The mind–body problem is a philosophical problem concerning the relationship between thought and consciousness in the human mind, the brain as part of the physical body. It is distinct from the question of how mind and body function chemically and physiologically since that question presupposes an interactionist account of mind-body relations; this question arises when mind and body are considered as distinct, based on the premise that the mind and the body are fundamentally different in nature. The problem was addressed by René Descartes in the 17th century, resulting in Cartesian dualism, by pre-Aristotelian philosophers, in Avicennian philosophy, in earlier Asian traditions. A variety of approaches have been proposed. Most are either monist. Dualism maintains a rigid distinction between the realms of matter. Monism maintains that there is only one unifying reality, substance or essence in terms of which everything can be explained; each of these categories contain numerous variants. The two main forms of dualism are substance dualism, which holds that the mind is formed of a distinct type of substance not governed by the laws of physics, property dualism, which holds that mental properties involving conscious experience are fundamental properties, alongside the fundamental properties identified by a completed physics.
The three main forms of monism are physicalism, which holds that the mind consists of matter organized in a particular way. Psychophysical parallelism is a third possible alternative regarding the relation between mind and body, between interaction and one-sided action. Several philosophical perspectives have been developed; the historical materialism of Karl Marx and subsequent writers, itself a form of physicalism, held that consciousness was engendered by the material contingencies of one's environment. An explicit rejection of the dichotomy is found in French structuralism, is a position that characterized post-war Continental philosophy; the absence of an empirically identifiable meeting point between the non-physical mind and its physical extension has proven problematic to dualism, many modern philosophers of mind maintain that the mind is not something separate from the body. These approaches have been influential in the sciences in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology, the neurosciences.
An ancient model of the mind known as the Five-Aggregate Model, described in the Buddhist teachings, explains the mind as continuously changing sense impressions and mental phenomena. Considering this model, it is possible to understand that it is the changing sense impressions and mental phenomena that experiences/analyzes all external phenomena in the world as well as all internal phenomena including the body anatomy, the nervous system as well as the organ brain; this conceptualization leads to two levels of analyses: analyses conducted from a third-person perspective on how the brain works, analyzing the moment-to-moment manifestation of an individual’s mind-stream. Considering the latter, the manifestation of the mind-stream is described as happening in every person all the time in a scientist who analyses various phenomena in the world, including analyzing and hypothesizing about the organ brain. Philosophers David L. Robb and John F. Heil introduce mental causation in terms of the mind–body problem of interaction: Mind–body interaction has a central place in our pretheoretic conception of agency.
Indeed, mental causation figures explicitly in formulations of the mind–body problem. Some philosophers insist that the notion of psychological explanation turns on the intelligibility of mental causation. If your mind and its states, such as your beliefs and desires, were causally isolated from your bodily behavior what goes on in your mind could not explain what you do. If psychological explanation goes, so do the related notions of agency and moral responsibility. A good deal rides on a satisfactory solution to the problem of mental causation there is more than one way in which puzzles about the mind's "causal relevance" to behavior can arise. Set the agenda for subsequent discussions of the mind–body relation. According to Descartes and bodies are distinct kinds of "substance". Bodies, he held, are spatially extended substances, incapable of thought. If minds and bodies are radically different kinds of substance, however, it is not easy to see how they "could" causally interact. Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia puts it forcefully to him in a 1643 letter: how the human soul can determine the movement of the animal spirits in the body so as to perform voluntary acts—being as it is a conscious substance.
For the determination of movement seems always to come about from the moving body's being propelled—to depend on the kind of impulse it gets from what sets it in motion, or again, on the nature and shape of this latter thing's surface. Now the first two conditions involve contact, the third involves that the impelling thing has extension. Elizabeth is expressing the prevailing mechanistic view as to how causation of bodies
Sir Roger Penrose is an English mathematical physicist and philosopher of science. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics in the University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College, Oxford. Penrose has made contributions to the mathematical physics of general cosmology, he has received several prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems. Born in Colchester, Roger Penrose is a son of psychiatrist and geneticist Lionel Penrose and Margaret Leathes, the grandson of the physiologist John Beresford Leathes and his Russian wife, Sonia Marie Natanson, who had left St. Petersburg in the late 1880s, his uncle was artist Roland Penrose. Penrose is the brother of physicist Oliver Penrose and of chess Grandmaster Jonathan Penrose. Penrose attended University College School and University College, where he graduated with a first class degree in mathematics. In 1955, while still a student, Penrose reintroduced the E. H. Moore generalised matrix inverse known as the Moore–Penrose inverse, after it had been reinvented by Arne Bjerhammar in 1951.
Having started research under the professor of geometry and astronomy, Sir W. V. D. Hodge, Penrose finished his PhD at Cambridge in 1958, with a thesis on "tensor methods in algebraic geometry" under algebraist and geometer John A. Todd, he devised and popularised the Penrose triangle in the 1950s, describing it as "impossibility in its purest form", exchanged material with the artist M. C. Escher, whose earlier depictions of impossible objects inspired it. Escher's Waterfall, Ascending and Descending were in turn inspired by Penrose; as reviewer Manjit Kumar puts it: As a student in 1954, Penrose was attending a conference in Amsterdam when by chance he came across an exhibition of Escher's work. Soon he was trying to conjure up impossible figures of his own and discovered the tribar – a triangle that looks like a real, solid three-dimensional object, but isn't. Together with his father, a physicist and mathematician, Penrose went on to design a staircase that loops up and down. An article followed and a copy was sent to Escher.
Completing a cyclical flow of creativity, the Dutch master of geometrical illusions was inspired to produce his two masterpieces. Having become a reader at Birkbeck College, London it was in 1964 that, in the words of Kip Thorne of Caltech, "Roger Penrose revolutionised the mathematical tools that we use to analyse the properties of spacetime"; until work on the curved geometry of general relativity had been confined to configurations with sufficiently high symmetry for Einstein's equations to be soluble explicitly, there was doubt about whether such cases were typical. One approach to this issue was by the use of perturbation theory, as developed under the leadership of John Archibald Wheeler at Princeton; the other, more radically innovative, approach initiated by Penrose was to overlook the detailed geometrical structure of spacetime and instead concentrate attention just on the topology of the space, or at most its conformal structure, since it is the latter — as determined by the lay of the lightcones — that determines the trajectories of lightlike geodesics, hence their causal relationships.
The importance of Penrose's epoch-making paper "Gravitational collapse and space-time singularities" was not only its result. It showed a way to obtain general conclusions in other contexts, notably that of the cosmological Big Bang, which he dealt with in collaboration with Dennis Sciama's most famous student, Stephen Hawking, it was in the local context of gravitational collapse that the contribution of Penrose was most decisive, starting with his 1969 cosmic censorship conjecture, to the effect that any ensuing singularities would be confined within a well-behaved event horizon surrounding a hidden space-time region for which Wheeler coined the term black hole, leaving a visible exterior region with strong but finite curvature, from which some of the gravitational energy may be extractable by what is known as the Penrose process, while accretion of surrounding matter may release further energy that can account for astrophysical phenomena such as quasars. Following up his "weak cosmic censorship hypothesis", Penrose went on, in 1979, to formulate a stronger version called the "strong censorship hypothesis".
Together with the BKL conjecture and issues of nonlinear stability, settling the censorship conjectures is one of the most important outstanding problems in general relativity. From 1979 dates Penrose's influential Weyl curvature hypothesis on the initial conditions of the observable part of the universe and the origin of the second law of thermodynamics. Penrose and James Terrell independently realised that objects travelling near the speed of light will appear to undergo a peculiar skewing or rotation; this effect has come to be called Penrose -- Terrell rotation. In 1967, Penrose invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature. Penrose is well known for his 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane nonperiodically, are the first tilings to exhibit fivefold rotational symmetry. Penrose developed these ideas based on
Jinn Romanized as djinn or Anglicized as genies, are supernatural creatures in early pre-Islamic Arabian and Islamic mythology and theology. Jinn are not a Islamic concept. Since jinn are not evil, Islam was able to adapt spirits from other religions during its expansion. Besides the jinn, Islam acknowledges the existence of demons; the lines between demons and jinn are blurred, since malevolent jinn are called shayāṭīn. However both Islam and non-Islamic scholarship distinguishes between angels and demons as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions; the jinn are distinguished from demons in that they can be both evil or good, while genuine demons are evil. Some academic scholars assert that demons are related to monotheistic traditions and jinn to polytheistic traditions. In an Islamic context, the term jinn is used for both a collective designation for any supernatural creature and to refer to a specific type of supernatural creature. Jinn is an Arabic collective noun deriving from the Semitic root JNN, whose primary meaning is "to hide" or "to conceal".
Some authors interpret the word to mean "beings that are concealed from the senses". Cognates include the Arabic majnūn, janīn. Jinn is properly treated as a plural, with the singular being jinnī; the origin of the word Jinn remains uncertain. Some scholars relate the Arabic term jinn to the Latin genius, as a result of syncretism during the reign of the Roman empire under Tiberius Augustus, but this derivation is disputed. Another suggestion holds that jinn may be derived from Aramaic "ginnaya" with the meaning of "tutelary deity", or "garden". Others claim a Persian origin of the word, in the form of a wicked spirit. Jaini were among various creatures in the even pre-Zoroastrian mythology of peoples of Iran; the Anglicized form genie is a borrowing of the French génie, from the Latin genius, a guardian spirit of people and places in Roman religion. It first appeared in 18th-century translations of the Thousand and One Nights from the French, where it had been used owing to its rough similarity in sound and sense and further applies to benevolent intermediary spirits, in contrast to the malevolent spirits called demon and heavenly angels, in literature.
In Assyrian art, creatures ontologically between humans and divinities are called genie. Jinn were worshipped by many Arabs during the Pre-Islamic period, unlike gods, jinn were not regarded as immortal. In ancient Arabia, the term jinn applied to all kinds of supernatural entities among various religions and cults; the exact origins of belief in jinn are not clear. Some scholars of the Middle East hold that they originated as malevolent spirits residing in deserts and unclean places, who took the forms of animals. According to common Arabian belief, pre-Islamic philosophers, poets were inspired by the jinn. However, jinn were feared and thought to be responsible for causing various diseases and mental illnesses. Julius Wellhausen observed that such spirits were thought to inhabit desolate and dark places and that they were feared. One had to protect oneself from them. In the Islamic sense, the term jinn is used in two different ways: An invisible entity, who roamed the earth before Adam, created by God out of a "mixture of fire" or "smokeless fire".
They are believed to resemble humans in that they eat and drink, have children and die, are subject to judgment, so will either be sent to heaven or hell according to their deeds. But they were stronger than humans. Jinn are related to heavenly beings, a sub-category of angels or a tribe of angelic beings, able to sin and created from fire, unlike their light-created counterpart; however these jinn must be distinguished, from the pre-Adamite jinn-race, who share many characteristics with human, instead of angels. As the opposite of al-Ins referring to any object that cannot be detected by human sensory organs, including angels and the interior of human beings, thus every demon and every angel is a jinn, but not every jinn is an angel or a demon. Belief in jinn is not included among the six articles of Islamic faith, as belief in angels is, however at least some Muslims believe it essential to the Islamic faith. Jinn are mentioned 29 times in the Quran together with humans, the 72 surah named after them.
They are mentioned in collections of Ṣaḥīḥ ahadith. One hadith divides them with one type flying through the air. In Islamic tradition, Muhammad was sent as a prophet to both human and jinn communities, that prophets and messengers were sent to both communities. Traditionally Surah 72 is held to tell about the revelation to jinn and several stories mention one of Muhammad's followers accompanied him, witnessing the revelation to the jinn. Another Islamic prophet, related to interactions with jinn, is Solomon. In Quran, he is said to be a king in ancient Israel and was gifted by God to talk to animals and jin
Daniel Clement Dennett III is an American philosopher and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, philosophy of biology as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science. As of 2017, he is the co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies and the Austin B. Fletcher Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University. Dennett is an atheist and secularist, a member of the Secular Coalition for America advisory board, a member of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry, as well as an outspoken supporter of the Brights movement. Dennett is referred to as one of the "Four Horsemen of New Atheism", along with Richard Dawkins, Sam Harris, the late Christopher Hitchens. Dennett is a member of the editorial board for The Rutherford Journal. Dennett was born on March 28, 1942 in Boston, the son of Ruth Marjorie and Daniel Clement Dennett, Jr. Dennett spent part of his childhood in Lebanon, during World War II, his father was a covert counter-intelligence agent with the Office of Strategic Services posing as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Beirut.
When he was five, his mother took him back to Massachusetts after his father died in an unexplained plane crash. Dennett's sister is the investigative journalist Charlotte Dennett. Dennett says that he was first introduced to the notion of philosophy while attending summer camp at age 11, when a camp counselor said to him, "You know what you are, Daniel? You're a philosopher."Dennett graduated from Phillips Exeter Academy in 1959, spent one year at Wesleyan University before receiving his Bachelor of Arts in philosophy at Harvard University in 1963. At Harvard University he was a student of W. V. Quine. In 1965, he received his Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy at the University of Oxford, where he studied under Gilbert Ryle and was a member of Hertford College, his dissertation was entitled "The Mind and the Brain: Introspective Description in the Light of Neurological Findings. Dennett describes himself as "an autodidact—or, more properly, the beneficiary of hundreds of hours of informal tutorials on all the fields that interest me, from some of the world's leading scientists".
He is the recipient of a Fulbright Fellowship, two Guggenheim Fellowships, a Fellowship at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He is a Fellow of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry and a Humanist Laureate of the International Academy of Humanism, he was named 2004 Humanist of the Year by the American Humanist Association. In February 2010, he was named to the Freedom From Religion Foundation's Honorary Board of distinguished achievers. In 2012, he was awarded the Erasmus Prize, an annual award for a person who has made an exceptional contribution to European culture, society or social science, "for his ability to translate the cultural significance of science and technology to a broad audience."In 2018, he was awarded an honorary degree by Radboud University, located in Nijmegen, Netherlands for his contributions to and influence on cross-disciplinary science. While he is a confirmed compatibilist on free will, in "On Giving Libertarians What They Say They Want"—Chapter 15 of his 1978 book Brainstorms, Dennett articulated the case for a two-stage model of decision making in contrast to libertarian views.
The model of decision making I am proposing has the following feature: when we are faced with an important decision, a consideration-generator whose output is to some degree undetermined, produces a series of considerations, some of which may of course be rejected as irrelevant by the agent. Those considerations that are selected by the agent as having a more than negligible bearing on the decision figure in a reasoning process, if the agent is in the main reasonable, those considerations serve as predictors and explicators of the agent's final decision. While other philosophers have developed two-stage models, including William James, Henri Poincaré, Arthur Holly Compton, Henry Margenau, Dennett defends this model for the following reasons: First... The intelligent selection and weighing of the considerations that do occur to the subject is a matter of intelligence making the difference. Second, I think it installs indeterminism in the right place for the libertarian, if there is a right place at all.
Third... from the point of view of biological engineering, it is just more efficient and in the end more rational that decision making should occur in this way. A fourth observation in favor of the model is that it permits moral education to make a difference, without making all of the difference. Fifth—and I think this is the most important thing to be said in favor of this model—it provides some account of our important intuition that we are the authors of our moral decisions; the model I propose points to the multiplicity of decisions that encircle our moral decisions and suggests that in many cases our ultimate decision as to which way to act is less important phenomenologically as a contributor to our sense of free will than the prior decisions affecting our deliberation process itself: the decision, for instance, not to consider any further, to terminate deliberation. These prior and subsidiary decisions contribute, I think, to our sense of ourselves as responsible free agents in the following way: I am faced with an important decision to make, after a certain amount of deliberation, I say to myself: "That's enough.
I've considered this matter enough and now I'm going to act," in the full knowledge that I could have considered further, in the full knowledge that the eventualities may prove that I decided in er
William James was an American philosopher and psychologist, the first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States. James was a leading thinker of the late nineteenth century, one of the most influential U. S. philosophers, has been labelled the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce, James established the philosophical school known as pragmatism, is cited as one of the founders of functional psychology. A Review of General Psychology analysis, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century. A survey published in American Psychologist in 1991 ranked James's reputation in second place, after Wilhelm Wundt, regarded as the founder of experimental psychology. James developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism. James' work has influenced intellectuals such as Émile Durkheim, W. E. B. Du Bois, Edmund Husserl, Bertrand Russell, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Hilary Putnam, Richard Rorty, has influenced former US President Jimmy Carter.
Born into a wealthy family, James was the son of the Swedenborgian theologian Henry James Sr. and the brother of both the prominent novelist Henry James and the diarist Alice James. James never practiced medicine. Instead he pursued his interests in psychology and philosophy. James wrote on many topics, including epistemology, metaphysics, psychology and mysticism. Among his most influential books are The Principles of Psychology, a groundbreaking text in the field of psychology. William James was born at the Astor House in New York City on January 11, 1842, he was the son of Henry James Sr. a noted and independently wealthy Swedenborgian theologian well acquainted with the literary and intellectual elites of his day. The intellectual brilliance of the James family milieu and the remarkable epistolary talents of several of its members have made them a subject of continuing interest to historians and critics. William James received an eclectic trans-Atlantic education, developing fluency in both German and French.
Education in the James household encouraged cosmopolitanism. The family made two trips to Europe while William James was still a child, setting a pattern that resulted in thirteen more European journeys during his life, his early artistic bent led to an apprenticeship in the studio of William Morris Hunt in Newport, Rhode Island, but he switched in 1861 to scientific studies at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard University. In his early adulthood, James suffered from a variety of physical ailments, including those of the eyes, back and skin, he was tone deaf. He was subject to a variety of psychological symptoms which were diagnosed at the time as neurasthenia, which included periods of depression during which he contemplated suicide for months on end. Two younger brothers, Garth Wilkinson and Robertson, fought in the Civil War; the other three siblings all suffered from periods of invalidism. He took up medical studies at Harvard Medical School in 1864, he took a break in the spring of 1865 to join naturalist Louis Agassiz on a scientific expedition up the Amazon River, but aborted his trip after eight months, as he suffered bouts of severe seasickness and mild smallpox.
His studies were interrupted once again due to illness in April 1867. He traveled to Germany in search of a cure and remained there until November 1868. During this period, he began to publish. James earned his M. D. degree in June 1869 but he never practiced medicine. What he called his "soul-sickness" would only be resolved in 1872, after an extended period of philosophical searching, he married Alice Gibbens in 1878. In 1882 he joined the Theosophical Society. James's time in Germany proved intellectually fertile, helping him find that his true interests lay not in medicine but in philosophy and psychology. In 1902 he would write: "I studied medicine in order to be a physiologist, but I drifted into psychology and philosophy from a sort of fatality. I never had any philosophic instruction, the first lecture on psychology I heard being the first I gave". In 1875–1876, Henry Pickering Bowditch, Charles Pickering Putnam, James Jackson Putnam founded the Putnam Camp at St. Huberts, Essex County, New York.
James interacted with a wide array of writers and scholars throughout his life, including his godfather Ralph Waldo Emerson, his godson William James Sidis, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce, Bertrand Russell, Josiah Royce, Ernst Mach, John Dewey, Macedonio Fernández, Walter Lippmann, Mark Twain, Horatio Alger, G. Stanley Hall, Henri Bergson, Carl Jung, Sigmund Freud. James spent all of his academic career at Harvard, he was appointed instructor in physiology for the spring 1873 term, instructor in anatomy and physiology in 1873, assistant professor of psychology in 1876, assistant professor of philosophy in 1881, full professor in 1885, endowed chair in psychology in 1889, return to philosophy in 1897, emeritus professor of philosophy in 1907. James studied medicine and biology, began to teach in those subjects, but was drawn to the scientific study of the human mind at a time when psychology was constituting itself as a science. James's acquaintance
Samuel Johnson referred to as Dr. Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, literary critic, biographer and lexicographer, he was a generous philanthropist. Politically, he was a committed Tory; the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes Johnson as "arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history". He is the subject of James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, described by Walter Jackson Bate as "the most famous single work of biographical art in the whole of literature". Born in Lichfield, Johnson attended Pembroke College, for just over a year, but a lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher, he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentleman's Magazine, his early works include the biography Life of Mr Richard Savage, the poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, the play Irene. After nine years of work, Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755.
It had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been acclaimed as "one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship". This work brought success; until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years Johnson's was the pre-eminent British dictionary. His works included essays, an influential annotated edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare, the read tale The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he travelled to Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, a collection of biographies and evaluations of 17th- and 18th-century poets. Johnson was a robust man, his odd gestures and tics were disconcerting to some on first meeting him. Boswell's Life, along with other biographies, documented Johnson's behaviour and mannerisms in such detail that they have informed the posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, a condition not defined or diagnosed in the 18th century.
After a series of illnesses, he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the years following his death, Johnson began to be recognised as having had a lasting effect on literary criticism, he was claimed by some to be the only great critic of English literature. Samuel Johnson was born on 18 September 1709, to a bookseller; the birth took place in the family home above his father's bookshop in Staffordshire. His mother was 40; this was considered an unusually late pregnancy, so precautions were taken, a "man-midwife" and surgeon of "great reputation" named George Hector was brought in to assist. The infant Johnson did not cry, there were concerns for his health, his aunt exclaimed that "she would not have picked such a poor creature up in the street". The family feared that Johnson would not survive, summoned the vicar of St Mary's to perform a baptism. Two godfathers were chosen, Samuel Swynfen, a physician and graduate of Pembroke College and Richard Wakefield, a lawyer and Lichfield town clerk.
Johnson's health improved and he was put to wet-nurse with Joan Marklew. Some time he contracted scrofula, known at the time as the "King's Evil" because it was thought royalty could cure it. Sir John Floyer, former physician to King Charles II, recommended that the young Johnson should receive the "royal touch", he did so from Queen Anne on 30 March 1712. However, the ritual proved ineffective, an operation was performed that left him with permanent scars across his face and body. With the birth of Johnson's brother, Nathaniel, a few months their father was unable to pay the debts he had accrued over the years, the family was no longer able to maintain its standard of living. Johnson displayed signs of great intelligence as a child, his parents, to his disgust, would show off his "newly acquired accomplishments", his education began at the age of three, was provided by his mother, who had him memorise and recite passages from the Book of Common Prayer. When Samuel turned four, he was sent to a nearby school, and, at the age of six he was sent to a retired shoemaker to continue his education.
A year Johnson went to Lichfield Grammar School, where he excelled in Latin. During this time, Johnson started to exhibit the tics that would influence how people viewed him in his years, which formed the basis for a posthumous diagnosis of Tourette syndrome, he was promoted to the upper school at the age of nine. During this time, he befriended Edmund Hector, nephew of his "man-midwife" George Hector, John Taylor, with whom he remained in contact for the rest of his life. At the age of 16 Johnson stayed with the Fords, at Pedmore, Worcestershire. There he became a close friend of Cornelius Ford, who employed his knowledge of the classics to tutor Johnson while he was not attending school. Ford was a successful, well-connected academic, notorious alcoholic whose excesses contributed to his death six years later. After spending six months with his cousins, Johnson returned to Lichfield, but Mr Hunter, the headmaster, "angered by the impertinence of this long absence", refused to allow Johnson to continue at the school.
Unable to return to Lichfield Grammar School, Johnson enrolled at the King Edward VI grammar school at Stourbridge. As the school was located near Pedmore, Johnson was able to spend more time with the Fords, he began to write poems and verse transla
Thomas Henry Huxley
Thomas Henry Huxley was an English biologist and anthropologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution; the stories regarding Huxley's famous debate in 1860 with Samuel Wilberforce were a key moment in the wider acceptance of evolution and in his own career, although historians think that the surviving story of the debate is a fabrication. Huxley had been planning to leave Oxford on the previous day, after an encounter with Robert Chambers, the author of Vestiges, he changed his mind and decided to join the debate. Wilberforce was coached by Richard Owen, against whom Huxley debated about whether humans were related to apes. Huxley was slow to accept some of Darwin's ideas, such as gradualism, was undecided about natural selection, but despite this he was wholehearted in his public support of Darwin. Instrumental in developing scientific education in Britain, he fought against the more extreme versions of religious tradition.
Coining the term in 1869, Huxley elaborated on "agnosticism" in 1889 to frame the nature of claims in terms of what is knowable and what is not. Huxley statesAgnosticism, in fact, is not a creed, but a method, the essence of which lies in the rigorous application of a single principle... the fundamental axiom of modern science... In matters of the intellect, follow your reason as far as it will take you, without regard to any other consideration... In matters of the intellect, do not pretend that conclusions are certain which are not demonstrated or demonstrable. Use of that term has continued to the present day. Much of Huxley's agnosticism is influenced by Kantian views on human perception and the ability to rely on rational evidence rather than belief systems. Huxley had little formal schooling and was self-taught, he became the finest comparative anatomist of the 19th century. He worked on invertebrates, clarifying relationships between groups little understood, he worked on vertebrates on the relationship between apes and humans.
After comparing Archaeopteryx with Compsognathus, he concluded that birds evolved from small carnivorous dinosaurs, a theory accepted today. The tendency has been for this fine anatomical work to be overshadowed by his energetic and controversial activity in favour of evolution, by his extensive public work on scientific education, both of which had significant effects on society in Britain and elsewhere. Huxley’s 1893 Romanes Lecture, “Evolution and Ethics” is exceedingly influential in China. Thomas Henry Huxley was born in Ealing, a village in Middlesex, he was the second youngest of eight children of Rachel Withers. Like some other British scientists of the nineteenth century such as Alfred Russel Wallace, Huxley was brought up in a literate middle-class family which had fallen on hard times, his father was a mathematics teacher at Ealing School until it closed, putting the family into financial difficulties. As a result, Thomas left school after only two years of formal schooling. Huxley's parents were Anglicans, although it was against organized religion Huxley sympathized with the town's Nonconformist.
Despite this unenviable start, Huxley was determined to educate himself. He became one of the great autodidacts of the nineteenth century. At first he read Thomas Carlyle, James Hutton's Geology, Hamilton's Logic. In his teens he taught himself German becoming fluent and used by Charles Darwin as a translator of scientific material in German, he learned Latin, enough Greek to read Aristotle in the original. On, as a young adult, he made himself an expert, first on invertebrates, on vertebrates, all self-taught, he was skilled in drawing and did many of the illustrations for his publications on marine invertebrates. In his debates and writing on science and religion his grasp of theology was better than most of his clerical opponents. Huxley, a boy who left school at ten, became one of the most knowledgeable men in Britain, he was apprenticed for short periods to several medical practitioners: at 13 to his brother-in-law John Cooke in Coventry, who passed him on to Thomas Chandler, notable for his experiments using mesmerism for medical purposes.
Chandler's practice was in London's Rotherhithe amidst the squalor endured by the Dickensian poor. Here Thomas would have seen poverty and rampant disease at its worst. Next, another brother-in-law took him on: his eldest sister's husband. Now 16, Huxley entered Sydenham College, a cut-price anatomy school whose founder, Marshall Hall, discovered the reflex arc. All this time Huxley continued his programme of reading, which more than made up for his lack of formal schooling. A year buoyed by excellent results and a silver medal prize in the Apothecaries' yearly competition, Huxley was admitted to study at Charing Cross Hospital, where he obtained a small scholarship. At Charing Cross, he was taught by Thomas Wharton Jones, Professor of Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery at University College London. Jones had been Robert Knox's assistant when Knox bought cadavers from Hare; the young Wharton Jones, who acted as go-between, was exonerated of crime, but thought it best to leave Scotland. He was a fine teacher, up-to-date in physiology and an ophthalmic surgeon.
In 1845, under Wharton Jones' guidance, Huxley published his first scientific paper demonstrating the existence of a hitherto unrecognised layer in the inner sheath of hairs, a layer, known sin