State Highway 6 is a major New Zealand state highway. It extends from the northeastern corner of the South Island across the top of the island down the length of the island along the West Coast and across the Southern Alps through inland Otago and across the Southland Plains to the island's south coast. Distances are measured from north to south; the highway is the longest single highway in the country, though it is shorter than the combined totals of the two highways that comprise State Highway 1, SHs 1N and 1S. For most of its length SH6 is a two-lane single carriageway, except for 5.4 km of dual carriageway in Invercargill, passing lanes in Invercargill and Nelson, with at-grade intersections and property accesses, both in rural and urban areas. Roundabouts are common in major towns, with traffic signals only found in Invercargill and Richmond, with signals controlling Iron Bridge in the upper Buller gorge and Fern Arch in the lower Buller gorge near Westport. NZTA classified the highway as an arterial route, except for two sections between Blenheim and Richmond and between Cromwell and Five Rivers where SH 6 is classified as a regional strategic route.
The highway leaves SH1 at Blenheim heading northeastward across the rugged hills at the base of the Marlborough Sounds. It reaches the sounds at Havelock heads inland up the valley of the Pelorus River. At Pelorus Bridge the highway again turns north tends southwest as it approaches the coast of Tasman Bay; the highway travels through the city of Nelson and nearby town of Richmond, continuing southwest across the plains of the Wairoa and Motueka Rivers. From these plains, the road ascends to the 634-metre Hope Saddle. From here, the highway heads westward, along the valley of the Buller River and its tributaries. Beyond Murchison, this valley narrows to become the scenic Buller Gorge, the highway twists its way high above the waters of the river; the highway leaves the river as its valley broadens, turning south six kilometres from Westport, where the river reaches the sea. From here, the highway keeps close to the Tasman coast from Charleston for over 100 kilometres, turning inland only near Runanga.
This 100-kilometre stretch includes two of the coast's larger towns and Hokitika. From Hokitika, the highway moves away from the coast, though still keeps within five kilometres of the sea; the highway continues south past Ross and Harihari, moving through state forests as it crosses several fast-moving rivers. Seventy kilometres south of Harihari, the highway skirts Lake Mapourika and reaches the tourist settlement of Franz Josef Glacier; the glacier itself, one of two within easy walking distance of the highway, lies nearby in the Southern Alps, which here come close to the Tasman coast. The second glacier, Fox Glacier is located some 20 kilometres further south; the highway again touches the coast at Bruce Bay before heading inland past Lake Paringa, before reemerging on the Tasman coast at Knights Point. The 30 km stretch of highway from here south to Haast is noted for its rugged scenery. After crossing the Haast River, the highway turns eastward and inland up the river's valley, climbing past the Gates of Haast and crossing the 563-metre Haast Pass, the southernmost of the three main road passes across the Southern Alps.
From here, the highway again turns south, following the Makarora River valley to the northern tip of Lake Wanaka. The highway skirts the eastern coast of the lake before crossing The Neck, a saddle in the mountains that lie between Lakes Wanaka and Hāwea; the highway continues along the western shore of Hāwea south along the Cardrona River to Albert Town, close to the tourist centre of Wanaka. Ten kilometres from Wanaka, the highway is met by SH 8A, a spur of SH 8 skirting the shore of Lake Dunstan. SH 6 continues south along the western shore of the Lake, paralleling SH 8 which lies on the eastern shore. Close to Cromwell, a second spur, SH 8B, connects the two highways. From here, SH6 turns west, following the narrow and twisting Kawarau Gorge, emerging close to the wine-producing area of Gibbston. At the western end of the Kawarau Gorge, midway between Cromwell and Queenstown, the highway passes the Nevis Bluff, a steep schist rock outcrop rising 100 m above the Kawarau River; the highway has a history of being disrupted and closed at this point due to instability and rock falls from the bluff.
The first road around the bluff was constructed in opening access to the Wakatipu goldfields. Significant slips occurred at the bluff on 1940-02-20, blocking SH6 in June 1975. On 17 September 2000, a large-scale rock fall buried the highway at the bluff, several motorists narrowly avoided being killed; the fall showed a volume of 10,000 m ³ for the main fall. Transit New Zealand conducted stabilisation drilling and blasting at the bluff twice in 2006 and again in 2007. From the Nevis Bluff, the highway continues west, reaching Frankton, close to the shore of Lake Wakatipu; the highway turns south to follow the southeastern shore of the lake, skirting the foot of The Remarkables and the Hector Mountains. This stretch of the highway is in part tortuously winding, rises and falls over a stretch known as "The Devil's Staircase"; the highway leaves the lake's shore at Kingston, continuing south to Garston, the highway follows the course of the infant Mataura River before heading across rolling hill country to the upper reaches of the Oreti River near Lowther.
This page lists public opinion polls conducted for the 2012 French legislative elections, which were held in two rounds on 10 and 17 June 2012. Unless otherwise noted, all polls listed below are compliant with the regulations of the national polling commission and utilize the quota method; the averages in the graphs below were constructed using polls listed below conducted by the nine major French pollsters. The graphs are smoothed 14-day weighted moving averages, using only the most recent poll conducted by any given pollster within that range; the comparison for the Left Front with 2007 is made against the French Communist Party and the New Centre against "presidential majority" candidates. Hunting, Fishing and Traditions and the Movement for France, which were counted individually in 2007, are included in the miscellaneous right total for that year, which would otherwise be 2.47%. Projections marked with an asterisk were calculated based only on the first round results, not surveys before the second round.
The Ipsos survey conducted from 13 to 14 June consisted of 1,015 respondents in 157 constituencies with left-right duels, 775 respondents in 36 constituencies EELV-right duels, 685 respondents in 27 constituencies in constituencies with a left-right-FN triangulaire. The comparison for the Left Front with 2007 is made against the French Communist Party. Movement for France, counted individually in 2007, is included in the miscellaneous right total for that year, which would otherwise be 9 otherwise. No fieldwork date were given for this poll. Didier Codorniou was eligible to continue through the second round, but instead withdrew and supported Marie-Hélène Fabre after the first round; the TNS Sofres poll tested Jean-Pierre Nadal as the candidate of the FN. René Raimondi was eligible to continue through the second round, but abandoned his candidacy to the benefit of Gaby Charroux; the CSA poll tested José Rodriguez as the candidate of the FN. In the Ifop-Fiducial poll conducted in December 2011, no Europe Ecology – The Greens or National Front candidates were named, François Drageon was described as a miscellaneous right candidate, Bruno Leal was tested as a candidate of the Democratic Movement.
After the first round, Alain Fillola, though eligible to continue to the second round, withdrew his candidacy. In the Ifop poll conducted in May 2012, no National Front candidate was named. Irina Kortanek was eligible to continue through the second round, but instead withdrew and supported Fernand Siré after the first round. In the Ifop poll conducted in December 2011, no Left Front, Socialist Party, Europe Ecology – The Greens candidates were named, Alain Lambert was tested as a candidate of the Democratic Movement, Alain Dumait was tested as a candidate of the National Front; the CSA poll in this constituency was commissioned by a group supporting Thierry Solère. No fieldwork date were given for this poll. No fieldwork date were given for this poll. In the Ifop poll conducted in May 2012, no National Front candidate was named; the CSA poll in this constituency was commissioned by a group supporting Thierry Solère. Opinion polling for the French presidential election, 2012 Opinion polling for the French legislative election, 2017 Opinion polling for the French legislative election, 2007 Notices of the French polling commission
Abortion in India is legal in certain circumstances. It can be performed on various grounds until 24 weeks of pregnancy. In exceptional cases, a court may allow a termination after 24 weeks; when a woman gets a pregnancy terminated voluntarily from a service provider, it is called induced abortion. Spontaneous abortion is. In common language, this is known as miscarriage. Till 2017, there was a dichotomous classification of abortion as unsafe. Unsafe abortion was defined by WHO as "a procedure for termination of a pregnancy done by an individual who does not have the necessary training or in an environment not conforming to minimal medical standards." However, with abortion technology now becoming safer, this has been replaced by a three tier classification of safe, less safe, least safe permitting a more nuanced description of the spectrum of varying situations that constitute unsafe abortion and the widespread substitution of dangerous, invasive methods with use of misoprostol outside the formal health system.
Safe abortion: provided by health-care workers and with methods recommended by WHO. Less-safe abortion: done by trained providers using non-recommended methods or using a safe method but without adequate information or support from a trained individual. Least-safe abortion: done by a trained provider using dangerous, invasive methods. Comprehensive Abortion Care, a term "rooted in the belief that women must be able to access high-quality, affordable abortion care in the communities where they live and work", was first introduced in India by Ipas in 2000; the concept of CAC encompasses care through the entire period from conception to post abortion care and includes pain management. Before 1971, abortion was criminalized under Section 312 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860, describing it as intentionally "causing miscarriage". Except in cases where abortion was carried out to save the life of the woman, it was a punishable offense and criminalized women/providers, with whoever voluntarily caused a woman with child to miscarry facing three years in prison and/or a fine, the woman availing of the service facing seven years in prison and/or a fine.
It was in the 1960s, when abortion was legal in 15 countries, that deliberations on a legal framework for induced abortion in India was initiated. The alarmingly increased number of abortions taking place put the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on alert. To address this, the Government of India instated a Committee in 1964 led by Shantilal Shah to come up with suggestions to draft the abortion law for India; the recommendations of this Committee were accepted in 1970 and introduced in the Parliament as the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Bill. This bill was passed in August 1971 as the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act; the Shah Committee was appointed by the Government of India in 1964. The Committee carried out a comprehensive review of the socio-cultural and medical aspects of abortion; the Committee in 1966 recommended legalizing abortion in its report to prevent wastage of women's health and lives on both compassionate and medical grounds. According to the report, in a population of 500 million, the number of abortions per year will be 6.5 million – 2.6 million natural and 3.9 million induced.
It is estimated. A significant proportion of these are expected to be unsafe. Unsafe abortion is the third largest cause of maternal mortality leading to death of 10 women each day and thousands more facing morbidities. There is a need to strengthen women's access to CAC services and preventing deaths and disabilities faced by them; the last large-scale study on induced abortion in India was conducted in 2002 as part of the Abortion Assessment Project. The studies as part of this project estimated 6.4 million abortions annually in India. The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971 provides the legal framework for making CAC services available in India. Termination of pregnancy is permitted for a broad range of conditions up to 20 weeks of gestation as detailed below: When continuation of pregnancy is a risk to the life of a pregnant woman or could cause grave injury to her physical or mental health; the MTP Act specifies --. The MTP Rules and Regulations, 2003 detail training and certification requirements for a provider and facility.
As per the MTP Act, pregnancy can be terminated only by a registered medical practitioner who meets the following requirements: has a recognized medical qualification under the Indian Medical Council Act whose name is entered in the State Medical Register who has such experience or training in gynaecology and obstetrics as per the MTP Rules All government hospitals are by default permitted to provide CAC services. Facilities in the private sector however require approval of the government; the approval is sought from a committee constituted at the district level called the District Level Committee with three to five members. As per the MTP Rules, 2003 the following forms are prescribed for approval of a private place to provide MTP services: Form A [Sub-Rule (