Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, many modernists rejected religious belief. Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, literature, religious faith, social organization, activities of daily life, sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic and political environment of an emerging industrialized world; the poet Ezra Pound's 1934 injunction to "Make it new!" was the touchstone of the movement's approach towards what it saw as the now obsolete culture of the past. In this spirit, its innovations, like the stream-of-consciousness novel and twelve-tone music, divisionist painting and abstract art, all had precursors in the 19th century.
A notable characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness and irony concerning literary and social traditions, which led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a painting, building, etc. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, rewriting, recapitulation and parody; some commentators define modernism as a mode of thinking—one or more philosophically defined characteristics, like self-consciousness or self-reference, that run across all the novelties in the arts and the disciplines. More common in the West, are those who see it as a progressive trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create and reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation, scientific knowledge, or technology. From this perspective, modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was'holding back' progress, replacing it with new ways of reaching the same end.
Others focus on modernism as an aesthetic introspection. This facilitates consideration of specific reactions to the use of technology in the First World War, anti-technological and nihilistic aspects of the works of diverse thinkers and artists spanning the period from Friedrich Nietzsche to Samuel Beckett. While some scholars see modernism continuing into the twenty first century, others see it evolving into late modernism or high modernism. Postmodernism refutes its basic assumptions. According to one critic, modernism developed out of Romanticism's revolt against the effects of the Industrial Revolution and bourgeois values: "The ground motive of modernism, Graff asserts, was criticism of the nineteenth-century bourgeois social order and its world view the modernists, carrying the torch of romanticism." While J. M. W. Turner, one of the greatest landscape painters of the 19th century, was a member of the Romantic movement, as "a pioneer in the study of light and atmosphere", he "anticipated the French Impressionists" and therefore modernism "in breaking down conventional formulas of representation.
The dominant trends of industrial Victorian England were opposed, from about 1850, by the English poets and painters that constituted the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, because of their "opposition to technical skill without inspiration." They were influenced by the writings of the art critic John Ruskin, who had strong feelings about the role of art in helping to improve the lives of the urban working classes, in the expanding industrial cities of Britain. Art critic Clement Greenberg describes the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood as proto-Modernists: "There the proto-Modernists were, of all people, the pre-Raphaelites; the Pre-Raphaelites foreshadowed Manet, with whom Modernist painting most begins. They acted on a dissatisfaction with painting as practiced in their time, holding that its realism wasn't truthful enough." Rationalism has had opponents in the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard and Friedrich Nietzsche, both of whom had significant influence on existentialism. However, the Industrial Revolution continued.
Influential innovations included steam-powered industrialization, the development of railways, starting in Britain in the 1830s, the subsequent advancements in physics and architecture associated with this. A major 19th-century engineering achievement was The Crystal Palace, the huge cast-iron and plate glass exhibition hall built for The Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. Glass and iron were used in a similar monumental style in the construction of major railway terminals in London, such as Paddington Station and King's Cross station; these technological advances led to the building of structures like the Brooklyn Bridge and the Eiffel Tower. The latter broke all previous limitations on; these engineering marvels radically altered the 19th-century urban environment and the daily lives of people. The human experience of time itself was altered, with the development of the electric telegraph from 1837, the adoption
George Segal (artist)
George Segal was an American painter and sculptor associated with the Pop Art movement. He was presented with the United States National Medal of Arts in 1999. Although Segal started his art career as a painter, his best known works are cast life-size figures and the tableaux the figures inhabited. In place of traditional casting techniques, Segal pioneered the use of plaster bandages as a sculptural medium. In this process, he first wrapped a model with bandages in sections removed the hardened forms and put them back together with more plaster to form a hollow shell; these forms were not used as molds. Segal kept the sculptures stark white, but a few years he began painting them in bright monochrome colors, he started having the final forms cast in bronze, sometimes patinated white to resemble the original plaster. Segal's figures have minimal detail, which give them a ghostly, melancholic appearance. In larger works, one or more figures are placed in anonymous urban environments such as a street corner, bus, or diner.
In contrast to the figures, the environments were built using found objects. Segal was born in New York, his parents ran a butcher shop in the Bronx moved to a poultry farm in New Jersey where Segal grew up. He attended Stuyvesant High School, as well as the Pratt Institute, the Cooper Union, New York University, from which he graduated in 1949 with a teaching degree. In 1946, he married Helen Steinberg and they bought another chicken farm in South Brunswick, New Jersey, where he lived for the rest of his life. During the few years he ran the chicken farm, Segal held annual picnics at the site to which he invited his friends from the New York art world, his proximity to central New Jersey fostered friendships with professors from the Rutgers University art department. Segal introduced several Rutgers professors to John Cage, took part in Cage's legendary experimental composition classes. Allan Kaprow coined the term happening to describe the art performances that took place on Segal's farm in the Spring of 1957.
Events for Yam Festival took place there. His widow, Helen Segal, kept his memory and works alive, until her death in 2014, through the George and Helen Segal Foundation; the foundation continues this mission. George and Helen have two children; the Truck The Billboard - included in the Governor Nelson A. Rockefeller Empire State Plaza Art Collection, Albany, NY The Laundromat The Costume Party – housed at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum Parking Garage - installed at the Paul Robeson Library at Rutgers University-Camden Hot Dog Stand - installed at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art Abraham and Isaac – commissioned in memory of the 1970 Kent State shootings, his collected papers are housed in the Princeton University Library. Lifetime Achievement in Contemporary Sculpture Award, International Sculpture Center, New Jersey, United States. Segal's legs appeared in John Yoko Ono's 1971 film Up Your Legs Forever. George Segal. Directed by Michael Blackwood. Documentary about Segal, who discusses and is shown creating his bronze sculpture Abraham and Isaac, intended as a memorial for the Kent State shootings of 1970.
George Segal: American Still Life. Directed by Amber Edwards. Television documentary about his work. Notes BibliographyBusch, Julia M.. A Decade of Sculpture: The New Media in the 1960s; the Art Alliance Press: Philadelphia. ISBN 0-87982-007-1. George and Helen Segal Foundation The George Segal Papers at Princeton University The Commuters, Port Authority Bus Terminal, New York City Retrieved April 21, 2011 “Abraham and Isaac”, Princeton University Retrieved April 21, 2011 George Segal "Portraits in Plaster"; the Baltimore Museum of Art: Baltimore, Maryland, 1967 Retrieved June 26, 2012
Roy Fox Lichtenstein was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, James Rosenquist among others, he became a leading figure in the new art movement, his work defined the premise of pop art through parody. Inspired by the comic strip, Lichtenstein produced precise compositions that documented while they parodied in a tongue-in-cheek manner, his work was influenced by the comic book style. He described pop art as "not'American' painting but industrial painting", his paintings were exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City. Whaam! and Drowning Girl are regarded as Lichtenstein's most famous works, with Oh, Jeff... I Love You, Too... But... arguably third. Drowning Girl, Whaam! and Look Mickey are regarded as his most influential works. His most expensive piece is Masterpiece, sold for $165 million in January 2017. Lichtenstein was born into an upper-middle-class Jewish family, his father, was a real estate broker, his mother, Beatrice, a homemaker. He attended public school until the age of twelve.
He attended New York's Dwight School, graduating from there in 1940. Lichtenstein first became interested in art and design through school, he was an avid jazz fan attending concerts at the Apollo Theater in Harlem. He drew portraits of the musicians playing their instruments. In his last year of high school, 1939, Lichtenstein enrolled in summer classes at the Art Students League of New York, where he worked under the tutelage of Reginald Marsh. Lichtenstein left New York to study at Ohio State University, which offered studio courses and a degree in fine arts, his studies were interrupted by a three-year stint in the Army during and after World War II between 1943 and 1946. After being in training programs for languages and pilot training, all of which were cancelled, he served as an orderly and artist. Lichtenstein returned home to visit his dying father and was discharged from the Army with eligibility for the G. I. Bill, he returned to studies in Ohio under the supervision of one of his teachers, Hoyt L. Sherman, regarded to have had a significant impact on his future work.
Lichtenstein entered the graduate program at Ohio State and was hired as an art instructor, a post he held on and off for the next ten years. In 1949 Lichtenstein received a Master of Fine Arts degree from Ohio State University. In 1951, Lichtenstein had his first solo exhibition at the Carlebach Gallery in New York, he moved to Cleveland in the same year, where he remained for six years, although he traveled back to New York. During this time he undertook jobs as varied as a draftsman to a window decorator in between periods of painting, his work at this time fluctuated between Expressionism. In 1954, his first son, David Hoyt Lichtenstein, now a songwriter, was born, his second son, Mitchell Lichtenstein, was born in 1956. In 1957, he began teaching again, it was at this time that he adopted the Abstract Expressionism style, being a late convert to this style of painting. Lichtenstein began teaching in upstate New York at the State University of New York at Oswego in 1958. About this time, he began to incorporate hidden images of cartoon characters such as Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny into his abstract works.
In 1960, he started teaching at Rutgers University where he was influenced by Allan Kaprow, a teacher at the university. This environment helped reignite his interest in Proto-pop imagery. In 1961, Lichtenstein began his first pop paintings using cartoon images and techniques derived from the appearance of commercial printing; this phase would continue to 1965, included the use of advertising imagery suggesting consumerism and homemaking. His first work to feature the large-scale use of hard-edged figures and Ben-Day dots was Look Mickey; this piece came from a challenge from one of his sons, who pointed to a Mickey Mouse comic book and said. In the same year he produced six other works with recognizable characters from gum wrappers and cartoons. In 1961, Leo Castelli started displaying Lichtenstein's work at his gallery in New York. Lichtenstein had his first one-man show at the Castelli gallery in 1962. A group of paintings produced between 1961 and 1962 focused on solitary household objects such as sneakers, hot dogs, golf balls.
In September 1963 he took a leave of absence from his teaching position at Douglass College at Rutgers. It was at this time, he moved back to New York to be at the center of the art scene and resigned from Rutgers University in 1964 to concentrate on his painting. Lichtenstein used oil and Magna paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl, appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics' Secret Hearts No. 83. Drowning Girl features thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots, as if created by photographic reproduction. Of his own work Lichtenstein would say that the Abstract Expressionists "put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same.
An electrical ballast is a device placed in line with the load to limit the amount of current in an electrical circuit. It may be a variable resistor. A familiar and used example is the inductive ballast used in fluorescent lamps to limit the current through the tube, which would otherwise rise to a destructive level due to the negative differential resistance of the tube's voltage-current characteristic. Ballasts vary in complexity, they may be as simple as a inductor, or capacitor wired in series with the lamp. An electrical ballast is a device; these are most used when a load has its terminal voltage decline when current through the load increases. If such a device were connected to a constant-voltage power supply, it would draw an increasing amount of current until it is destroyed or causes the power supply to fail. To prevent this, a ballast provides a positive reactance that limits the current; the ballast provides for the proper operation of the negative-resistance device by limiting current.
Ballasts can be used to limit the current in an ordinary, positive-resistance circuit. Prior to the advent of solid-state ignition, automobile ignition systems included a ballast resistor to regulate the voltage applied to the ignition system. Series resistors are used as ballasts to control the current through LEDs. For simple, low-powered loads such as a neon lamp or a LED lamp, a fixed resistor is used; because the resistance of the ballast resistor is large it determines the current in the circuit in the face of negative resistance introduced by the neon lamp. Ballast was a component used in early model automobiles engine that lowered the supply voltage to the ignition system after the engine had been started. Starting the engine requires a significant amount of electrical current from the battery, resulting in an significant voltage drop. To allow the engine to start, the ignition system was designed to operate on this lower voltage, but once the vehicle was started and the starter disengaged, the normal operating voltage was too high for the ignition system.
To avoid this problem, a ballast resistor was inserted in series with the ignition system, resulting in two different operating voltages for the starting and ignition systems. This ballast resistor would fail and the classic symptom of this failure was that the engine ran while being cranked but stalled when cranking ceased. Modern electronic ignition systems do not require a ballast resistor as they are flexible enough to operate on the lower cranking voltage or the normal operating voltage. Another common use of a ballast resistor in the automotive industry is adjusting the ventilation fan speed; the ballast is a fixed resistor with two center taps, the fan speed selector switch is used to bypass portions of the ballast: all of them for full speed, none for the low speed setting. A common failure occurs when the fan is being run at the next-to-full speed setting; this will cause a short piece of resistor coil to be operated with a high current burning it out. This will render the fan unable to run at the reduced speed settings.
In some consumer electronic equipment, notably in television sets in the era of valves, but in some low-cost record players, the vacuum tube heaters were connected in series. Since the voltage drop across all the heaters in series was less than the full mains voltage, it was necessary to provide a ballast to drop the excess voltage. A resistor was used for this purpose, as it was cheap and worked with both AC and DC; some ballast resistors have the property of increasing in resistance as current through them increases, decreasing in resistance as current decreases. Physically, some such devices are built quite like incandescent lamps. Like the tungsten filament of an ordinary incandescent lamp, if current increases, the ballast resistor gets hotter, its resistance goes up, its voltage drop increases. If current decreases, the ballast resistor gets colder, its resistance drops, the voltage drop decreases. Therefore, the ballast resistor reduces variations in current, despite variations in applied voltage or changes in the rest of an electric circuit.
These devices are sometimes called "barretters" and were used in the series heating circuits of 1930s to 1960s AC/DC radio and TV home receivers. This property can lead to more precise current control than choosing an appropriate fixed resistor; the power lost in the resistive ballast is reduced because a smaller portion of the overall power is dropped in the ballast compared to what might be required with a fixed resistor. Earlier, household clothes dryers sometimes incorporated a germicidal lamp in series with an ordinary incandescent lamp. A used light in the home in the 1960s in 220–240 V countries was a circular tube ballasted by an under-run regular mains filament lamp. Self ballasted mercury-vapor lamps incorporate ordinary tungsten filaments within the overall envelope of the lamp to act as the ballast, it supplements the otherwise lacking red area of the light spectrum produced; because of the power that would be lost, resistors are not used as ballasts for lamps of more than about two watts.
Instead, a reactance is used. Losse
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin was a French post-Impressionist artist. Unappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and Synthetist style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. Toward the end of his life, he spent ten years in French Polynesia, most of his paintings from this time depict people or landscapes from that region, his work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin's art became popular after his death from the efforts of art dealer Ambroise Vollard, who organized exhibitions of his work late in his career and assisted in organizing two important posthumous exhibitions in Paris. Gauguin was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, printmaker and writer, his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms.
Gauguin was born in Paris to Clovis Gauguin and Alina Maria Chazal on June 7, 1848. His birth coincided with revolutionary upheavals throughout Europe that year, his father, a 34-year-old liberal journalist, came from a family of petits bourgeois entrepreneurs residing in Orléans. He was compelled to flee France when the newspaper for which he wrote was suppressed by French authorities. Gauguin's mother was the 22-year-old daughter of André Chazal, an engraver, Flora Tristan, an author and activist in early socialist movements, their union ended when André assaulted his wife Flora and was sentenced to prison for attempted murder. Paul Gauguin's maternal grandmother, Flora Tristan, was the illegitimate daughter of Thérèse Laisnay and Don Mariano de Tristan Moscoso. Details of Thérèse's family background are not known, he was an officer of the Dragoons. Members of the wealthy Tristan Moscoso family held powerful positions in Peru. Nonetheless, Don Mariano's unexpected death plunged his daughter Flora into poverty.
When Flora's marriage with André failed, she petitioned for and obtained a small monetary settlement from her father's Peruvian relatives. She sailed to Peru in hopes of enlarging her share of the Tristan Moscoso family fortune; this never materialized. An active supporter of early socialist societies, Gauguin's maternal grandmother helped to lay the foundations for the 1848 revolutionary movements. Placed under surveillance by French police and suffering from overwork, she died in 1844, her grandson Paul "idolized his grandmother, kept copies of her books with him to the end of his life."In 1850, Clovis Gauguin departed for Peru with his wife Alina and young children in hopes of continuing his journalistic career under the auspices of his wife's South American relations. He died of a heart attack en route, Alina arrived in Peru a widow with the 18-month-old Paul and his 2½ year-old sister, Marie. Gauguin's mother was welcomed by her paternal granduncle, whose son-in-law would shortly assume the presidency of Peru.
To the age of six, Paul enjoyed a privileged upbringing, attended by servants. He retained a vivid memory of that period of his childhood which instilled "indelible impressions of Peru that haunted him the rest of his life."Gauguin's idyllic childhood ended abruptly when his family mentors fell from political power during Peruvian civil conflicts in 1854. Aline returned to France with her children, leaving Paul with his paternal grandfather, Guillaume Gauguin, in Orléans. Deprived by the Peruvian Tristan Moscoso clan of a generous annuity arranged by her granduncle, Alina settled in Paris to work as a dressmaker. After attending a couple of local schools, Gauguin was sent to the prestigious Catholic boarding school Petit Séminaire de La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin, he spent three years at the school. At age fourteen, he entered the Loriol Institute in Paris, a naval preparatory school, before returning to Orléans to take his final year at the Lycée Jeanne D'Arc. Gauguin signed on as a pilot's assistant in the merchant marine.
Three years he joined the French navy in which he served for two years. His mother died on 7 July 1867, but he did not learn of it for several months until a letter from his sister Marie caught up with him in India. In 1871, Gauguin returned to Paris. A close family friend, Gustave Arosa, got him a job at the Paris Bourse, he remained one for the next 11 years. In 1879 he was earning 30,000 francs a year as a stockbroker, as much again in his dealings in the art market, but in 1882 the Paris stock market crashed and the art market contracted. Gauguin's earnings deteriorated and he decided to pursue painting full-time. In 1873, he married Mette-Sophie Gad. Over the next ten years, they had five children: Émile. By 1884, Gauguin had moved with his family to Copenhagen, where he pursued a business career as a tarpaulin salesman, it was not a success: He could not speak Danish, the Danes did not want French tarpaulins. Mette became the chief breadwinner, his middle-class family and marriage fell apart after 11 years when Gauguin was driven to paint full-time.
He returned to Paris in
Milton Ernest "Robert" Rauschenberg was an American painter and graphic artist whose early works anticipated the pop art movement. Rauschenberg is well known for his "Combines" of the 1950s, in which non-traditional materials and objects were employed in innovative combinations. Rauschenberg was both a painter and a sculptor and the Combines are a combination of both, but he worked with photography, printmaking and performance. Robert Rauschenberg was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1993, he became the recipient of the Leonardo da Vinci World Award of Arts in 1995 in recognition of his more than 40 years of fruitful artmaking. Rauschenberg lived and worked in New York City as well as on Captiva Island, Florida until his death from heart failure on May 12, 2008. Rauschenberg was born as Milton Ernest Rauschenberg in Port Arthur, the son of Dora Carolina and Ernest R. Rauschenberg, his father was of his mother of Anglo-Saxon descent. His parents were Fundamentalist Christians. Rauschenberg was dyslexic.
At 16, Rauschenberg was admitted to the University of Texas. He was drafted into the United States Navy in 1943. Based in California, he served as a mental hospital technician until his discharge in 1945. Rauschenberg subsequently studied at the Kansas City Art Institute and the Académie Julian in Paris, where he met the painter Susan Weil. In 1948 Rauschenberg and Weil decided to attend Black Mountain College in North Carolina. Josef Albers, a founder of the Bauhaus, became Rauschenberg's painting instructor at Black Mountain. Albers' preliminary courses relied on strict discipline that did not allow for any "uninfluenced experimentation". Rauschenberg described Albers as influencing him to do "exactly the reverse" of what he was being taught. From 1949 to 1952 Rauschenberg studied with Vaclav Vytlacil and Morris Kantor at the Art Students League of New York, where he met fellow artists Knox Martin and Cy Twombly. Rauschenberg married Susan Weil in the summer of 1950 at the Weil family home in Outer Island, Connecticut.
Their only child, was born July 16, 1951. The two separated in June 1952 and divorced in 1953. According to a 1987 oral history by the composer Morton Feldman, after the end of his marriage, Rauschenberg had romantic relationships with fellow artists Cy Twombly and Jasper Johns. An article by Jonathan D. Katz states that Rauschenberg's affair with Twombly began during his marriage to Susan Weil. Rauschenberg died on May 2008, on Captiva Island, Florida, he died of heart failure at the age of 82 after a personal decision to go off life support. Rauschenberg is survived by his partner of 25 years, artist Darryl Pottorf, his former assistant. Rauschenberg is survived by his son, photographer Christopher Rauschenberg, his sister, Janet Begneaud. Rauschenberg's approach was sometimes called "Neo Dadaist," a label he shared with the painter Jasper Johns. Rauschenberg was quoted as saying that he wanted to work "in the gap between art and life" suggesting he questioned the distinction between art objects and everyday objects, reminiscent of the issues raised by the Fountain, by Dada pioneer, Marcel Duchamp.
At the same time, Johns' paintings of numerals and the like, were reprising Duchamp's message of the role of the observer in creating art's meaning. Alternatively, in 1961, Rauschenberg took a step in what could be considered the opposite direction by championing the role of creator in creating art's meaning. Rauschenberg was invited to participate in an exhibition at the Galerie Iris Clert, where artists were to create and display a portrait of the owner, Iris Clert. Rauschenberg's submission consisted of a telegram sent to the gallery declaring "This is a portrait of Iris Clert if I say so." From the fall of 1952 to the spring of 1953 Rauschenberg traveled through Europe and North Africa with his fellow artist and partner Cy Twombly. In Morocco, he created boxes out of trash, he exhibited them at galleries in Rome and Florence. A lot of them sold. From his stay, 38 collages survived. In a famously cited incident of 1953, Rauschenberg erased a drawing by de Kooning, which he obtained from his colleague for the express purpose of erasing it as an artistic statement.
The result is titled Erased de Kooning Drawing. By 1962, Rauschenberg's paintings were beginning to incorporate not only found objects but found images as well - photographs transferred to the canvas by means of the silkscreen process. Used only in commercial applications, silkscreen allowed Rauschenberg to address the multiple reproducibility of images, the consequent flattening of experience that implies. In this respect, his work is contemporaneous with that of Andy Warhol, both Rauschenberg and Johns are cited as important forerunners of American Pop Art. In 1966, Billy Klüver and Rauschenberg launched Experiments in Art and Technology a non-profit organization established to promote collaborations between artists and engineers. In 1969, NASA invited Rauschenberg to witness the launch of Apollo 11. In response to this landmark event, Rauschenberg created his Stoned Moon Series of lithographs; this involved combining diagrams and other images from NASA's archives with photographs from various media outlets, as well as with his own work.
From 1970 he worked from his studio in Captiva, Florida. His first project on Captiva Island was a 16.5-meter-long silkscreen print called Currents, made with newspapers from the first two months of the year, followed by Cardboards and Early Egyptians, the latter of, a series of wall reliefs and sculptures constructed from u
Tar is a dark brown or black viscous liquid of hydrocarbons and free carbon, obtained from a wide variety of organic materials through destructive distillation. Tar can be produced from coal, petroleum, or peat. Production and trade in pine-derived tar was a major contributor in the economies of Northern Europe and Colonial America, its main use was in preserving wooden sailing vessels against rot. The largest user was the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom. Demand for tar declined with the advent of steel ships. Tar-like products can be produced from other forms of organic matter, such as peat. Mineral products resembling tar can be produced from fossil hydrocarbons, such as petroleum. Coal tar is produced from coal as a byproduct of coke production. "Tar" and "pitch" can be used interchangeably. There is a tendency to use "tar" for "pitch" for more solid substances. Both "tar" and "pitch" are applied to viscous forms of asphalt, such as the asphalt found in occurring tar pits. "Rangoon tar" known as "Burmese oil" or "Burmese naphtha", is a form of petroleum.
Oil sands exclusively produced in Alberta, are colloquially referred to as "tar sands" but are in fact composed of bitumen. Note, similar heavy crude grades from Venezuela are not referred to as "tar sands" by Wikipedia or the environmental community. In Northern Europe, the word "tar" refers to a substance, derived from the wood and roots of pine. In earlier times it was used as a water repellent coating for boats and roofs, it is still used as an additive in the flavoring of candy and other foods. Wood tar is microbicidal. Producing tar from wood was known in ancient Greece and has been used in Scandinavia since the Iron Age. For centuries, dating back at least to the 14th century, tar was among Sweden's most important exports. Sweden exported 13,000 barrels of tar in 1615 and 227,000 barrels in the peak year of 1863. Production nearly stopped in the early 20th century, when other chemicals replaced tar, wooden ships were replaced by steel ships. Traditional wooden boats are still sometimes tarred.
The heating of pine wood causes pitch to drip away from the wood and leave behind charcoal. Birch bark is used to make fine tar, known as "Russian oil", suitable for leather protection; the by-products of wood tar are charcoal. When deciduous tree woods are subjected to destructive distillation, the products are methanol and charcoal. Tar kilns are dry distillation ovens used in Scandinavia for producing tar from wood, they were built close from limestone or from more primitive holes in the ground. The bottom is sloped into an outlet hole to allow the tar to pour out; the wood is split into dimensions of a finger, stacked densely, covered tight with dirt and moss. If oxygen can enter, the wood might catch fire, the production would be ruined. On top of this, a fire lit. After a few hours, the tar continues to do so for a few days. Tar was used as tar paper and to seal the hulls of ships and boats. For millennia, wood tar was used to waterproof sails and boats, but today, sails made from inherently waterproof synthetic substances have reduced the demand for tar.
Wood tar is still used to seal traditional wooden boats and the roofs of historical shingle-roofed churches, as well as painting exterior walls of log buildings. Tar is a general disinfectant. Pine tar oil, or wood tar oil, is used for the surface treatment of wooden shingle roofs, boats and tubs and in the medicine and rubber industries. Pine tar has good penetration on the rough wood. An old wood tar oil recipe for the treatment of wood is one-third each genuine wood tar, balsam turpentine, boiled or raw linseed oil or Chinese tung oil. In Finland, wood tar was once considered a panacea reputed to heal "even those cut in twain through their midriff". A Finnish proverb states that "if sauna and tar won't help, the disease is fatal." Wood tar is used in traditional Finnish medicine because of its microbicidal properties. Wood tar is available diluted as tar water, which has numerous uses: As a flavoring for candies and alcohol; as a spice for food, like meat. As a scent for saunas. Tar water is mixed into water, turned into steam in the sauna.
As an anti-dandruff agent in shampoo. As a component of cosmetics. Mixing tar with linseed oil varnish produces tar paint. Tar paint has a translucent brownish hue and can be used to saturate and tone wood and protect it from weather. Tar paint can be toned with various pigments, producing translucent colors and preserving the wood texture. In English and French, "tar" is a substance derived from coal, it was one of the products of gasworks. Tar made from coal or petroleum is considered toxic and carcinogenic because of its high benzene content, though coal tar in low concentrations is used as a topical medicine. Coal and petroleum tar has a pungent odour. Coal tar is listed at number 1999 in the United Nations list of dangerous goods. Bitumen Creosote Pitch Pitch drop experiment Resin Rollins Tars Tarring and feathering Tar Heels Tar pit Tarmac Tar tar ^ "Geotimes – February 2005 – Mummy tar in ancient Egypt". Retrieved January 9, 2006. Details history and uses of "Rangoon Tar"