Humanists International is an international non-governmental organisation championing secularism, human rights and equality, motivated by humanist values. Founded in Amsterdam in 1952, it is an umbrella organisation made up of more than 160 humanist, rationalist, skeptic and Ethical Culture organisations from over 80 countries. Humanists International campaigns globally on human rights issues, with a specific emphasis on defending freedom of thought and expression and the rights of the non-religious, who are a vulnerable minority in many parts of the world; the organisation is based in London but maintains a presence at the United Nations Human Rights Council in Geneva, the United Nations General Assembly in New York, the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, among other international institutions. Its advocacy work focuses on shaping debates on issues associated with humanism, the rights of the non-religious, promoting humanist attitudes to social issues. Humanists International is active in challenging blasphemy and apostasy laws around the world and at the UN.
Its annual Freedom of Thought Report indexes the world's countries by treatment of the non-religious and their commitment to freedom of thought and expression. Working with its member organisations, it helps to coordinate support for those fleeing danger from states which persecute the non-religious, it advocates a humanist approach to various social issues, contributing to bioethical debates and arguing in favour of sexual and reproductive health and rights, LGBT rights, children's rights and women's rights, in opposition to slavery and caste discrimination. Outside of its advocacy work, Humanists International functions as the democratic organ of the global humanist movement, it holds a general assembly each year and a World Humanist Congress every three years. Humanists International works to stimulate the growth of humanism and freethought and the spread of Enlightenment values around the world by supporting activists to form effective organisations in their home countries. In 2002, the Humanists International general assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration 2002, which presents as "the official defining statement of World Humanism".
Its official symbol, the Happy Human, is shared with its member organisations worldwide. In 2002, at the organisation's 50th anniversary World Humanist Congress, delegates unanimously passed a resolution known as the Amsterdam Declaration 2002, an update of the original Amsterdam Declaration; the Amsterdam Declaration defines Humanism as a "lifestance", "ethical", "rational", supportive of "democracy and human rights", insisting "that personal liberty must be combined with social responsibility". In addition to the Amsterdam Declaration's "official statement of World Humanism", Humanists International provides a "Minimum Statement on Humanism": Humanism is a democratic and ethical life stance, which affirms that human beings have the right and responsibility to give meaning and shape to their own lives, it stands for the building of a more humane society through an ethic based on human and other natural values in the spirit of reason and free inquiry through human capabilities. It is not theistic, it does not accept supernatural views of reality.
Member Organisations of Humanists International are required according to its membership regulations to have objects that are "consistent" with this understanding of Humanism. At the World Humanist Congress in 2005, in France, the General Assembly adopted The Paris Declaration 2005, on state secularism, which states: "There can be no freedom of conscience when religions rule societies. Secularism is the demand for equal rights for those who belong to any religion as well as for those who belong to none... For IHEU and its member organizations, the State must be secular, that is, neither religious not atheist, but demanding genuine democratic equality, recognized by the Law, between believers and humanists does not mean that the member associations of IHEU treat all philosophical points of view equally. We have no duty to respect irrationalism. True Humanism is the flourishing of freedom of conscience and the methods of free inquiry."In 2007, in an "unprecedented alliance" of the International Humanist and Ethical Union, the European Humanist Federation and Catholics for Choice, launched the Brussels Declaration, a secular response to a proposed Berlin Declaration, under which the amended EU Constitution would have made references to "God" and the "Christian roots of Europe".
It made specific reference to policy positions on equality and human rights for different minority groups, concluding: "The principles and values on which European civilisation is founded are once again under threat. We call upon the people of Europe and all who care for freedom and the rule of law to join us in promoting and protecting them."At World Humanist Congress 2011, in Norway, the Humanists International General Assembly adopted The Oslo Declaration on Peace, which concludes: "We urge each of our member organizations and Humanists globally to work for a more peaceful culture in their own nations and urge all governments to prefer the peaceful settlement of conflicts over the alternative of violence and war."At World Humanist Congress 2014, in the United Kingdom, the Humanists International General Assembly adopted The Oxford Declaration on Freedom of Thought and Expre
Jasmuheen is a proponent of "pranic nourishment" or breatharianism, a practice defined as living without food or fluid of any sort and regarded by the scientific community as a lethal pseudoscience. She makes appearances at New Age conferences worldwide, has hosted spiritual retreats in Thailand and has released books and audio recordings. Jasmuheen was born in 1957 in Australia of post-war Norwegian migrant parents. Jasmuheen developed financial and business management skills working full-time in the finance industry. In 1992 she began combining her experience in business and finance with meditation, selling access to workshops and seminars on the topic and, by deed poll changed her name to Jasmuheen. In 1998, she appeared in her first film, a six-part direct to video documentary called The Legend of Atlantis: Return of the Lightmasters; the Australian television programme 60 Minutes challenged Jasmuheen to demonstrate how she could live without food and water. The supervising medical professional Dr Beres Wenck found that, after 48 hours, Jasmuheen displayed symptoms of acute dehydration and high blood pressure.
Jasmuheen claimed that this was a result of "polluted air". On the third day, she was moved to a mountainside retreat about 15 miles from the city, where she was filmed enjoying the fresh air, claiming she could now practice Inedia, but as filming progressed, Jasmuheen's speech slowed, her pupils dilated, she lost over a stone in weight. After four days, she stated that she felt fine. Dr. Wenck stated: "You are now quite dehydrated over 10%, getting up to 11%." The doctor continued: "Her pulse is. The risk if she goes any further is kidney failure." Jasmuheen's condition continued to deteriorate due to acute dehydration, despite her contrary insistence. Dr Wenck concluded that continuing the experiment would prove fatal; the film crew stopped filming. Regarding her intake of food, Jasmuheen is quoted by the Correx Archives as saying: "Generally not much at all. Maybe a few cups of tea and a glass of water, but now and if I feel a bit bored and I want some flavour I will have a mouthful of whatever it is I'm wanting the flavour of.
So it might be a piece of chocolate or it might be a mouthful of a cheesecake or something like that." In the aftermath of the 60 Minutes broadcast, Kathy Marks noted in The Independent, "Visitors to her large villa in the prosperous Chapel Hill area of Brisbane invariably find her refrigerator generously stocked with food, all of it destined, she insists, for the stomach of her second husband, Jeff Ferguson, a convicted fraudster". Jasmuheen has stated that she has lived on 300 calories per day for the past fourteen years, maintaining full health through supplementing a fluid intake with "cosmic particles" or "micro-food", which she describes as prana, she has stated that she has not yet mastered the ability to be fluid-free for more than short periods. Jasmuheen was awarded the Bent Spoon Award by Australian Skeptics in 2000, she was awarded the 2000 Ig Nobel Prize for Literature for her book Pranic Nourishment – Living on Light, "which explains that although some people do eat food, they don't really need to."Jasmuheen maintains that some of her beliefs are based on the writings and "more recent channelled material" of the Count of St Germain.
She states. The extra strands of DNA have not been scientifically verified; when offered $30,000 to prove her claim with a blood test, Jasmuheen stated "you cannot view spiritual energy under a microscope". She claimed that such a challenge would be a deliberate attack on her beliefs, that she refuses to act as an example of her alleged paranormal attributes. In 2005, James Randi offered her the James Randi Educational Foundation US$1 million prize to demonstrate her claims. In 2010, she appeared in the documentaries 3 Magic Words and In the Beginning There Was Light; as of 2012, five deaths had been directly linked to Jasmuheen's publications. Jasmuheen has denied any responsibility for the deaths.53-year-old Melbourne resident Lani Marcia Roslyn Morris died in 1999, while attempting the breatharian "diet" advocated by Jasmuheen. Jim Vadim Pesnak, 63, his wife Eugenia, 60, were jailed for six years and two years on charges of manslaughter for their involvement in the death of Morris. Pesnak had delayed seeking medical attention.
Referring this case, Jasmuheen commented that Morris's practice of Inedia was "not coming from a place of integrity and did not have the right motivation". Jasmuheen offered similar defence in response to the death of Verity Linn, who died of Hypothermia and Dehydration with lack of nutrition while practising Inedia in Scotland, her diary mentioning Jasmuheen's teachings. Linn's body was found in a tent. In 2012, it was reported that a Swiss woman died of starvation after having attempted to survive purely on light, as taught in one of Jasmuheen's books. In 2017 a Dutch woman living in a household of four practitioners of breatharianism inspired by Jasmuheen died under mysterious circumstances; the three remaining members of the household are suspected of withholding the malnourished woman adequate medical care. Jasmuheen has written that "If you haven't found the light that will nourish you, you may have the intention to become a breatharian, but in fact you may be putting yourself through food deprivation.
There is one known case where a person died when trying to become a breatharian."In 1999, Michelle Shir
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Secular humanism, or humanism, is a philosophy or life stance that embraces human reason and philosophical naturalism while rejecting religious dogma, supernaturalism and superstition as the basis of morality and decision making. Secular humanism posits that human beings are capable of being ethical and moral without religion or a god, it does not, assume that humans are either inherently good or evil, nor does it present humans as being superior to nature. Rather, the humanist life stance emphasizes the unique responsibility facing humanity and the ethical consequences of human decisions. Fundamental to the concept of secular humanism is the held viewpoint that ideology—be it religious or political—must be examined by each individual and not accepted or rejected on faith. Along with this, an essential part of secular humanism is a continually adapting search for truth through science and philosophy. Many secular humanists derive their moral codes from a philosophy of utilitarianism, ethical naturalism, or evolutionary ethics, some advocate a science of morality.
Humanists International is the world union of more than one hundred humanist, irreligious, Bright, Ethical Culture, freethought organizations in more than 40 countries. The "Happy Human" is recognised as the official symbol of humanism internationally, used by secular humanist organizations in every part of the world; those who call themselves humanists are estimated to number between four and five million people worldwide. The meaning of the phrase secular humanism has evolved over time; the phrase has been used since at least the 1930s by Anglican priests, in 1943, the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Temple, was reported as warning that the "Christian tradition... was in danger of being undermined by a'Secular Humanism' which hoped to retain Christian values without Christian faith." During the 1960s and 1970s the term was embraced by some humanists who considered themselves anti-religious, as well as those who, although not critical of religion in its various guises, preferred a non-religious approach.
The release in 1980 of A Secular Humanist Declaration by the newly formed Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism gave secular humanism an organisational identity within the United States. However, many adherents of the approach reject the use of the word secular as obfuscating and confusing, consider that the term secular humanism has been "demonized by the religious right... All too secular humanism is reduced to a sterile outlook consisting of little more than secularism broadened by academic ethics; this kind of'hyphenated humanism' becomes more about the adjective than its referent". Adherents of this view, including the International Humanist and Ethical Union and the American Humanist Association, consider that the unmodified but capitalised word Humanism should be used; the endorsement by the IHEU of the capitalization of the word Humanism, the dropping of any adjective such as secular, is quite recent. The American Humanist Association began to adopt this view in 1973, the IHEU formally endorsed the position in 1989.
In 2002 the IHEU General Assembly unanimously adopted the Amsterdam Declaration, which represents the official defining statement of World Humanism for Humanists. This declaration makes exclusive use of capitalized Humanist and Humanism, consistent with IHEU's general practice and recommendations for promoting a unified Humanist identity. To further promote Humanist identity, these words are free of any adjectives, as recommended by prominent members of IHEU; such usage is not universal among IHEU member organizations, though most of them do observe these conventions. Historical use of the term humanism, is related to the writings of pre-Socratic philosophers; these writings were lost to European societies until Renaissance scholars rediscovered them through Muslim sources and translated them from Arabic into European languages. Thus the term humanist can mean a humanities scholar, as well as refer to The Enlightenment/ Renaissance intellectuals, those who have agreement with the pre-Socratics, as distinct from secular humanists.
In 1851 George Holyoake coined the term "secularism" to describe "a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life". The modern secular movement coalesced around Holyoake, Charles Bradlaugh and their intellectual circle; the first secular society, the Leicester Secular Society, dates from 1851. Similar regional societies came together to form the National Secular Society in 1866. Holyoake's secularism was influenced by Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and of modern sociology. Comte believed human history would progress in a "law of three stages" from a theological phase, to the "metaphysical", toward a rational "positivist" society. In life, Comte had attempted to introduce a "religion of humanity" in light of growing anti-religious sentiment and social malaise in revolutionary France; this religion would fulfil the functional, cohesive role that supernatural religion once served. Although Comte's religious movement was unsuccessful in France, the positivist philosophy of science itself played a major role in the proliferation of secular organizations in the 19th century in England.
Richard Congreve visited Paris shortly after the French Revolution of 1848 where he met Auguste Comte and was influenced by his positivist system. He founded the London Positivist Society in 1867, which attracted Frederic Harrison, Edward Spencer Beesly, Vernon Lushington, James Cotte
The NZ Skeptics is a New Zealand incorporated society created in 1986, with the aim of promoting critical thinking. The main areas of interest to the NZ Skeptics are claims of psychic abilities, alternative medicine and other pseudoscientific claims. At its founding in 1986, it was known as the New Zealand Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. In 2007 the name was formally changed to NZ Skeptics Incorporated; the NZ Skeptics was co-founded by David Marks, Denis Dutton, Bernard Howard, Gordon Hewitt, Jim Woolnough, Ray Carr and Kerry Chamberlain in 1986. Other similar organisations exist in the Australia and India. Denis Dutton was the first chair. Vicki Hyde took over as the first chair-entity from 1997–2010. Gold, who founded the New Zealand Skeptics in the Pub, was chair-entity from 2010–2014. Mark Honeychurch is the current chair. Vicki Hyde continues in the society as a media spokesperson; the English spelling of the word "skeptic" was chosen over the British spelling "sceptic" to more associate with the American organisation, to avoid negative connotations of "being cynical and negative".
In 2007 the committee decided to formally change the name to NZ Skeptics Incorporated. The society does not address the topic of religion, not only because there are other organisations better equipped to deal with it, but because religion is not testable unless the supporter makes a specific claim; the founders felt that people with religious beliefs could be skeptical of claims of the paranormal and did not want to exclude them. Due to a concern that the word "skeptic" was being confused by the public and media with respect to climate change NZSI made the following statement in 2014: The New Zealand Skeptics Society supports the scientific consensus on Climate Change. There is an abundance of evidence demonstrating global mean temperatures are rising, that humans have had a considerable impact on the natural rate of change; the Society will adjust its position with the scientific consensus. In 2015 NZSI adopted a new logo that incorporates a kiwi, koru and a question mark, released a new website and journal.
In 1989 after its first conference NZI had 80 members. Some notable skeptics such as James Randi, Richard Dawkins, Susan Blackmore, Ian Plimer and John Maddox had visited in that time; the NZ Skeptics hold an annual conference during the New Zealand summer. Conferences alternate between the three major New Zealand cities of Auckland and Christchurch, with other cities hosting as and when there is sufficient interest; the NZ Skeptics produce a quarterly journal, called The New Zealand Skeptic, which they send out to all members. The journal has been produced continuously since 1986. On 30 January 2010, members in Christchurch participated in a mass overdose, a protest against the selling of homeopathic remedies in pharmacies; the protest was in line with similar activities held on the same day by the 10:23 campaign in the UK. The first New Zealand SkeptiCamp was held at the Black Dog Brewery in Wellington. Skeptics in the Pub events are held throughout New Zealand in Auckland, Palmerston North, Wellington and Dunedin.
Sensing Murder psychic Sue Nicholson spoke at the 2013 Wellington conference about her 21 years of experiences as a psychic medium. Organiser Vicki Hyde applauded Nicholson's willingness to speak at the conference, saying "many people working in this profession are reluctant to expose themselves to any critical scrutiny.” Hyde is quick to add that “critical” in this case "involves a spirit of genuine interest and inquiry" if proof of spirits from the after-life continues to be elusive. Nicholson talked about her life history as a psychic for 18 minutes and opened up the lecture for questions.:18:40 Despite being skeptical, the audience remained respectful and questioning. Nicholson stated that her friends told her not to attend the conference, but she said, “I believe in healthy discussion, we all have our opinions and that’s great. I’m not here to prove anything. I’m not here to convince you. We all have our thoughts, we all have our ideas and that’s how the world goes around.”3 News attended Nicholson's lecture and wrote, "But despite a colourful performance from Ms Nicholson, this lot remains unconvinced."
Nicholson agreed to talk at the conference with the stipulation that the $500 speakers fee would be donated to a Women's Refuge."The organization has remained critical of psychics such as Nicholson. In 2018, NZ Skeptics denounced those who claim they can help locate missing persons, contacting families with information. Referring to one such case, NZ Skeptics Society chair Craig Shearer insisted those "grief vampires" never helped police solve a disappearance. In 1988 NZCSICOP member Trevor Reeves wrote a series of letters about psychic Shona Saxon and sent them to the editor of the Dunedin Star Midweek paper, to the Citizens Advice service, to the Dunedin police, to social welfare. Saxon sued Reeves for malice, claiming embarrassment and loss. According to Saxon, Reeves stated that she was "misleading people", "persuading people to go off their prescribed medications" and "upsetting disturbed people... on welfare benefits". The high court judge ruled in favor of Saxon. "ssentially because he did not believe that Ms Saxon had deliberately set out to deceive clients".
The judge held that Reeves' "statements were actuated by malice... by gratuitously attack[
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification". More formally, rationalism is defined as a methodology or a theory "in which the criterion of the truth is not sensory but intellectual and deductive". In an old controversy, rationalism was opposed to empiricism, where the rationalists believed that reality has an intrinsically logical structure; because of this, the rationalists argued that certain truths exist and that the intellect can directly grasp these truths. That is to say, rationalists asserted that certain rational principles exist in logic, mathematics and metaphysics that are so fundamentally true that denying them causes one to fall into contradiction; the rationalists had such a high confidence in reason that empirical proof and physical evidence were regarded as unnecessary to ascertain certain truths – in other words, "there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience".
Different degrees of emphasis on this method or theory lead to a range of rationalist standpoints, from the moderate position "that reason has precedence over other ways of acquiring knowledge" to the more extreme position that reason is "the unique path to knowledge". Given a pre-modern understanding of reason, rationalism is identical to philosophy, the Socratic life of inquiry, or the zetetic clear interpretation of authority. In recent decades, Leo Strauss sought to revive "Classical Political Rationalism" as a discipline that understands the task of reasoning, not as foundational, but as maieutic. In the 17th-century Dutch Republic, the rise of early modern-period rationalism — as a systematic school of philosophy in its own right for the first time in history — exerted an immense and profound influence on modern Western thought in general, with the birth of two influential rationalistic philosophical systems of Descartes and Spinoza — namely Cartesianism and Spinozism, it was the 17th-century arch-rationalists like Descartes and Leibniz who have given the "Age of Reason" its name and place in history.
In politics, since the Enlightenment emphasized a "politics of reason" centered upon rational choice, utilitarianism and irreligion – the latter aspect's antitheism was softened by the adoption of pluralistic methods practicable regardless of religious or irreligious ideology. In this regard, the philosopher John Cottingham noted how rationalism, a methodology, became conflated with atheism, a worldview: In the past in the 17th and 18th centuries, the term'rationalist' was used to refer to free thinkers of an anti-clerical and anti-religious outlook, for a time the word acquired a distinctly pejorative force; the use of the label'rationalist' to characterize a world outlook which has no place for the supernatural is becoming less popular today. But the old usage still survives. Rationalism is contrasted with empiricism. Taken broadly, these views are not mutually exclusive, since a philosopher can be both rationalist and empiricist. Taken to extremes, the empiricist view holds that all ideas come to us a posteriori, to say, through experience.
The empiricist believes that knowledge is based on or derived directly from experience. The rationalist believes we come to knowledge a priori – through the use of logic – and is thus independent of sensory experience. In other words, as Galen Strawson once wrote, "you can see. You don't have to get up off your couch and go outside and examine the way things are in the physical world. You don't have to do any science." Between both philosophies, the issue at hand is the fundamental source of human knowledge and the proper techniques for verifying what we think we know. Whereas both philosophies are under the umbrella of epistemology, their argument lies in the understanding of the warrant, under the wider epistemic umbrella of the theory of justification; the theory of justification is the part of epistemology that attempts to understand the justification of propositions and beliefs. Epistemologists are concerned with various epistemic features of belief, which include the ideas of justification, warrant and probability.
Of these four terms, the term, most used and discussed by the early 21st century is "warrant". Loosely speaking, justification is the reason. If "A" makes a claim, "B" casts doubt on it, "A"'s next move would be to provide justification; the precise method one uses to provide justification is where the lines are drawn between rationalism and empiricism. Much of the debate in these fields are focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth and justification. At its core, rationalism consists of three basic claims. For one to consider themselves a rationalist, they must adopt at least one of these three claims: The Intuition/Deduction Thesis, The Innate Knowledge Thesis, or The Innate Concept Thesis. In addition, rationalists can choose to adopt the claims of Indispensability of Reason and or the