Spark Arena is a multipurpose arena in Auckland, New Zealand. Named for sponsor Spark New Zealand, the venue is located at Quay Park, Parnell close to Britomart Transport Centre and The Strand Station; the arena cost $94 million, of this sum ratepayers contributed $68 million for the facility to be managed by QPAM, the NZ operator, in New Zealand's first big public-private partnership. This runs for 40 years. After delays due to construction-related issues, the arena's first concert was Rock Star Supernova on 24 March 2007. Vector Limited held the naming rights from the venue's opening in 2007 until April 2017, during which time it was called Vector Arena. On 19 April 2017, Spark New Zealand took over the naming rights. Quay Park Arena Management Ltd was incorporated in 2002 to construct and operate the stadium, in a deal between the company's owners and the Auckland City Council. In 2005, the company was renamed QPAM Ltd. QPAM has been owned by EVENZ Limited since 2012. Shares in EVENZ were purchased by American company Live Nation Entertainment and Australian company MHC Investments after approval by the Overseas Investment Office in August 2016.
NetballNetball is played at the venue with the New Zealand Silver Ferns playing on several occasions while the ANZ Championship has used the arena on two occasions since 2010. The arena hosted the 2012-2014 Fast5 Netball World Series. Professional wrestlingSince 2008 Vector Arena has been a regular host of World Wrestling Entertainment's tours of New Zealand, with Raw, SmackDown and ECW all performing at the venue. Ice hockeyIn 2011 some 10,000 fans saw an Ice Hockey international between Canada and the United States on a $4.2m temporary ice rink. Basketball Vector arena announced that it would host its first National Basketball League game on 28 October 2011 when the defending champion New Zealand Breakers took on the Sydney Kings in Round 4 of the 2011–12 NBL season; the Arena hosted two more Breakers games during the season, against the Townsville Crocodiles in Round 8 and the Kings in Round 17. That first NBL game at Vector Arena drew a New Zealand record crowd for a basketball game when 6,900 saw the NZ Breakers defeat the Kings 76-59.
This record was again broken in Round 17 of the 2011-12 season when 7,979 saw the Breakers again defeat the Kings 93-64. On 13 March 2012 New Zealand Breakers General Manager Richard Clarke announced that due to the amount of support for the team, that all Breakers finals games would be played at Vector Arena with capacity set at 8,500, subject to demand, with extra seating to be sold if needed; the Breakers finished the 2011-12 season as minor premiers giving them home court advantage in the Semi-finals and Grand Final. The Breakers qualified for the 2011-12 NBL Grand Final against the Perth Wildcats with games 1 and 3 being played at Vector. Game 1 saw the attendance record broken when 9,125 showed to see the Breakers win 104-98 in overtime. With the Wildcats winning game 2 in Perth 87-86, game 3 was required and the NZ Breakers won their second straight NBL Championship with a 79-73 win in front of yet another record attendance of 9,285. Before the 2012-13 NBL season, the Breakers confirmed that they will play 5 regular season games at Vector Arena.
The first game, played in front of 6,625 fans, saw the home side defeat the Adelaide 36ers 73-59 on 12 October. There were four other games at the arena during the regular season, on 16 November, 13 December, 1 February 2013 and 14 March 2013; the Breakers once again broke their attendance record during Game 1 of the 2012-13 NBL Grand Final series against the Perth Wildcats when a capacity 9,330 fans saw the home team defeat the Wildcats 79-67. The NZ Breakers won their third straight NBL Championship by wrapping up the series with a 70-66 win over the Wildcats in front of 13,527 fans at the Perth Arena. For the 2013–14 NBL season, the Breakers will play half of their home games at Vector Arena, totaling seven appearance at the arena; these are the season opener against Wollongong, round six clash against Adelaide, round seven clash against Townsville, round 10 clash against Perth, round 16 clash against Sydney, round 18 clash against Cairns and round 23 clash against Cairns. The Breakers will both end their ordinary season at Vector Arena.
The Breakers game against the Adelaide 36ers on 15 November 2013 saw the home sides first loss at Vector Arena. The Breakers led 94-93 with just over four seconds of the game remaining and had the inbound pass due to a time out. However, 36ers point guard Gary Ervin stole the inbound pass and drove the length of the floor to score a layup just before time expired to give the 36ers a 95-94 win in front of 7,470 fans; the Breakers lost their second game at the venue when they were defeated 71-62 by the Perth Wildcats on 13 December 2013 in front of 7,597 fans. As a measure of the teams it took to defeat the Breakers at Vector, the Wildcats and the 36ers would go on to play in the 2013-14 NBL Grand Final series. BMXThe 32nd BMX World Championships, attracted over two thousand riders from 33 countries, was held in the Vector Arena over the week of 24-28 July, 2013. Construction of the track took six days involving 10,000 pallets and 60 truck and trailer loads of dirt; the confines meant there was insufficient room to build two separate ramps, so a hydraulic movable one w
Th' Dudes were a late 1970s / early 1980s pop/rock band from Auckland, New Zealand. Hits include "Walking in Light", "Right First Time", " Be Mine Tonight" and "Bliss". Dave Dobbyn - vocals, guitars Ian Morris - guitars, backing vocals Peter Urlich- drums Peter Coleman, - bass Bruce Hambling - drums The band was formed by Morris, Urlich and Dobbyn, students at Sacred Heart College in Auckland, the same school that Neil and Tim Finn went to; the band name derived from the "Lone Groover" comic strip in the English music paper, NME. The band's sound was influenced by the British scene The Beatles, David Bowie and The Rolling Stones, by the Punk and New Wave sounds of Iggy Pop, Elvis Costello, Nick Lowe, Roxy Music, The Stranglers and The Clash. Starting off as a covers band that played surf clubs and private parties, Th' Dudes earned a reputation as an energetic and skilful outfit featuring dual guitar work from Dobbyn and Morris, a tight no-nonsense rhythm section and charismatic vocalist Urlich.
The repertoire featured more originals and their status rose to the point where Th' Dudes were acclaimed NZ Group of the Year in 1979. They disbanded in mid 1980; the mid-1990s saw a resurgence of interest in Th' Dudes in New Zealand as "classic hits" and "classic rock" radio became more prevalent, the compositional and production qualities of the band's records endured. Bliss: 20 Essential New Zealand Classics and other compilations showcased New Zealand post-punk acts which epitomized the Kiwi rock genre, their song, "Bliss", attained particular popularity and has since established itself as New Zealand's unofficial national drinking song. The song is commonly played following the dismissal of an opposing batsman at New Zealand national cricket games. In October 2006 Th' Dudes embarked on a tour of New Zealand as part of Radio Hauraki's 40th anniversary celebrations; the original tour was 11 dates, but expanded to 17 shows due to demand. Due to a dispute with the holders of the band's master tapes, Stebbing Studios Ltd, the band was unable to release any product to support the tour.
Instead, they compiled a six-track CD of demo and alternate versions of their biggest hits, culled from the band's own collections. This CD was available only at shows on the tour and was called Pubs, Theatres, Church Halls, Lounges & Band Rotundas. In late 2007 Th' Dudes embarked on the "Summer of Love" tour of popular NZ holiday destinations: Mangawhai. Chances of the band doing more any shows are said to be "very slim". In 2008 the band sued Stebbing Studios for non-payment of royalties; the band sought to show that they were not paid royalties for sales of their music due to their songs being recorded in downtime at Stebbing, while studio owner Eldred Stebbing claimed production costs had not been met. The dispute was resolved to both parties' mutual satisfaction in November 2008. Ian Morris died in Napier on 7 October 2010. Prior to his death Morris produced records and wrote advertising music, after having had a brief solo career under the stage name Tex Pistol. Morris is survived by his twin daughters Maude.
National Music Awards 1979 -'Top Group' National Music Awards 1979 -'Single Of The Year' for "Be Mine Tonight" Winners, 1976 Battle of the Bands Albums: Th' Dudes' songs have appeared on many compilations in New Zealand. The following is a partial list of these albums: - Bliss - "Be Mine Tonight" & "Bliss". - Bliss Volume 2 - "Right First Time" & "Tonight Again". - The Best Beer Drinking Songs In The World Ever! - "Bliss". - 100% Kiwi Rock - "Bliss". - Heart Attack - "Walking In Light". - Nature's Best - "Be Mine Tonight". - Nature's Best 2 - "Bliss". - Nature's Best A Video Selection - "Be Mine Tonight" & "Bliss". - Give It A Whirl: The Soundtrack From The Major Television Series - "Right First Time". Th' Dudes homepage AudioCulture Th' Dudes Biography Th' Dudes at muzic.net.nz Th' Dudes at last.fm NZ Music survey
Palmerston North is a city in the North Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Located in the eastern Manawatu Plains, the city is near the north bank of the Manawatu River, 35 km from the river's mouth, 12 km from the end of the Manawatu Gorge, about 140 km north of the capital, Wellington. Palmerston North is the country's seventh-largest city and eighth-largest urban area, with an urban population of 86,600; the official limits of the city take in rural areas to the south, north-east, north-west and west of the main urban area, extending to the Tararua Ranges. The city covers a land area of 395 square kilometres; the city's location was once little more than a clearing in a forest and occupied by small communities of Māori, who called it Papa-i-Oea, believed to mean "How beautiful it is". In the mid-19th century, it was discovered and settled by Europeans—originally by Scandinavians and British colonists. On foundation, the British settlement was bestowed the name Palmerston, in honour of Viscount Palmerston, a former British Prime Minister.
The suffix North was added in 1871 to distinguish the settlement from Palmerston in the South Island. Today, the name is informally shortened to "Palmy". Early Palmerston North sawmilling; the west coast railway was built in 1886, linking the town to Wellington, Palmerston North benefited from a booming pastoral farming industry. Linton Military Camp, Palmerston North Hospital, the establishment of Massey University have reduced the dependence on farming since the early 20th century. Popular attractions include Te Manawa, several performing arts venues. Ngāti Rangitāne were the local Māori iwi living in the area known as Te Ahu-ā-Tūranga, when a trader, Jack Duff, became the earliest known European to explore the area c. 1830. He came on a whaling ship and explored as far inland as the site of Woodville, he reported his discovery on arrival back to Porirua. Colonel Wakefield heard of the potential that the Manawatu had for development and visited in 1840. In 1846 Charles Hartley, another trader, heard from tangata whenua of a clearing in the Papaioea forest and he proceeded through the dense bush and forest and discovered it for Europeans.
In 1858, the Government began negotiations with local iwi to purchase land in Manawatu. There was a dispute at the time between rival iwi Ngāti Rangitāne and Ngāti Raukawa as to who has the right to sell; the dispute is resolved in favour of Rangitāne. On a visit in 1859, John Tiffin Stewart, an employee of the Wellington Provincial Council, was shown the Papaioea clearing by Rangitāne chief, Te Hirawanu, noted its suitability for a "good site for a township". In 1864, Te Ahu-a-Turanga Block was sold by Rangitāne to the Government for £12,000, in an effort to open the Manawatu to settlement. Stewart returned in 1866 on behalf of the Wellington Provincial Council and made the original survey and subdivision in the Papaioea forest clearing; the settlement, named Palmerston to commemorate the deceased Prime Minister of Great Britain, was laid out according to Stewart's plan consisting of a series of wide and straight streets in a rectangular pattern. The focal point was an open space of 17 acres subsequently known as The Square.
On 3 October 1866, Palmerston was formally endorsed after Isaac Earl Featherston signed a proclamation defining the boundaries of the settlement. The first sections were sold after. Among the first settlers included Scandinavians, who arrived in 1871, they established settlements at Whakarongo/Stoney Creek. The same year, the suffix North was added to distinguish the settlement of the same name in Otago. In 1872 a petition was launched to change the name of the settlement. A public meeting in 1873 ends with no clear decision on the name; the railway line was laid through the Square in 1875. The foundation stone for the original All Saints Church was laid by Louisa Snelson on 29 September 1875. By 1875 there were a doctor and a post office. In 1876, Palmerston North became a Local Board District, within the Wellington Provincial Council; this existed until the abolition of the provinces the same year. In the same year, the council set aside land north of the Manawatu River for the purposes of a reserve.
In 1890, this land would become in 1897, the Victoria Esplanade. By 1877, when the Borough Council came into existence, Palmerston North was an isolated village in the midst of the native forest that covered inland Manawatu. By 1878, the population was 800 people and sawmilling was the main industry of the district; as the settlement grew, the forest diminished to make way for farms and housing, today no remnant of it survives. The arrival of the railway in 1886 saw an increase in the speed of growth and the town was at the centre of a lucrative agricultural district; the opening of the nearby Longburn Freezing Works provided employment, while the Borough Council instigated more infrastructural schemes such as the sewerage system. The Railway through the Manawatu Gorge to Napier was completed in 1891. In 1893, Rangitāne sold the Hokowhitu block. In the same year, the Public Hospital opened in a wooden building on Terrace Street; the hospital required significant fundraising. At the end of the decade, the
Peter Sinclair (broadcaster)
Peter Sinclair was a New Zealand television personality and radio host. Born in Sydney, Australia, he rose to fame in the 1960s and early 1970s firstly on New Zealand radio and as host of Let's Go, Happen Inn and C'mon, New Zealand's primary rock music television shows of the time. In the late 1970s he reinvented his place in New Zealand television as presenter and quizmaster on University Challenge and Mastermind, two popular television quiz shows which ran until the late 1980s. Sinclair's measured on-screen personality was suited to these kinds of interactive game shows; as a quizmaster he made the phrase "I've started, so I'll finish...", a New Zealand cultural cliché. Sinclair hosted the 1982 Mastermind International contest in New Zealand. Sinclair was a noted writer, penning a novel called The Frontman and writing regular columns for the New Zealand Herald newspaper. In years he was a radio announcer from 1986, for Radio Avon, in Christchurch, the city he grew up in, which became C93FM, before moving on to Classic Hits FM and Easy Listening i98FM, hosting the popular Lovesongs till Midnight program.
While still in Christchurch he helped raise money to build a Police Kiosk in Cathedral Square, for people who needed a safe place to go at all times of the day in case of emergencies. In his years, he developed a passion for computers and was one of the first New Zealanders to become involved with the Internet, he wrote on internet issues, software developments and content. Sinclair died in Auckland on 8 August 2001, from leukaemia, aged 62. List of New Zealand television personalities NZ Herald obituary Magazine ad from the 80s featuring Peter Sinclair
Reckitt Benckiser Group plc is a British multinational consumer goods company headquartered in Slough, England. It is a producer of health and home products, it was formed in 1999 by the merger of the UK-based Reckitt & Colman plc and the Netherlands-based Benckiser NV. RB's brands include the antiseptic brand Dettol, the sore throat medicine Strepsils, the hair removal brand Veet, the immune support supplement Airborne, the indigestion remedy Gaviscon, the baby food brand Mead Johnson, the air freshener Air Wick, Clearasil, Cillit Bang, Lysol and Vanish. RB is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. Johann Benckiser founded a business in Pforzheim, Germany in 1823, its core business was derived from industrial chemicals. Ludwig Reimann, a chemist, married Benckiser's daughter. Benckiser died in 1851 and the business came under Reimann's ownership. Reimann, in 1858, moved it to Ludwigshafen. Under Reimann's descendants the business grew in the latter half of the 20th century: it acquired Coty, Inc. a North American beauty products manufacturer, in 1992.
Benckiser's other products included Cillit Bang. It went public in 1997. Reckitt and Sons started in 1840 when Isaac Reckitt rented a starch mill in England, he diversified into other household products and after his death in 1862, the business passed to his three sons. In 1886, Reckitt opened its first overseas business in Australia; the firm was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1888. Harpic Lavatory Cleaners was acquired in 1932, that same year, Dettol was launched. In 1938 Reckitt & Sons merged with J. & J. Colman, founded in 1814 when Jeremiah Colman began milling flour and mustard in Norwich, England, to become Reckitt & Colman Ltd; the company made several acquisitions, including the Airwick and Carpet Fresh brands, the Boyle-Midway division of American Home Products, the Lehn & Fink division of Sterling Drug. It acquired several brands from DowBrands in 1998. Reckitt & Colman sold the Colman's food business in 1995; the company was formed by a merger between Britain's Reckitt & Colman plc and the Dutch company Benckiser NV in December 1999.
Bart Becht became CEO of the new company and has been credited for its transformation, focusing on core brands and improving efficiency in the supply chain. The new management team's strategy of "innovation marketing". – a combination of increased marketing spend and product innovation, focusing on consumer needs – has been linked to the company's ongoing success. For example, in 2008, the company's "rapid succession of well publicised new product variants" were credited for helping them "to capture shoppers' imagination". Business Week has noted that "40% of Reckitt Benckiser's $10.5 billion in 2007 revenues came from products launched within the previous three years."In October 2005, RB agreed to purchase the over-the-counter drugs manufacturing business of Boots Group, Boots Healthcare International, for £1.9 billion. The three main brands acquired were Nurofen's analgesics, Strepsils sore throat lozenges, Clearasil anti-acne treatments. In January 2008, RB acquired Adams Respiratory Therapeutics, Inc. a pharmaceutical company, for $2.3 billion.
In July 2010, RB agreed to buy SSL International, the makers of Durex condoms and Scholl's footcare products, in a £2.5 billion deal. On 27 August 2011, RB recalled all remaining stock of its major analgesic product, Nurofen Plus, after packs were found to contain an antipsychotic drug, it turned out that this was the work of a codeine addict, stealing the pills and replacing them with his anti psychotic medication. In April 2011, Bart Becht announced he was to retire as CEO of Reckitt Benckiser and would be replaced from September 2011 by executive vice-president of Category Development, Rakesh Kapoor, who had played a key role in recent acquisitions. In November 2012, RB agreed to acquire Schiff Nutrition, a Salt Lake City-based manufacturer of vitamins and nutritional supplements including Digestive Advantage, MegaRed and Move Free, for US$1.4 billion. In December 2014, RB spun off its speciality pharmaceuticals business, which produces Suboxone, into a separate company named Indivior. In 2014, Reckitt Benckiser announced it was dropping its full name in favour of RB.
According to the chief executive, Rakesh Kapoor, the old name was "a bit of a mouthful" and the name change would make life easier.'In February 2017, the company bid $16.7 billion for the American infant formula maker Mead Johnson. On 10 February 2017, Reckitt Benckiser Group announced it had agreed to buy Mead Johnson for $16.6 billion. On 27 April 2017, the Philippines' anti-trust agency, Philippine Competition Commission, gave its regulatory approval on the planned acquisition of Mead Johnson Nutrition by Reckitt Benckiser Group. To effect the transaction, Reckitt Benckiser incorporated a subsidiary in Delaware into which Mead Johnson Nutrition would be transferred, with Mead Johnson Nutrition being the sole surviving entity at completion. Following the acquisition of Mead Johnson, Reckitt Benckiser announced that it would split its business into two - consumer healthcare, home and hygiene. While some expert analysts viewed this move as a precursor to a possible sale of the home division, Rakesh Kapoor, CEO of Reckitt Benckiser, said that it was only to improve the performance of each of the divisions.
In July 2017, it was announced that McCormick would acquire Reckitt's food brands, including Fr
Vodafone Group plc is a British multinational telecommunications conglomerate, with headquarters in London and Newbury, Berkshire. It predominantly operates services in the regions of Asia, Africa and Oceania. Among mobile operator groups globally, Vodafone ranked 4th in the number of mobile customers as of 2018. Vodafone owns and operates networks in 25 countries, has partner networks in 47 further countries, its Vodafone Global Enterprise division provides telecommunications and IT services to corporate clients in 150 countries. Vodafone has a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalisation of £52.5 billion as of 10 February 2016, the eighth-largest of any company listed on the London Stock Exchange. The company has a secondary listing on NASDAQ; the name Vodafone comes from voice data fone, chosen by the company to "reflect the provision of voice and data services over mobile phones". The evolution of Vodafone started in 1982 with the establishment of the Racal Strategic Radio Ltd subsidiary of Racal Electronics, the UK's largest maker of military radio technology, which formed a joint venture with Millicom called'Racal', which evolved into the present day Vodafone.
In 1980, Ernest Harrison, the chairman of Racal Electronics, agreed to a deal with Lord Weinstock of the General Electric Company to allow Racal to access some of GEC's tactical battlefield radio technology. The head of Racal's military radio division, Gerry Whent, was briefed by Ernest Harrison to drive the company into commercial mobile radio. Whent visited a mobile radio factory run by General Electric in Virginia, USA the same year to understand the commercial use of military radio technology. Jan Stenbeck, head of a growing Swedish conglomerate, set up an American company, Inc. and approached Racal's Whent in July 1982 about bidding jointly for the UK's second cellular radio licence. The two struck a deal giving Racal 60% of the new company, Racal-Millicom and Millicom 40%. Due to UK concerns about foreign ownership, the terms were revised, in December 1982, the Racal-Millicom partnership was awarded the second UK mobile phone network license. Final ownership of Racal-Millicom, Ltd was 80% Racal, with Millicom holding 15% plus royalties and venture firm Hambros Technology Trust holding 5%.
According to the UK Secretary of State for Industry, "the bid submitted by Racal-Millicom Ltd… provided the best prospect for early national coverage by cellular radio."Vodafone was launched on 1 January 1985 under the new name, Racal-Vodafone Ltd, with its first office based in the Courtyard in Newbury and shortly thereafter Racal Strategic Radio was renamed Racal Telecommunications Group Limited. On 29 December 1986, Racal Electronics issued shares to the minority shareholders of Vodafone worth GB£110 million, Vodafone became a owned brand of Racal. On 26 October 1988, Racal Telecom, majority held by Racal Electronics, went public on the London Stock Exchange with 20% of its stock floated; the successful flotation led to a situation where Racal's stake in Racal Telecom was valued more than the whole of Racal Electronics. Under stock market pressure to realise full value for shareholders, Racal demerged Racal Telecom in 1991. On 16 September 1991, Racal Telecom was demerged from Racal Electronics as Vodafone Group, with Gerry Whent as its CEO.
In July 1996, Vodafone acquired the two-thirds of Talkland it did not own for £30.6 million. On 19 November 1996, in a defensive move, Vodafone purchased Peoples Phone for £77 million, a 181 store chain whose customers were overwhelmingly using Vodafone's network. In a similar move the company acquired the 80% of Astec Communications that it did not own, a service provider with 21 stores. In January 1997, Gerald Whent retired and Christopher Gent took over as the CEO; the same year, Vodafone introduced its Speechmark logo, composed of a quotation mark in a circle, with the O's in the Vodafone logotype representing opening and closing quotation marks and suggesting conversation. On 29 June 1999, Vodafone completed its purchase of AirTouch Communications, Inc. and changed its name to Vodafone Airtouch plc. The merged company commenced trading on 30 June 1999; the acquisition gave Vodafone owner of the largest German mobile network. To gain anti-trust approval for the merger, Vodafone sold its 17.2% stake in Mannesmann's German competitor, E-Plus Mobilfunk.
On 21 September 1999, Vodafone agreed to merge its US wireless assets with those of Bell Atlantic Corp to form Verizon Wireless. The merger was completed on 4 April 2000, just a few months prior to Bell Atlantic's merger with GTE to form Verizon Communications, Inc. In November 1999, Vodafone made an unsolicited bid for Mannesmann, rejected. Vodafone's interest in Mannesmann had been increased by the latter purchase of Orange, the UK mobile operator. Chris Gent would say Mannesmann's move into the UK broke a "gentleman's agreement" not to compete in each other's home territory; the hostile takeover provoked strong protest in Germany, a "titanic struggle" which saw Mannesmann resist Vodafone's efforts. However, on 3 February 2000, the Mannesmann board agreed to an increased offer of £112 billion the largest corporate merger ever; the EU approved the merger in April 2000 when Vodafone agreed to divest the'Orange' brand, acquired in May 2000 by France Télécom. On 28 July 2000, the Company reverted to Vodafone Group plc..
On 17 December 2001, Vodafone introduced the concept of "Partner Networks", by signing TDC Mobil of Denmark. The new concept involved the introduction of Vodafone
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i