Royal New Zealand Navy
The Royal New Zealand Navy is the maritime arm of the New Zealand Defence Force. The fleet consists of ten ships and eight naval helicopters; the first recorded maritime combat activity in New Zealand occurred when Māori in war waka attacked Dutch explorer Abel Tasman off the northern tip of the South Island in December 1642. The New Zealand Navy did not exist as a separate military force until 1941; the association of the Royal Navy with New Zealand began with the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1769, who completed two subsequent journeys to New Zealand in 1773 and 1777. Occasional visits by Royal Navy ships were made from the late 18th century until the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. William Hobson, a crucial player in the drafting of the treaty, was in New Zealand as a captain in the Royal Navy; the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi made New Zealand a colony in the British Empire, so the defence of the coastline became the responsibility of the Royal Navy. That role was fulfilled until World War I, the Royal Navy played a part in the New Zealand Wars: for example, a gunboat shelled fortified Māori pā from the Waikato River in order to defeat the Māori King Movement.
In 1909, the New Zealand government decided to fund the purchase of the battlecruiser HMS New Zealand for the Royal Navy, which saw action throughout World War I in Europe. The passing of the Naval Defence Act 1913 created the New Zealand Naval Forces, still as a part of the Royal Navy; the first purchase by the New Zealand government for the New Zealand Naval Forces was the cruiser HMS Philomel, which escorted New Zealand land forces to occupy the German colony of Samoa in 1914. Philomel saw further action under the command of the Royal Navy in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf. By 1917, she was worn out and dispatched back to New Zealand where she served as a depot ship in Wellington Harbour for minesweepers. In 1921 she was transferred to Auckland for use as a training ship. From 1921 to 1941 the force was known as the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy; the cruiser Chatham along with the sloop Veronica arrived in 1920, Philomel was transferred to the Division in 1921, as was the sloop Torch, HMS Laburnum arrived in 1922 and HMS Dunedin in 1924.
HMS Diomede and the minesweeper HMS Wakakura arrived in 1926. Between World War I and World War II, the New Zealand Division operated a total of 14 ships, including the cruisers HMS Achilles and HMS Leander, which replaced Diomede and Dunedin. From 1919 to 1921 to October 1940, the Royal Navy formation around New Zealand was the New Zealand Station, sometimes rendered New Zealand Squadron; when Britain went to war against Germany in 1939, New Zealand declared war at the same time, backdated to 9.30 pm on 3 September local time. But the gathering in Parliament in Carl Berendsen's room could not follow Chamberlain's words because of static on the shortwave and waited until the Admiralty notified the fleet that war had broken out before Cabinet approved the declaration of war. HMS Achilles participated in the first major naval battle of World War II, the Battle of the River Plate off the River Plate estuary between Argentina and Uruguay, in December 1939. Achilles and two other cruisers, HMS Ajax and HMS Exeter damaged the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee.
The German Captain Hans Langsdorff scuttled Graf Spee rather than face the loss of many more German seamen's lives. This decision infuriated Hitler. Achilles moved to the Pacific, was working with the United States Navy when damaged by a Japanese bomb off New Georgia. Following repair, she served alongside the British Pacific Fleet until the war's end; the New Zealand Division of the Royal Navy became the Royal New Zealand Navy from 1 October 1941, in recognition of the fact that the naval force was now self-sufficient and independent of the Royal Navy. The Prime Minister Peter Fraser reluctantly agreed, though saying "now was not the time to break away from the old country". Ships thereafter were prefixed HMNZS. HMNZS Leander escorted the New Zealand Expeditionary Force to the Middle East in 1940 and was deployed in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean. Leander was subjected to air and naval attack from Axis forces, conducted bombardments, escorted convoys. In February 1941, Leander sank the Italian auxiliary cruiser Ramb I in the Indian Ocean.
In 1943, after serving further time in the Mediterranean, Leander returned to the Pacific Ocean. She assisted in the destruction of the Japanese cruiser Jintsu and being damaged by torpedoes during the Battle of Kolombangara; the extent of the damage to Leander saw her docked for repairs until the end of the war. As the war progressed, the size of the RNZN increased, by the end of the war, there were over 60 ships in commission; these ships participated as part of the British and Commonwealth effort against the Axis in Europe, against the Japanese in the Pacific. They played an important role in the defence of New Zealand, from German raiders when the threat of invasion from Japan appeared imminent in 1942. Many merchant ships were armed for help in defence. One of these was HMNZS Monowai, which saw action against the Japanese submarine I-20 off Fiji in 1942. In 1941–1942, it was decided in an agreement between the New Zealand and United States governments that the best role for the RNZN in the Pacific was as part of the United States Navy, so operational control of the RNZN was transfer
The Loch class was a class of anti-submarine frigate built for the Royal Navy and her Allies during World War II. They were an innovative design based on the experience of three years of fighting in the Battle of the Atlantic and attendant technological advances; the Lochs were based upon the hull of the preceding River class with increased sheer and flare to improve seakeeping and modified to suit it to mass pre-fabrication, with sections riveted or welded together at the shipyard. Accordingly, as many curves as possible were eliminated, producing a noticeable kink in the main deck where the increased sheer forwards met the level abreast the bridge; the fighting capability of the Loch class was a great jump forward, being based around the new Squid ahead-throwing A/S mortar. Escorts had attacked with depth charges, requiring the attacking vessel to pass over the submerged submarine and drop warheads over the stern; the ahead-looking ASDIC set lost contact at the vital moment before the weapons were launched, allowing a skilled submarine commander to take successful evasive action.
Squid, lobbed three 12-inch, 390 pound warheads up to 600 yards ahead of the launching vessel falling in a triangular pattern with sides of 40 yards. As the clockwork fuses detonated the warheads at a depth determined by the ships' ASDIC set, the Squid therefore attacked in full ASDIC contact for greater accuracy and lethality. Two mortars were carried, with the bombs set to explode at different depths in order to create a convergent pressure wave to crush the hull of a submarine; the first successful "kill" was by Loch Killin on 31 July 1944, sinking the German submarine U-333. Such was the utility of Squid that depth charge carriage was reduced to only 15, with a single rack and a pair of throwers being carried at the stern, resulting in a clear quarterdeck compared to the eight throwers, two racks and stowage for 100 plus charges in the Rivers; the weapons outfit was completed with a single QF 4-inch Mark V gun forwards. An oversight in the River design had been to place the gun in the favourable position forward on the shelter deck, with the ahead throwing Hedgehog on the main deck, exposed to the worst of the seas breaking over the fo'c'sle this was reversed in the Lochs.
For anti-aircraft defence, a quadruple mounting Mark VII QF 2-pounder was shipped aft along with up to 12 20 mm Oerlikon guns, in 2 twin powered mounts Mark V in the bridge wings and 8 single pedestal mounts Mark III. Loch Arkaig, Loch Craggie, Loch Eck, Loch Glendhu, Loch Tralaig and the South African Navy ships HMSAS Good Hope and Transvaal carried single Bofors 40 mm gun mounts in lieu of the twin Oerlikons. In addition to the new weaponry, the Lochs carried new sensors, in the form of Radar Type 277; this set utilised the cavity magnetron to transmit on centimetric wavelengths for target indication purposes, excelling at picking out small targets such as a submarine periscope or snorkel from the surface clutter. The increased weight of the stabilised antenna array and the carriage of HF/DF at the masthead meant that a lattice mast was stepped in lieu of the traditional tripod or pole; some vessels completed with Radar Type 271 or 272 and the associated "lantern" radome until Type 277 became available.
ASDIC Type 144 was carried for attack functions with Type 147B used for depth finding. As with the previous wartime escort designs, mercantile machinery was adopted to speed construction, with a pair of 4-cylinder vertical triple-expansion reciprocating engines. Loch Arkaig and Loch Tralaig were fitted with Parsons single reduction steam turbines to establish the feasibility of such an installation, but it was not possible to provide enough sets of turbines for all vessels. One advantage of the use of mercantile machinery was that it was familiar to the reservist and volunteer crews who manned these ships. Of the one hundred and ten vessels ordered, twenty-eight were built as frigates, entering service from 1944. Another two – Loch Assynt and Loch Torridon – were converted while building and completed as Coastal Forces Depot Ships, being renamed Derby Haven and Woodbridge Haven. Due to a need in 1944 for a version fitted as anti-aircraft vessels with the British Pacific Fleet, twenty-six units were authorised for completion to a modified design labelled the Bay-class frigate and were renamed.
A further fifty-four Loch-class vessels were cancelled in 1945. Of the twenty-eight Loch-class frigates completed as such, Loch Achanalt, Loch Alvie and Loch Morlich were transferred to Canada in 1943 but retained their Royal Navy names and were returned after the war. Loch Ard, Loch Boisdale and Loch Cree were transferred to South Africa as Transvaal, Good Hope and Natal on completion. In 1948, six vessels, including two of the ex-Royal Canadian Navy trio, were refitted from reserve and transferred to New Zealand. During the Korean War, the Royal Navy reactivated several vessels and transferred them to the Mediterranean where they released Ch-class destroyers for war duties. In 1964 Loch Insh was transferred to Malaysia. Loch Assynt and Loch Torridon were modified whilst under construction to depot ships for coastal forces, armed with a twin QF 4-inch Mark XVI on a single mounting Mark XIX forward and six single 20 mm Oerlikons. With the war in the Atlantic won by 1944, a need forecast for additional fleet A/A escorts for the Royal Navy's increased Far Eastern commitments, twenty-six Loch class were redesigned and renamed as Bay-class anti-aircraft
Busan known as Pusan and now Busan Metropolitan City, is South Korea's second most-populous city after Seoul, with a population of over 3.5 million inhabitants. It is the economic and educational center of southeastern Korea, with its port—Korea's busiest and the 9th-busiest in the world—only about 120 miles from the Japanese islands of Kyushu and Honshu; the surrounding "Southeast Economic Zone" is now South Korea's largest industrial area. Busan is divided into 15 major administrative districts and a single county, together housing a population of 3.6 million. The full metropolitan area, including the adjacent cities of Gimhae and Yangsan, has a population of 4.6 million. The most densely built-up areas of the city are situated in a number of narrow valleys between the Nakdong and the Suyeong Rivers, with mountains separating most of the districts; the Nakdong is Korea's longest river and Busan's Haeundae Beach is the country's largest. Busan is a center for international conventions, hosting APEC in 2005.
It is a center for sports tournaments in Korea, having hosted the 2002 Asian Games and FIFA World Cup. It is home to the Shinsegae Centum City. Busan was added to the UNESCO Creative Cities Network as a "City of Film" in December 2014; the name "Busan" is the Revised Romanization of the city's Korean name since the late 15th century. It replaced the earlier McCune-Reischauer romanization Pusan in 2000; the name 釜山 is Sino-Korean for "Cauldron Mountain", believed to be a former name of Mt Hwangryeong west of the city center. The area's ancient state Mt Geochil is thought to refer to the same mountain, which towers over the town's harbor on the Suyeong. Paleolithic remains found in the Jung-dong district and Jwa-dong district in Haeundae shows a history of Busan beginning in the prehistoric age. In addition, neolithic relics were discovered in shell mounds in Dongsam-dong, a shell mound dating between the BCE era to the 3rd Century A. D. was found in the Dongnae district. Mt Geochil is recorded as a chiefdom of the Jinhan Confederacy in the 2nd–4th centuries.
It was organized as a district. The grave goods excavated from mounded burials at Bokcheon-dong indicate that a complex chiefdom ruled by powerful individuals was present in the Busan area in the 4th century, just as Korea's Three Kingdoms were forming; the mounded burials of Bokcheon-dong were built along the top of a ridge that overlooks a wide area that makes up parts of modern-day Dongnae-gu and Yeonje-gu. Archaeologists excavated more than 250 iron ingots from Burial No. 38, a wooden chamber tomb at Bokcheon-dong. From the beginning of the 15th century, the Korean government designated Busan as a trading port with the Japanese and allowed their settlement. Other Japanese settlements in Ulsan and Jinhae diminished but the Busan settlement continued until Japan invaded Korea in 1592. After the war, diplomatic relations with the new shogunate in Japan were established in 1607, Busan was permitted to be reconstructed; the Japanese settlement, though relocated into Choryang continued to exist until Korea was exposed to modern diplomacy in 1876.
In 1876, Busan became the first international port in Korea under the terms of the Treaty of Ganghwa. During the Japanese rule, Busan developed into a hub trading port with Japan. Busan was the only city in Korea to adopt the steam tramway before electrification was introduced in 1924. During the Korean War, Busan was one of only two cities in South Korea not captured by the North Korean army within the first three months of the war, the other being Daegu; as a result, the cities became refugee camp sites for Koreans during the war. As Busan was one of the few areas in Korea that remained under the control of South Korea throughout the Korean War, for some time it served as a temporary capital of the Republic of Korea. UN troops established a defensive perimeter around the city known as the Pusan Perimeter in the summer and autumn of 1950. Since the city has been a self-governing metropolis and has built a strong urban character. In 1963, Busan separated from Gyeongsangnam-do to become a Directly Governed City.
In 1983, the provincial capital of Gyeongsangnam-do was moved from Busan to Changwon. In 1995, Busan became a Metropolitan City. Busan is located on the Southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula, it is located on the coast. It is the nearest of South Korea's six largest cities to Japan; the distance as the crow flies from Busan to Tsushima Island, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, is about 49.5 km, to Fukuoka, about 180 km, by contrast, to Seoul about 314 km. Busan borders low mountains on the north and west, the seas on the south and east; the Nakdong River Delta is located on the west side of the city, Geumjeongsan, the highest mountain in the city, on the north. The Nakdong River, South Korea's longest river, flows through the west and empties into the Korea Strait; the southeastern region, called Yeongnam in Korea, encompasses both Gyeongsang Provinces and 3 metropolitan cities of Busan and Ulsan. Ulsan lies northeast of Busan. Combined population exceeds 13 million. Located on the southeasternmost tip of the Korean Peninsula, Busan has a cooler version of a humid subtropical climate.
High or low temperatures are rare. The highe
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states; the Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was created as the British Commonwealth through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931; the current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, established the member states as "free and equal". The human symbol of this free association is the Head of the Commonwealth Queen Elizabeth II, the 2018 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting appointed Charles, Prince of Wales to be her designated successor, although the position is not technically hereditary.
The Queen is the head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by English language, history and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law; these values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth cover more than 29,958,050 km2, equivalent to 20% of the world's land area, span all six inhabited continents. Queen Elizabeth II, in her address to Canada on Dominion Day in 1959, pointed out that the confederation of Canada on 1 July 1867 had been the birth of the "first independent country within the British Empire", she declared: "So, it marks the beginning of that free association of independent states, now known as the Commonwealth of Nations." As long ago as 1884 Lord Rosebery, while visiting Australia, had described the changing British Empire, as some of its colonies became more independent, as a "Commonwealth of Nations".
Conferences of British and colonial prime ministers occurred periodically from the first one in 1887, leading to the creation of the Imperial Conferences in 1911. The Commonwealth developed from the imperial conferences. A specific proposal was presented by Jan Smuts in 1917 when he coined the term "the British Commonwealth of Nations" and envisioned the "future constitutional relations and readjustments in essence" at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, attended by delegates from the Dominions as well as Britain; the term first received imperial statutory recognition in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, when the term British Commonwealth of Nations was substituted for British Empire in the wording of the oath taken by members of parliament of the Irish Free State. In the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference and its dominions agreed they were "equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by common allegiance to the Crown, associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".
The term "Commonwealth" was adopted to describe the community. These aspects to the relationship were formalised by the Statute of Westminster in 1931, which applied to Canada without the need for ratification, but Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland had to ratify the statute for it to take effect. Newfoundland never did, as on 16 February 1934, with the consent of its parliament, the government of Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance reverted to direct control from London. Newfoundland joined Canada as its 10th province in 1949. Australia and New Zealand ratified the Statute in 1947 respectively. Although the Union of South Africa was not among the Dominions that needed to adopt the Statute of Westminster for it to take effect, two laws—the Status of the Union Act, 1934, the Royal Executive Functions and Seals Act of 1934—were passed to confirm South Africa's status as a sovereign state. After the Second World War ended, the British Empire was dismantled. Most of its components have become independent countries, whether Commonwealth realms or republics, members of the Commonwealth.
There remain the 14 self-governing British overseas territories which retain some political association with the United Kingdom. In April 1949, following the London Declaration, the word "British" was dropped from the title of the Commonwealth to reflect its changing nature. Burma and Aden are the only states that were British colonies at the time of the war not to have joined the Commonwealth upon independence. Former British protectorates and mandates that did not become members of the Commonwealth are Egypt, Transjordan, Sudan, British Somaliland, Bahrain, Oman and the United Arab Emirates; the postwar Commonwealth was given a fresh mission by Queen Elizabeth in her Christmas Day 1953 broadcast, in which she envisioned the Commonwealth as "an new conception – built on the highest qualities of the Spirit of Man: friendship and the desire for freedom and peace". Hoped for success was reinforced by such achievements as climbing Mount Everest in 1953, breaking the four-minute mile in 1954
Hawker Sea Fury
The Hawker Sea Fury is a British fighter aircraft designed and manufactured by Hawker Aircraft. It was the last propeller-driven fighter to serve with the Royal Navy, one of the fastest production single reciprocating engine aircraft built. Developed during the Second World War, the Sea Fury entered service two years, it proved to be a popular aircraft with a number of overseas militaries, was used during the Korean War in the early 1950s, as well as against the 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion of Cuba. The Sea Fury's development was formally initiated in 1943 in response to a wartime requirement of the RAF, thus the aircraft was named Fury; as the Second World War drew to a close, the RAF cancelled their order for the aircraft. Development of the Sea Fury proceeded, the type began entering operational service in 1947; the Sea Fury has many design similarities to Hawker's preceding Tempest fighter, having originated from a requirement for a "Light Tempest Fighter". Production Sea Furies were fitted with the powerful Bristol Centaurus engine, armed with four wing-mounted Hispano V cannons.
While developed as a pure aerial fighter aircraft, the definitive Sea Fury FB 11 was a fighter-bomber, the design having been found suitable for this mission as well. The Sea Fury attracted international orders as land-based aircraft; the type acquitted itself well in the Korean War, fighting even against the MiG-15 jet fighter. Although the Sea Fury was retired by the majority of its military operators in the late 1950s in favour of jet-propelled aircraft, a considerable number of aircraft saw subsequent use in the civil sector, several remain airworthy in the 21st century as heritage and racing aircraft; the Hawker Fury was an evolutionary successor to the successful Hawker Typhoon and Tempest fighters and fighter-bombers of the Second World War. The Fury's design process was initiated in September 1942 by Sydney Camm, one of Hawker's foremost aircraft designers, to meet the Royal Air Force's requirement for a lightweight Tempest Mk. II replacement. Developed as the "Tempest Light Fighter", the semi-elliptical wing of the Tempest was incorporated, but was shortened in span by eliminating the central bay of the wing centre-section, the inner part of the undercarriage wells now extending to the aircraft centreline, instead of being situated level with the fuselage sides.
The fuselage was broadly similar in form to that of the Tempest, but was a monocoque structure, while the cockpit level was higher, affording the pilot better all-round visibility. The project was formalised in January 1943 when the Air Ministry issued Specification F.2/42 around the "Tempest Light Fighter". This was followed up by Specification F.2/43, issued in May 1943, which required a high rate of climb of not less than 4,500 ft/min from ground level to 20,000 feet, good fighting manoeuvrability and a maximum speed of at least 450 mph at 22,000 feet. The armament was to be four 20mm Hispano V cannon with a total capacity of 600 rounds, plus the capability of carrying two bombs each up to 1,000 pounds. In April 1943, Hawker had received Specification N.7/43 from the Admiralty, who sought a navalised version of the developing aircraft. Around 1944, the aircraft project received its name. Six prototypes were ordered. Hawker used the internal designations P.1019 and P.1020 for the Griffon and Centaurus versions, while P.1018 was used for a Fury prototype, to use a Napier Sabre IV.
The first Fury to fly, on 1 September 1944, was NX798 with a Centaurus XII with rigid engine mounts, powering a Rotol four-blade propeller. Second on 27 November 1944 was LA610, which had a Griffon 85 and Rotol six-blade contra-rotating propeller. By now, development of the Fury and Sea Fury was interlinked so that the next prototype to fly was a Sea Fury, SR661, described under "Naval Conversion." NX802 was the last Fury prototype, powered by a Centaurus XV. LA610 was fitted with a Napier Sabre VII, capable of developing 3,400 to 4,000 hp. With the end of the Second World War in Europe in sight, the RAF began cancelling many aircraft orders. Thus, the RAF's order for the Fury was cancelled before any production examples were built because the RAF had excessive numbers of late Mark Spitfires and Tempests and viewed the Fury as an additional overlap with these aircraft. Although the RAF had pulled out of the programme, development of the type continued as the Sea Fury. Many of the Navy's carrier fighters were either Lend-Lease Chance-Vought Corsair aircraft and thus to be returned, or in the case of the Supermarine Seafire had considerable drawback
United Nations Command
The United Nations Command is the unified command structure for the multinational military forces, established in 1950, supporting South Korea during and after the Korean War. The United Nations Command and the Chinese-North Korean Command signed the Korean Armistice Agreement on 27 July 1953, ending the heavy fighting; the armistice agreement established the Military Armistice Commission, consisting of representatives of the two signatories, to supervise the implementation of the armistice terms, the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission to monitor the armistice's restrictions on the parties' reinforcing or rearming themselves. The North Korean-Chinese MAC was replaced by Panmunjom representatives under exclusive North Korean management. Regular meetings have been stopped, although duty officers of the Joint Security Area from each side met regularly. On November 6, 2018, it was announced that the UNC would transfer primary guard duties of the now demilitarized Joint Security Area to both North and South Korea.
The resolutions suggested the forces under the UNC were "United Nations forces", the United Nations itself could be considered a belligerent in the war. However, in practice the United Nations exercised no control over the combat forces; these were controlled by the United States, which supplied more men than any other of the nations which came to the war. Most observers concluded that the forces under the UNC were not in law United Nations troops, the acts of the UNC were not the acts of the United Nations; the UNC can be regarded as an alliance of national armies, operating under the collective right of self-defense. United Nations Security Council Resolution 84 authorized the use of the United Nations flag concurrently with the flags of the participating UNC nations. In 1994, UN Secretary General Boutros Boutros-Ghali wrote in a letter to the North Korean Foreign Minister that: the Security Council did not establish the unified command as a subsidiary organ under its control, but recommended the creation of such a command, specifying that it be under the authority of the United States.
Therefore the dissolution of the unified command does not fall within the responsibility of any United Nations organ but is a matter within the competence of the Government of the United States. After troops of North Korea invaded South Korea on June 25, 1950, the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 82 calling on North Korea to cease hostilities and withdraw to the 38th parallel. On June 27, 1950, it adopted Resolution 83, recommending that members of the United Nations provide assistance to the Republic of Korea "to repel the armed attack and to restore international peace and security to the area"; the first non-Korean and non-US unit to see combat was No. 77 Squadron, Royal Australian Air Force, which began escort and ground attack sorties from Iwakuni, Japan on 2 July 1950. On 29 June 1950, the New Zealand government ordered two Loch class frigates – Tutira and Pukaki to prepare to make for Korean waters, for the whole of the war, at least two NZ vessels would be on station in the theater.
On 3 July and Pukaki left Devonport Naval Base, Auckland. They joined other Commonwealth forces at Japan, on 2 August. United Nations Security Council Resolution 84, adopted on July 7, 1950, recommended that members providing military forces and other assistance to South Korea "make such forces and other assistance available to a unified command under the United States of America". President Syngman Rhee of the Republic of Korea assigned operational command of ROK ground and air forces to General MacArthur as Commander-in-Chief UN Command in a letter of July 15, 1950: In view of the common military effort of the United Nations on behalf of the Republic of Korea, in which all military forces, land and air, of all the United Nations fighting in or near Korea have been placed under your operational command, in which you have been designated Supreme Commander United Nations Forces, I am happy to assign to you command authority over all land and air forces of the Republic of Korea during the period of the continuation of the present state of hostilities, such command to be exercised either by you or by such military commander or commanders to whom you may delegate the exercise of this authority within Korea or in adjacent seas.
On August 29, 1950, the British Commonwealth's 27th Infantry Brigade arrived at Busan to join UNC ground forces, which until included only ROK and U. S. forces. The 27th Brigade moved into the Naktong River line west of Daegu. Units from other countries of the UN followed: Belgian United Nations Command, Colombia, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the Philippines, South Africa and the Turkish Brigade. Denmark, India and Sweden provided medical units. Italy provided a hospital though it was not a UN member. Iran provided medical assistance from the Iranian military's medical service. On 1 September 1950 the United Nations Command had a strength of 180,000 in Korea: 92,000 were South Koreans, the balance being Americans and the 1,600-man British 27th Infantry Brigade. During the three years of the Korean War, military forces of these nations were allied as members of the UNC. Peak strength for the UNC was 932,964 on July 27, 1953, the day the Armistice Agreement was signed: Combat forces South Korea – 590,911 United States – 302,483 Australia – 17,000 United Kingdom – 14,198 Thailand – 6,326 Canada – 6,146 Turkey – 5,453 Philippine
HMAS Sydney (R17)
HMAS Sydney was a Majestic-class light aircraft carrier operated by the Royal Australian Navy. She was built for the Royal Navy and was launched as HMS Terrible in 1944, but was not completed before the end of World War II; the carrier was sold to Australia in 1947, commissioned into the RAN as Sydney in 1948. Sydney was the first of three conventional aircraft carriers to serve in the RAN, operated as the navy's flagship during the early part of her career. From late 1951 to early 1952, she operated off the coast of Korea during the Korean War, making her the first carrier owned by a Commonwealth Dominion, the only carrier in the RAN, to see wartime service. Retasked as a training vessel following the 1955 arrival of her modernised sister ship, HMAS Melbourne, Sydney remained in service until 1958, when she was placed in reserve as surplus to requirements; the need for a sealift capability saw the ship modified for service as a fast troop transport, recommissioned in 1962. Sydney was used for training and a single supply run in support of Malaysia's defence policy against Indonesia, but in 1965, she sailed on the first voyage to Vũng Tàu, transporting soldiers and equipment to serve in the Vietnam War.
25 voyages to Vietnam were made between 1965 and 1972, earning the ship the nickname "Vung Tau Ferry". Sydney was decommissioned in 1973, was not replaced. Despite several plans to preserve all or part of the ship as a maritime museum, tourist attraction, or car park, the carrier was sold to a South Korean steel mill for scrapping in 1975. Sydney was one of six Majestic-class light fleet carriers; these two classes of carriers were intended to be'disposable warships': they were to be operated during World War II and scrapped at the end of hostilities or within three years of entering service. Sydney was the second ship of the class to enter service, following Canadian aircraft carrier HMCS Magnificent; the carrier had a standard displacement of 15,740 tons, a deep displacement of 19,550 tons. Her length was 630 feet between perpendiculars and 698 feet at her longest point, with a beam of 80 feet and a draught of 25 feet. Sydney was fitted with four Admiralty 3-drum boilers, which provided steam to Parsons single reduction geared turbines.
The average size of the ship's company in peacetime was 1,100, but could be increased to 1,300 for wartime deployments. Refitting the ship to serve as a transport reduced the standard displacement to 14,380 tons and the ship's company to a core of 544, supplemented by trainees and personnel from the Royal Australian Navy Reserve when required; the Admiralty predicted that all Majestic-class carriers would require upgrades to their aircraft lifts and arrester gear in the early 1950s, to operate the faster and heavier carrier aircraft under development. The RAN wanted to upgrade Sydney to the same or similar standard as sister ship Melbourne, after the second carrier was delivered; the installation of an angled flight deck and mirror landing aid, would have allowed Sydney to operate modern jet aircraft. However and manpower restrictions led to the cancellation of this program. Sydney was armed with thirty Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns: eighteen single mountings and six twin mountings. During her refit as a troop transport, the carrier's armament was reduced to four single Bofors.
The radar suite included two Type 277Q height-finding sets, one Type 293M surface search set, one Type 960/281BQ long-range air warning set, one Type 961 air search set. As an aircraft carrier, Sydney operated with the RAN Fleet Air Arm's 20th and 21st Carrier Air Groups, which were assigned alternately to the carrier; the former was made up of 805 and 816 Squadrons, while the latter was made up of 808 and 817 Squadrons. Twenty-four aircraft, split evenly between Hawker Sea Fury fighters and Fairey Firefly attack aircraft, were carried. Two Supermarine Sea Otter amphibious aircraft were carried for rescue duties; the amphibians were removed from the ship at the start of her Korean War deployment, were replaced by a helicopter. During the carrier's Korean War deployment, 805 Squadron was added to the 21st CAG to form a 38-strong wartime air group. While undergoing conversion into a troop transport, the ability to operate aircraft was removed from Sydney. However, on seven of the troopship's twenty-five voyages to Vietnam, she carried a flight of four Westland Wessex helicopters, sourced from either 725 or 817 Squadron, for anti-submarine surveillance.
The ship was laid down by HM Dockyard Devonport in England as HMS Terrible on 19 April 1943, with the Viscountess Astor presiding over the ceremony. She was the only aircraft carrier of the Colossus or Majestic classes to be constructed in a'royal dockyard': a dockyard owned and operated by the Royal Navy, she was launched on 30 September 1944 by the wife of British politician Duncan Sandys. Work on the ship continued until the end of World War II, when the Admiralty ordered the suspension of all warship construction. A post-war review by the Australian government's Defence Committee recommended that the RAN be restructured around a task force incorporating multiple aircraft carriers. Initial plans were for three carriers, with two active and a third in reserve at any given time, although funding cuts led to the purchase of only two carriers in June 1947.