry exonerated Te Rauparaha which further angered the settlers who began a campaign to have the governor, Robert FitzRoy, recalled. In May 1846 fighting broke out in the Hutt Valley between the settlers and Te Rauparaha's nephew, Te Rangihaeata, another prominent Ngati Toa war leader during the Musket Wars Despite his declared neutrality, Te Rauparaha was arrested after the British captured secret letters from Te Rauparaha which showed he was playing a double game.
He was charged with supplying we
Sir George Grey, KCB was a British soldier, colonial administrator and writer. He served in a succession of governing positions: Governor of South Australia, twice Governor of New Zealand, Governor of Cape Colony, the 11th Premier of New Zealand. Grey was born in Lisbon, just a few days after his father, Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey was killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain, he was educated in England. After military service and two explorations in Western Australia, Grey became Governor of South Australia in 1841, he oversaw the colony during a difficult formative period. Despite being seen as less hands-on than his predecessor George Gawler, his fiscally responsible measures ensured the colony was in good shape by the time he departed for New Zealand in 1845, he was arguably the most influential figure during the European settlement of New Zealand during much of the 19th century. Governor of New Zealand from 1845 to 1853, he established peace and became a pioneer scholar of the Māori culture, writing a study of their mythology and oral history.
He was knighted in 1848. In 1854, Grey was appointed Governor of Cape Colony in South Africa, where his resolution of hostilities between the natives and European settlers was praised by both sides. Grey was again appointed Governor of New Zealand in 1861, following the granting of a degree of self-governance to New Zealand, serving until 1868, he was appointed as Premier in 1877, in which capacity he served until 1879. By political philosophy a Gladstonian liberal and Georgist, Grey eschewed the class system for the prosaic life of Auckland's new governance he helped to establish. Grey was born in Lisbon, the only son of Bvt. Lieutenant-Colonel George Grey, of the 30th Regiment of Foot, killed at the Battle of Badajoz in Spain just a few days before, his mother, Elizabeth Anne née Vignoles, on the balcony of her hotel in Lisbon, overheard two officers speak of her husband's death and this brought on the premature birth of the child. She was the daughter of a retired soldier turned Irish clergyman, Major Rev. John Vignoles.
Grey's grandfather was Owen Wynne Gray. Grey's uncle was John Gray, Owen Wynne Gray's son from his second marriage. Grey was sent to the Royal Grammar School, Guildford in Surrey, was admitted to the Royal Military College in 1826. Early in 1830, he was gazetted ensign in the 83rd Regiment of Foot. In 1830, his regiment having been sent to Ireland, he developed much sympathy with the Irish peasantry whose misery made a great impression on him, he was promoted lieutenant in 1833 and obtained a first-class certificate at the examinations of the Royal Military College, Sandhurst, in 1836. In 1837, at the age of 25, Grey led an ill-prepared expedition. British settlers in Australia at the time knew little of the region and only one member of Grey's party had been there before, it was believed possible at that time that one of the world's largest rivers might drain into the Indian Ocean in North-West Australia. Grey, with Lieutenant Franklin Lushington, of the 9th Regiment of Foot, offered to explore the region.
On 5 July 1837, they sailed from Plymouth in command of a party of five, the others being Lushington. Others joined the party at Cape Town, early in December they landed at Hanover Bay. Traveling south, the party traced the course of the Glenelg River. After experiencing boat wrecks, near-drowning, becoming lost, Grey himself being speared in the hip during a skirmish with Aboriginal people, the party gave up. After being picked up by HMS Beagle and the schooner Lynher, they were taken to Mauritius to recover. Two years Grey returned to Western Australia and was again wrecked with his party, again including Surgeon Walker, at Kalbarri. At about this time, Grey learnt the Noongar language. In July 1839, Grey was promoted to captain and appointed temporary Resident Magistrate at King George Sound, Western Australia, following the death of Sir Richard Spencer RN KCH, the previous Resident Magistrate. On 2 November 1839 at King George Sound, Grey married Eliza Lucy Spencer, daughter of the late Government Resident.
Their only child, born in 1841 in South Australia, died aged 5 months. It was not a happy marriage. Grey, obstinate in his domestic affairs as in his first expedition, accused his wife unjustly of flirting with Rear Admiral Sir Henry Keppel on the voyage to Cape Town taken in 1860, she lived a life of misery until old age brought a formal reunion, but co-existed unhappily until 1897. Grey adopted Annie Maria Matthews in 1861, following the death of her father, his half-brother, Sir Godfrey Thomas, she married Seymour Thorne George on 3 December 1872 on Kawau Island. Grey was the third Governor of South Australia, from May 1841 to October 1845, as a replacement for George Gawler, under whose stewardship the colony had become bankrupt through massive spending on public infrastructure. Gawler was held responsible for the illegal retribution exacted by Major O'Halloran on an Aboriginal tribe, some of whose members had murdered all 25 survivors of the Maria shipwreck. G
Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park, was a New Zealand soldier, First World War flying ace and Second World War Royal Air Force commander. He was in operational command during two of the most significant air battles in the European theatre in the Second World War, helping to win the Battle of Britain and the Battle of Malta. In Germany, he was known as "the Defender of London". Park was born in New Zealand, he was the son of James Park from Scotland, geologist for a mining company and a professor at the University of Otago in Dunedin. An undistinguished young man, but keen on guns and riding, Keith Park was educated at King's College, Auckland until 1906 and at Otago Boys' High School, Dunedin where he served in the cadets, he joined the Army as a Territorial soldier in the New Zealand Field Artillery. In 1911, at age 19, he went to sea as a purser aboard collier and passenger steamships, earning the family nickname "skipper"; when the First World War broke out, Park joined his artillery battalion.
As a non-commissioned officer, he participated in the landings at Gallipoli in April 1915, going ashore at Anzac Cove. In the trench warfare that followed, Park's achievements were recognised and in July 1915 he gained a commission as second lieutenant, he commanded an artillery battalion during the August 1915 attack on Suvla Bay and endured more months of squalor in the trenches. At this time Park took the unusual decision to transfer from the New Zealand Army to the British Army, joining the Royal Horse and Field Artillery. Park was evacuated from Gallipoli in January 1916; the battle had left its mark on him both physically and mentally, though on in life, he would remember it with nostalgia. He admired the ANZAC commander, Sir William Birdwood, whose leadership style and attention to detail would be a model for Park in his career. After the hardship at Gallipoli, Park's battalion was shipped to France to take part in the Battle of the Somme. Here he learned the value of aerial reconnaissance, noting the manner in which German aircraft were able to spot Allied artillery for counter-fire and getting an early taste of flight by being taken aloft to check his battalion's camouflage.
On 21 October 1916, Park was blown off his horse by a German shell. Wounded, he was evacuated to England and medically certified "unfit for active service," which technically meant he was unfit to ride a horse. After a brief remission recovering from his wounds and doing training duties at Woolwich Depot, he joined the Royal Flying Corps in December 1916. In the RFC, Park first learned to instruct and learned to fly. After a spell as an instructor, he was posted to France and managed a posting to join 48 Squadron, at La Bellevue, on 7 July 1917. Within a week, the squadron moved to Frontier Aerodrome just east of Dunkirk. Park flew the new Bristol Fighter and soon achieved successes against German fighters, earning, on 17 August, the Military Cross for "conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty", after shooting down an enemy aircraft and causing the destruction of three others with Arthur Noss as his gunner, he was promoted to temporary captain on 11 September. After a break from flying, Park returned to France as a major to command 48 Squadron, where he showed his ability as a tough but fair commander by demonstrating discipline, leadership and an understanding of the technical aspects of air warfare.
By the end of the war, the strain of command had all but exhausted Park, but he had achieved much as a pilot and commander. He had earned a bar to his Military Cross, the Distinguished Flying Cross and the French Croix de Guerre, his final tally of aircraft claims was five destroyed and 14 "out of control".. Park was shot down twice during this period. After the Armistice, he married the London socialite Dorothy "Dol" Parish. After the war, Park was awarded a permanent commission as a captain in the Royal Air Force and when the new RAF officer ranks were introduced in 1919, Park became a flight lieutenant, he served as a flight commander on No. 25 Squadron from 1919 to 1920 before taking up duties as a squadron commander at the School of Technical Training. In 1922 he was selected to attend the newly formed RAF Staff College. On, Park commanded RAF stations and was an instructor before promotion to Air Commodore and an appointment as Senior Air Staff Officer at Fighter Command under Air Chief Marshal Sir Hugh Dowding in 1938.
In 1937 he attended the Imperial Defence College. Promoted to the rank of air vice marshal, Park took command of No. 11 Group RAF, responsible for the fighter defence of London and southeast England, in April 1940. He organized fighter patrols over France during the Dunkirk evacuation and in the Battle of Britain his command took the brunt of the Luftwaffe's air attacks. Flying his personalised Hawker Hurricane around his fighter airfields during the battle, Park gained a reputation as a shrewd tactician with an astute grasp of strategic issues and as a popular "hands-on" commander. However, he became embroiled in an acrimonious dispute with ambitious Air Vice Marshal Trafford Leigh-Mallory, commander of 12 Group. Leigh-Mallory envious of Park for leading the key 11 Group while No. 12 Group was left to defend airfields failed to support No. 11 Group. Leigh-Mallory and his Big Wing ran amok through No. 11 Group airspace confusing the UK's defences. Quintin Brand's No. 10 Group in the South West supported No. 11 Group whe
Nene Janet Paterson Clutha was a New Zealand author who published under the name Janet Frame. She wrote novels, short stories, juvenile fiction, an autobiography. Frame's celebrity derived from her dramatic personal history as well as her literary career. Following years of psychiatric hospitalisation, Frame was scheduled for a lobotomy, cancelled when, just days before the procedure, her début publication of short stories was unexpectedly awarded a national literary prize. Janet Frame was born in Dunedin in the south-east of New Zealand's South Island as the third of five children of Scottish New Zealand parents, she grew up in a working-class family. Her father, George Frame, worked for the New Zealand railways, her mother Lottie, served as a housemaid to the family of writer Katherine Mansfield. New Zealand's first female medical graduate, Dr Emily Hancock Siedeberg, delivered Frame at St. Helen's Hospital in 1924. Frame spent her early childhood years in various small towns in New Zealand's South Island provinces of Otago and Southland, including Outram and Wyndham, before the family settled in the coastal town of Oamaru.
As recounted in the first volume of her autobiographies, Frame's childhood was marred by the deaths of two of her adolescent sisters and Isabel, who drowned in separate incidents, the epileptic seizures suffered by her brother George. In 1943, Frame began training as a teacher at the Dunedin College of Education, auditing courses in English and psychology at the adjacent University of Otago. After completing two years of theoretical studies with mixed results, Frame started a year of practical placement at the Arthur Street School in Dunedin, according to her biographer went quite well. Things started to unravel that year when she attempted suicide by ingesting a packet of aspirin; as a result of her suicide attempt, Frame began regular therapy sessions with junior lecturer John Money, to whom she developed a strong attraction, whose work as a sexologist specialising in gender reassignment remains controversial. In September 1945, Frame abandoned her teacher-training classroom at Dunedin's Arthur Street School during a visit from an inspector.
She was briefly admitted to the psychiatric ward of the local Dunedin hospital for observation. Frame was unwilling to return home to her family, where tensions between her father and brother manifested in outbursts of anger and violence; as a result, Frame was transferred from the local hospital's psychiatric ward to Seacliff Lunatic Asylum, a fabled and feared mental institution located 20 miles north of Dunedin. During the next eight years, Frame was readmitted voluntarily, to psychiatric hospitals in New Zealand. In addition to Seacliff, these included Avondale Lunatic Asylum, in Auckland, Sunnyside Hospital in Christchurch. During this period, Frame was first diagnosed as suffering from schizophrenia, treated with electroconvulsive therapy and insulin. In 1951, while Frame was still a patient at Seacliff, New Zealand's Caxton Press published her first book, a collection of shorts titled The Lagoon and Other Stories; the volume was awarded the Hubert Church Memorial Award, at that time one of New Zealand's most prestigious literary prizes.
This resulted in the cancellation of Frame's scheduled lobotomy. Four years after her final discharge from Seacliff Frame met writer Frank Sargeson, she lived and worked at his home in Takapuna, an Auckland suburb, from April 1955 to July 1956, producing her first full-length novel, Owls Do Cry. Frame left New Zealand in late 1956, the next seven years were most prolific in terms of publication, she lived and worked in Europe based in London, with brief sojourns to Ibiza and Andorra. However, Frame was still struggling with depression, she admitted herself to the Maudsley in London. American-trained psychiatrist Alan Miller, who studied under John Money at Johns Hopkins University, proposed that she had never suffered from schizophrenia. In an effort to alleviate the ill effects of her years spent in and out of psychiatric hospitals, Frame began regular therapy sessions with psychiatrist Robert Hugh Cawley, who encouraged her to pursue her writing. Frame dedicated seven of her novels to Cawley.
Frame returned to New Zealand in 1963. She accepted the Burns Fellowship at the University of Otago in 1965, she lived in several parts of New Zealand's North Island, including Auckland, Wanganui, the Horowhenua, Palmerston North, Stratford, Browns Bay and Levin. During this period Frame traveled extensively to Europe, but principally to the United States, where she accepted residencies at the MacDowell and Yaddo artists' colonies; as a result of these extended stays in the U. S. Frame developed close relationships with several Americans; these included the painter Theophilus Brown and his long-time partner Paul John Wonner, the poet May Sarton, John Phillips Marquand and Alan Lelchuck. Frame's one-time university tutor/counsellor and longtime friend John Money worked in North America from 1947 onwards, Frame based herself at his home in Baltimore. In the 1980s Frame authored three volumes of autobiography which collectively traced the course of her life to her return to New Zealand in 1963; the Australian novelist Patrick White described the first two volumes as "amongst the wonders of the world".
Director Jane Campion and screenwriter Laura Jones adapted
William Soltau Davidson
William Soltau Davidson was the New Zealand pioneer of refrigerated shipping. Son of Frances Pillans and bank manager David Davidson, William Davidson was born in Montreal, Canada, he attended the Edinburgh Academy, before taking a position book keeping in Glasgow. Davidson was planning to work on a ranch in Argentina, while travelling by train, met Canterbury and Otago Association shareholder James Morton. On the strength of their conversation during the journey, Morton hired William Davidson as a cadet - and persuaded his father to invest ₤10,000. William Davidson arrived in Port Chalmers on 30 December 1865 in the ship Celaeno, he was sent to the company's 600 km² farm at Timaru where he spent 2 years as a shepherd under James Hassell, being responsible for the 85,000 Merino sheep. By the end of the two years, Davidson was overseeing 15 Scottish shepherds, had helped survey and fence much of the open land. Using ₤150,000 borrowed from the company, he purchased more land. Increasing holdings to 2,000 km².
He assisted James Little in his experiments to cross Merinos with Lincoln Stud rams, producing the Corriedale breed. In 1875, he was made superintendent. On a trip back to Edinburgh, Davidson married Jane Emily Davidson, daughter of the sheriff of Midlothian, in October 1873. In 1878 the Canterbury and Otago Association amalgamated with James Morton's other venture, the New Zealand and Australian Land Company, now incorporated over a 10,000 km² between the two countries. However, when Morton was implicated in the collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank the following year, bankrupted, the banks liquidators, attempted to sell the land to realise their assets. Davidson replaced Morton as General Manager, persuaded Morton's creditors to continue to hold all but the most marginal land. At the time, sheep were farmed only for wool. With the success of the Antipodean farmers, international wool markets suffered from supply outpacing demand, between 1873 and 1888 wool prices fell by a third. Davidson had been looking to the United Kingdom's increasing population and fixed food supply to provide a solution.
He converted some land to dairying in Southland, helping establish a cheese making industry in Edendale. However his real hopes were to find a use other than wool for the company's vast herds of sheep. New Zealand had attempted to export meat in cans in the 1870s, however while popular in the South Pacific islands to this day, canned meat did not sell well in Europe. Live shipment was prohibitively expensive. Assorted experiments in refrigerated shipping had been attempted in the mid-1870s - sometimes successful on a small scale, but not successful on a larger scale; the first attempt to ship refrigerated sheep meat from Australia had resulted in the loss of the whole cargo. Working with his successor as Superintendent, Thomas Brydone, Davidson inspected refrigerated ships, researched different methods of refrigeration. In 1881 he arranged for the Dunedin to be refitted with a compression refrigeration unit, supervised the establishment of a slaughter works at Totara Estate, Oamaru. Despite the loss of 650 carcases when the crankshaft of the compressor broke, on February 15 1882, the Dunedin sailed for London with what was to be the first commercially successful refrigerated shipping voyage, the foundation of both this industry and New Zealand's early lead in it.
The SS Marlborough - sister ship to the Dunedin - was converted and joined in the trade before the end of 1882, although beaten by the rival New Zealand Shipping Company vessel the Mataurua. The German Marsala became the first steam ship to carry frozen New Zealand lamb in December 1882. Within 5 years, 172 shipments of frozen meat were sent from New Zealand to the United Kingdom. Refrigerated meat and dairy produce continue to provide the main primary exports for New Zealand to this day. Davidson was based in the UK as NZALC general manager, although he continued to visit New Zealand and Australia. Davidson's wife had died in 1884, he became director of two companies, was appointed to the boards of the Scottish Union and National Insurance Company and the National Bank of Scotland. His portrait was painted by Sir James Guthrie in 1918. William Davidson retired as general manager of the NZALC in 1916, remaining on the board of directors until his death in 1924. William Davidson was posthumously inducted into the New Zealand Business hall of fame.
He died at Leuchie in North Berwick on 17 July 1924. He is buried in Grange Cemetery in south Edinburgh; the grave stands on the south side of the central vaults facing the south-east section. In 1887 he married Caroline Elizabeth Thomas Thierens; the couple had no children. Agriculture in New Zealand A lasting Legacy - A 125 year history of New Zealand Farming since the first Frozen Meat Shipment, Ed. Colin Williscroft PMP, NZ Rural Press Limited, Auckland, 2007 Dictionary of New Zealand Biography, Mervyn Palmer